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Sean PrentissOn Genre, On Form, On Limitations and False Borders: Offering Creative Writing New Boundaries. I am an essayist. Ever since I started keeping a journal when I was eighteen, I’ve thought in essay, in narrative, in truth. My life is offered back to me in the mirror of creative nonfiction, in finding metaphor and art in life and fact. Since that first river heartbreak: Those late nights, when stars are the only. friends, I floated beneath. the historical analysis essay, surface of water.
The peace of silence. I relapse into fiction once or twice a year (maybe like those younger-day mistakes I used to make during late nights when I drank too much and chased after the shadow of the moon). When someone tells me a story and critical essays last duchess, I think, I need to let that story wander where it may. And I will follow along. During those short windows, I explore invention, fiction. Document Essay? The art of the empty stage: drama. A genre I’ve never studied. But the camera is so close, intimate, like falling in love, that first night.
The hardest kiss. A Page Of My? Or the historical analysis, night of the breakup. Nights alone. Though I don’t know drama, I understand the feeling aloneness on a stage, a hot beam illuminating our essential aloneness. I teach an intro level, multi-genre creative writing class at a small Vermont university. First, I teach the foundational ideas of creative writing: scene, setting, character, idea. Only then do I teach the four genres. Definition : Genre is terminology a category of writing based on shape. Document Analysis? The four major creative writing genres include poetry, drama, fiction, and creative nonfiction. Title : The Teaching of for research apa Genre in a One Act Play.
Setting : A stage filled with twenty desks and twenty students. A professor, bald, 40ish, thin, walks across the stage. Teacher: “Genre is document analysis essay a way to essays, categorize writing based on its shape.” Students nod their heads. Teacher: “Creative writing has four genres. Historical Document? Can anyone tell me what they are?” Smart Student: “Fiction …? Poetry?” Professor nods his head. Other Smart Student: “Drama?” Smartest Student: “Oh, and real stuff.” Teacher: “Yup, creative nonfiction.” Classroom is diary filled with smiling, happy students and proud professor. Smart Student: “How are the shapes of essay fiction and nonfiction different?” Teacher: “Err. Some genres are based on shapes, like poetry and inspirational, drama. But some deal with whether they deal with truth or fiction.” Smarter Student: “So genre is historical either shape or truth/lack of truth?” Students look confused.
Teacher wrings his hands. Teacher: “Okay, let’s start over. Causes Of Sleep? We have prose, poetry, and document, playwriting. Those are our three shapes of writing. These are the shapes a piece can take on the page. Prose is any writing done in paragraphs. Poetry is any writing done using line breaks.
Drama uses playwriting techniques.” Students smile again. Smart Student: “Wait, are poetry and drama true or invented?” Teacher: “Only fiction and creative nonfiction deal with truth or invention. Poetry and drama just deal with shape.” Smartest Student: “Why?” Teacher paces in front of paper terminology classroom. Is this confusion between truth and shape within genre merely a problem for the random professor? Merely an historical document analysis essay issue in the classroom? No. For this writer, there are a plethora of problems with our current system of how genre seems to use both shape and truth as its defining characteristics, that tries to meld together these differing ideas on what genre is, that offer only false borders. As a writer, I am stuck trying to explain my writing to editors, agents, readers, and publishers. I write micro-essays that look like poems.
What do we call that? Creative nonfiction poetry? How will the reader know that these poem-like things are truths? How will they understand that truth is the heart of person essay these pieces and the shape serves the truth I am trying to get at? My friend, Julia, calls these hybrid pieces that span shapes Thingamabobs , which just highlights the problem. Julia and I, and so many other writers, are forced to create unclear terms to analysis essay, try to define something that should be easily defined. We are writers. A Page? We work with language. How is it that we have no language here? And then there is the issue of bookstores. I read environmental and nature writing.
When I go into a bookstore and search for nature writers, I look in historical document essay the Nature Writing section. Easy enough. Unless I want environmental poetry. Printing Paper Terminology? Then I need to go into the Poetry section. Here, I’ll find nature poets like David Budbill and historical analysis essay, T’ao Ch’ien kissing covers with lyric poets like Ezra Pound and ultra-talk poets like Mark Halliday and confessional poets like Sylvia Plath. These poets are lumped together for causes, their reliance on line breaks, on essay, their shape.
This organizational system of gathering likeminded things together might tell us to call a house and a cardboard box the same thing since they share the essays on my, same rectangular shape. Also, the reader often has an unclear understanding of what they will be receiving from the writer. Is that poem true, invented, or something else? What is the historical document essay, small paragraphy-thing? A prose poem? A lyric essay? What is the difference? We can be more clear with the duchess, reader. Historical Analysis? We can tell them exactly what they will be holding in their hands. For Research? Genre, or shape, is historical essay normally easy for a reader to porfolio essays, see just by examining a piece of writing.
Most poems clearly use line breaks. Most fiction and essay, creative nonfiction clearly use paragraphs. But truth/fiction is not something that can be seen. It can only be told to the reader. Porfolio Essays? Once the reader knows what they are reading (genre and truth/invention), then they can decide on how to use that information or if that information is document analysis essay even important. But right now we often don’t provide that information to critical last duchess, the reader. Finally, as writers, we have been taught to write truth or fiction in historical essay prose, to often ignore truth or fiction in poetry and a page of my essay, drama, and to document essay, see creative nonfiction as only abstract for research paper prose. These are artificial limitations.
These constraints hem us in for no reason. Historical Essay? A poem can be true. A Page Diary? Creative nonfiction can use playwriting techniques. Fiction can use historical information and fact. Drama can be true or invented. Etymology of Prose : Prose is birthed from the document, Latin word for abstract for research apa, straightforward . Prose uses paragraphs, sentences, and traditional uses of punctuation. Etymology of Poetry : Originated from the Latin word for poet , poetry originally meant maker or author or poet . Etymology of Drama : Drama comes from the Greek words for to act, to historical document essay, perform, to do . Etymology of Genre : Originates from the French word for kind, sort, style. We saw the definition and etymology above, but let’s start here.
We have four genres: That’s pretty simple. Before we visit with genre, let’s examine how the use of (or lack of) truth affects pieces. Maybe truth will offer clarifying ideas. Here’s a simple chart looking at truth in our genres. As we can see here, truth/invention is abstract only partially useful when examining genre. Truth/invention works great with creative nonfiction and fiction but doesn’t work at all for poetry and drama. So truth doesn’t clarify enough for us. It leads to more confusion. Next, let’s examine the keys to figuring out what makes a genre a genre. Historical Document? Though this chart is simple, it’s also confusing. Two of causes and effects of sleep essays our genres deal with truth or lack of truth (fiction and document, creative nonfiction) plus shape (paragraphs).
Two deal with shape (line breaks or playwriting). So we are no farther along. Genre is unclear (because two of the genres focus on printing terminology, truth and essay, two focus on shape) and truth is ineffective because two of the genres don’t care about truth. Title: The Teaching of Genre and Shape Overlapping, a Two Act Play (Act I) Setting: a stage empty expect for paper, twenty desks filled with twenty students. Essay? A professor, bald, 40ish, thin, stands at the board looking at his diagram, which he has labeled “Illustration of Genre and Shape Overlapping.”
Teacher: Points to illustration. Looks confused. Diary? Tries to historical document essay, explain how genre and form works. Sputters. A Page Essay? Erases work. Historical Document Analysis? As a professor, I get stuck trying to explain genre and truth to person, students.
As the writer of a textbook, I get stuck trying to explain genre and truth to readers. As a writer, I get stuck because genres and truth are unwieldy and unyielding. What if I want to write creative nonfiction in poetry form? What do we call that? Essay? Memoir? Poem? If we call it essay, we wonder about analysis shape. If we call it poem, we wonder about abstract truth (or lack of analysis essay truth).
I could go on and on. Printing Paper? [See confusing illustration above.] We need to move to a system that offers rational borders and historical document essay, removes the false limitations that have been set on our genres. Critical On My Last? What is the solution to this overlapping confusion of document genre and inspirational essay, shape? Let genre teach us only the analysis essay, shape of a piece since the term genre originated to mean style and never was meant to terminology, include fiction or truth . Maybe this problem originated with the invention of the historical document analysis, term “the fourth genre” for creative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction is not the fourth genre (and fiction isn’t the third genre). Diary? Rather, prose is the third genre but before creative nonfiction became popular, fiction was seen to equal prose. Now we see fiction and historical document essay, creative nonfiction as genres rather than as types of prose. Once we have moved to three genres (poetry, drama, prose), then let us create a new category that deals with truth or invention. I propose veracity.
Definition of critical last Veracity : The observance of document analysis essay truth, or truthfulness, of a thing, something that conforms to deprivation essays, truth and fact. Etymology of document essay Veracity : From Latin, meaning truthful. And Effects Of Sleep Essays? So we will have two (or three) veracities. Veracity only teaches us about the truthfulness or invention of a piece. And let us have three (or four) genres. Historical Document? Genres will only porfolio essays teach us how a piece will look on the page. Dichotomous Key to Veracities : Habitat: Lives in areas of sunlight populated by truths, facts, memories, and speculations.
Location: Can be found in prose, poetry, and drama. Historical? Appearance: Carries the appearance of the writer’s life or the life of those who the writer has studied. Times: When the writer wants to examine the factual, the truth, the real in a moment. Habitat: Lives in caves populated by invention. Inspirational? Location: Can be found in prose, poetry, and drama. Appearance: A changeling. Can appear like the writer, like other humans, or entirely unlike humans at all.
Times: When the writer wants to create something new, when the writer longs to invent. Setting: A writer’s group, three members, at a local dive bar called Charlie O’s. Practicing a new way to view genre and veracity. Analysis Essay? Jess: So what would you call Anne Carson’s The Glass Essay ? Jess and Julia in unison: “Hybrid/hybrid.” Julia: “What about inspirational Moby Dick ? It’s fiction and nonfiction and it is prose.” Jess: “ Catcher in the Rye is fiction and prose.” Jess: “Jeanette Walls’ The Glass Castle? Nonfiction/Prose.” Sean: “The ancient Chinese poets, like T’ao Ch’ien? Creative nonfiction and historical analysis, poetry.” What does this new system allow that sees genre as poetry, drama, and prose? That offers a scale for veracity of a piece?
One : It makes the teaching life easier. This simpler view on genre and veracity is easy to teach. Porfolio Essays? Every piece of writing is: Either true, invented, or something hybrid (veracity). Either poetry, prose, drama, or something hybrid (genre). We can go back to document analysis, calling a cardboard box a box and a house a house. Porfolio Essays? Two : It allows writers flexibility to conceive of how they should write on historical essay, the page.
Writers may no longer need to feel constrained by causes and effects of sleep essays genre and veracity because we’ve separated truth and document analysis essay, fiction from genre. Choose a genre(s). Choose a veracity(s). Three : This system allows publishers a way to clearly articulate what they want. Again, just choose a genre(s) and porfolio essays, a veracity(s) and the writer will know what to submit. Historical Analysis Essay? Four : This new system instructs the reader more clearly on what they will receive. The contract is clear between writer and reader. Veracity teaches us about truth/invention. Genre teaches us about shape. Person Essay? I am an essayist. But I see my truths, attempts, tries at document analysis essay, understanding life not always in the long paragraphs of prose.
Sometimes my brain, heart, hands need, yes, other forms. my truths through poetry. constrained by abstract apa form. Let my words, like the waters. of my life, wander.  There exist hundreds of definitions for poetry. Analysis? Most offer major flaws in how they categorize poetry. The only definition I have found that doesn’t have major holes (because of its simplicity) is that poetry, almost always, uses line breaks to determine the shape of the poem. Except when it’s called ‘prose poetry.’ And once again, the professor looks confused.  My friend Karen just said that she reads most poems as “real” or “based on the writer’s life.” I read most poems as invented by the writer. We, the reader, have no idea if a poem is real or invented.
 Hybrid texts intentionally blend fiction and nonfiction, play with fiction and nonfiction, or have fiction and nonfiction share space. We can continue to work to decide where the hybrid boundary begins and ends, but it seems that the abstract paper, hybrid space could be reserved for pieces that mix or play with truth and fiction. Analysis?  We decide on fiction and prose because the heart of the novel is about the invented story not the nonfiction on whaling.  We’d still need to a page of my diary essay, work out historical essay, some kinks (like where to place In Cold Blood), but the kinks are smaller and on the edges of the borders. Porfolio Essays? So rather than dealing with major issues in analysis essay how our genres and shapes overall and confuse, we’d have to deal with smaller borderland issues like Is IN Cold Blood nonfiction or hybrid . Sean Prentiss is the author of the paper, memoir, Finding Abbey: a Search for analysis essay, Edward Abbey and His Hidden Desert Grave. Prentiss is also the co-editor of The Far Edges of the Fourth Genre: Explorations in Creative Nonfiction, a creative nonfiction craft anthology. Paper Terminology? He lives on a small lake in northern Vermont and serves as an assistant professor at Norwich University.
The other night I opened a bottle of HandFarm, from Tired Hands Brewing Company in Ardmore, PA. It’s a Saison (or Wallonian-style farmhouse ale) that’s been aged in Chardonnay barrels. Historical Document Essay? The base farmhouse ale is tasty enough: chewy grain flavors spiked with flavors of minerality, lemon juice, white pepper (not from the use of actual lemon or pepper; those flavors are some of the thousands of possible flavors created during fermentation). But the time spent in used oak gives it additional notes of vanilla and a slight woodsy astringency. In the barrels the mixed fermentation cultures – brewer’s yeast isolated from rural southern Belgium as well as native microflora bacteria from Pennslyvania – flourish and multiply, lending a kumquat-like lactic sourness, and a funk that calls to porfolio essays, mind horse stables #8212; their smells of sweaty manes, manure, and old hay. This is an essay on craft and, rest assured, I do not make drinking part of my process. I’m bringing up alcohol to illustrate a point.
While enjoying this farmhouse ale, the historical analysis, sun waving goodbye over rowhome rooftops in South Philly, I began to think about writing in terms of beer. The initial metaphor I was teasing out between sips was that bottling a beer is like publishing an printing essay. Your thoughts brew and brew over the course of drafting and, of document course, you want to end up with your sharpest, most finely crafted version, so you stop drafting at some point, stop thinking. Essays On My Last Duchess? You have a sense of when the essay is as good as it will be, knowing that you can overdraft a piece, can overthink the historical document, subject and let slack the tension. Person? You bottle it for distribution when it’s at its peak.
HandFarm, however is a bottle conditioned beer, meaning that the yeast is document analysis essay active in the bottle. The beer, quite purposefully, continues to a page essay, develop in ways commensurate with variables of time and storage. Just as I’m sure you’ve noticed how essays from James Baldwin or Eula Biss have only gained potency with time. Or maybe you’ve noticed that some, say, old David Sedaris essays aren’t as funny or piercing as you remember – gone flat, oxidized. Our relationship to our essayed thoughts, as well as any reader’s relationship to our thoughts their own thoughts, and historical analysis essay, everyone’s relationship to porfolio essays, the world at large, is document essay quite active. Digesting the sugars around us. Of My Diary? Boozing up the place. “The most important part [of making Balsamico] is to maintain the life of the historical document essay, vinegar,” says Giuseppe Pedroni, a master Balsamic vinegar producer in inspirational essay Modena, Italy. For him there is no growth or progress, no final product, without the preservation of analysis essay that initial spark. The first vinegar must inform all others.
We would not be able to have a relationship with our old thoughts if we couldn’t access the person we were when we had them. If we didn’t remember who we were when we wrote an essay then we could not place ourselves now. We can’t change our minds over the years without knowing what our minds used to hold. This epistemology is holding up an idea I’m trying to access in this essay, which is that retaining an intimacy with the self’s past, any and all past selves, is necessary to age beautifully. While it may be close to impossible to control how any one essay holds up to you or the essays, world it thinks about, you do have more control on essay, how to hold up as an essayist. For this I return you to HandFarm. This bottle is from the a page of my diary, 5 th batch of HandFarm, with each new bottling more complex integrated than the last. This is quite literally by design, as every new batch of HandFarm has some of the previous batches blended into it.
This is not like baking bread, where each new loaf is analysis puffed up by essay literally the same yeast, a mother yeast. Essay? HandFarm would be more like if each new loaf of bread contained within it an actual hunk of an inspirational essay old loaf of historical document analysis bread, which itself enveloped an even older piece of bread, and on and on down the line. For obvious reasons you can’t really do that with bread, at least not in an appetizing way. But you can do that with barrel aged beer, or wine, or sherry, or port, or Balsamic vinegar. Porfolio Essays? This process is analysis most commonly called the Solera method. Liquidity hybridizes the old and the new. A fluid becoming. No seams or stitches. Most Solera processes involve removing half of an old barrel’s contents to bottle, refilling the abstract for research, barrel with fresh liquid, then doing it again when next they bottle. Sometimes you remove half from the first largest barrel only to place that siphoned liquid in a second, smaller barrel to age further. Then some time later you remove part of that second barrel place it in a third, and etc.
True Balsamico Tradizionale is historical document analysis made this way, through a process of five to seven barrels known collectively as a “battery.” A fresh battery of barrels is paper started for major life events, like a wedding or childbirth, and the first bottling from that battery won’t happen for historical essay, a minimum of twelve years. According to porfolio essays, beer writer and technologist Lars Marius Garshol, it would take about 184 years before the last remaining molecule of the Balsamic vinegar that started a Solera is emptied out, if we define “completely emptied” as some molecular biologists and mathematicians do as “one five octillionth of the original.” Zeno, I’m sure, would regard the Solera method as paradoxical. Time in the barrel will change a thing. I like to over draft my ideas at historical document, first and then give a considerable amount of time before I revise them. That’s what works for me. Deprivation Essays? I enjoy seeing how far my thinking has come in historical analysis the weeks between. I like to feel the influence of new perspectives experiences tugging on the old text. I tend to prefer the speakers of my essays be “a version of abstract paper apa me from a general time in historical analysis my life” rather than “a version of me on porfolio essays, one specific day.” I think it’s less than useful to look at revision as “killing your darlings.” Even in the act of pressing the delete key I don’t think of it as a killing, a reaping. I think of it as vaporization.
I think of it as the Angel’s Share: the phenomenon where some of the water volume of liquid aging in a barrel will evaporate, leaving the barrel filled with something more concentrated, more potent, than before. Solera, in Spanish, means “on the ground,” referring to where sherry barrels were quite naturally kept before artisans started experimenting with subterranean and lofted storage. In English, we have plenty of cliches and idioms about the ground. Keeps me grounded; on the ground floor; common ground; break new ground; cut the ground out from under my feet; lose ground; hold your ground; gain some ground; I’m just run down to historical document essay, the ground; old stomping ground; doesn’t know his head from printing, a hole in the ground; what moral ground do you have. There’s a sense of commonality with the word. We share it, even when we frame it antagonistically (lose/hold/gain). It unites us. Everyone walks upon it. Everyone recognizes it as the starting point – ground level.
So if you think of your essays, your body of work as an essayist, as functionally a Solera method, then the process makes sense. We can’t not ground our essays. Our essays can’t help but walk the land they share with each other. Even now I’m re-using thoughts and descriptions I’ve had about HandFarm, since I’m currently writing a book on farmhouse ale. It’s partly a memoir of my family’s farming history as a way to access why I love farmhouse ale so much and partly a more journalistic look into why farmhouse ale is sharply rising in popularity in the United States and I’m not saying any of this as a plug to historical, prospective agents (though my email is in my contributor note!) but rather to demonstrate that this beer is working its way into many of my seemingly disparate thoughts, and that’s not a mistake to let the subject of my book project creep into other things I’m working on. The realization I’m having here is essays last that it’s entirely natural. I try to write about my grandparents escaping a hardscrabble agrarian life and along the way this beer, or another like it, shows up in my essaying, creating tension, trying to smooth away the cracked-earth of a droughtstruck farm with its gestures towards the beauty and romance of the analysis essay, pastoral. I try to write about the causes of sleep deprivation essays, craft of essay writing using this beer merely as a way in but it fights me for document essay, the focus.
And this is nothing to shy away from or edit out. This is epistemological. This is how we stay connected to our thoughts, how none of our essays are truly written in a vacuum. Looking at my folder of current drafts there’s not a single piece that doesn’t bear the mark of the others. There’s the interviews I did at Boulevard Brewing Company for this Saison book, looking out on the brewery’s big roof towards fields of corn and deprivation, soy north of Kansas City. There’s the Missouri pastoral coming up in a different essay as evidence of privilege and as contrast for citizen outrage over police fascism across the state in Ferguson. There’s the emotionally draining late nights spent watching livestreams of Ferguson juxtaposed with the elation of the World Series run for historical, my Kansas City Royals in another.
There’s the last baseball games my grandfather would see before he passed away, and terminology, there’s the news around the essay, time of his passing that my mother got diagnosed with cancer, and there’s the weeks I spent this past semester in critical on my last duchess something like depression, and there’s the first draft I wrote after weeks of not writing #8212; wherein a jean jacket I bought reminded me of Roger, a poet/teacher/friend, who passed away a few years ago the historical essay, memory that Roger introduced me to causes deprivation essays, craft beer in analysis the first place. This is a Solera. Somewhere in every essay I write, yours too, is inspirational person essay a bit of the previous blended in, which itself had some of the one prior to it, which in turn implies a whole cosmology for every essay. The process is a seamless cycle for any essayist who keeps up with the work. Just because we finish an essay doesn’t mean those thoughts the emotions they kicked up don’t get blended back in with the next barrel. This is how we think, learn, live.
Either we age our thinking and blend it back into new thoughts or we must regularly go back and make current each of our essays, as Montaigne felt the analysis, pressure to do. You tell me which feels more natural. Printing? In Marsala, Scicily, a solera method is used to analysis, make Marsala wine. The term in Italian that the winemakers use is in perpetuum . Steven Church, talking about porfolio essays his essay “Seven Fathoms Down” ( DIAGRAM , 13.5), explains “This is the third essay that I#8217;ve written and published about the same event, each one a different essay, exploration, and attempt. I suppose it#8217;s some sort of testament to historical document, the lasting power of such things, though not a testament I set out to write. It may seem like bullshit, but the essay found its way to the drowning and abstract, I didn#8217;t see it coming.
I just followed the pull.” At the NonfictionNOW conference in 2010, I underlined in my notebook four times a statement from Bonnie J. Rough, who on a panel told the audience “If you want to tile a fish, tile a fish!” That’s great advice. So often I’ll hear someone – a student, a colleague #8212; say that they can’t write about, say, their parents’ divorce again because they’ve “already written The Divorce Essay.” Nah, son. If that divorce keeps wanting to come up in essay your writing then let it. You don’t get just one shot at any subject. These things are a part of porfolio essays you forever and they are yours to use, to frame with and re-shape and reconsider, forever. I wrote a Grandparent Cancer Essay while I was in undergrad, learning the moves. I revisited the jaundice, the funeral, the essay, anxiety in a different form years later in one of porfolio essays my first published pieces. I find myself revisiting it all again now that all of my grandparents are dead, now that my head is as bald by choice as that grandfather’s head was by analysis essay nature, now that I’m cleaning his old work cap and and effects deprivation essays, wearing it around to essay, protect my scalp. You carry all of your prior essays with you from new draft to new draft. Of My Diary Essay? You just might not be aware of the historical analysis essay, blend percentage. The first essay you ever published is there in your most recent.
Most of the words have evaporated, sure, sent up to the angels, but the potent essence remains because that essence changed you, that essay changed you. A Page Of My Diary? To even recognize it means it’s still there. Barry Grass is originally from Kansas City but now lives in Philadelphia, where he teaches writing at Hussian College. His chapbook, #8220;Collector#8217;s Item,#8221; was released in 2014 by Corgi Snorkel Press. Work appears in The Normal School, Hobart, Sonora Review, and Annalemma, among other journals.
If you have a solera going, send samples for judgment to analysis essay, email@example.com. Kirk WislandGoodbye to All of Those. I used to say write like everybody you know is a page essay dead. Document Analysis? It was my signature phrase, a gentle cudgel used to paper apa, subdue the kind of self-questioning fear that often stunts a writer wading into historical document analysis essay uncharted waters. An exhortation to write wild, brave and free. Of course this was also when I wrote mostly about the living, when I wrote about the dead primarily as a passing referent, a milepost on my narrative journey. Inspirational? After my grandfather died.
Before my grandmother died. When my cat, or aunt, or grade-school choir director was still alive. Mostly I wrote about those who would never read my words. I didn’t worry about my mean-spirited (but true!) rendition of my choir director, even when he was still alive, because I knew he’d never read it. And on those rare occasions when I did write about the dead, I wrote mostly flattering things, gentle odes to those passed on. But when a longtime friend shows up in your newly-adopted state and document analysis, drinks himself to death in your presence—a real-life Leaving Las Vegas played out over several weeks—then you will write the dead. For Research Paper Apa? The imperative of knowing, of witnessing—whether it be for atonement, or to honor, or to punish—you will write the dead. I am still writing the dead, although the historical essay, story has trickled out on me at ninety pages—too short for a book, too long for an essay.
An Essayvella? Last summer I started writing by hand again, scrawling away in a gray composition notebook. Perched on the balcony of our carriage house apartment, surrounded by my potted palms and tropical plants, I let the summer breeze lull me into believing that I was playing the a page, part of Hemingway in Key West, rather than Appalachian Ohio. I hadn’t written with any serious intent in a notebook for historical document, six years, having finally trained myself during my MFA program to printing, “be creative” on my laptop. I had been cursed with a stubborn certainty from the historical document, earliest years of my literary dabbling: a certainty that one could not—or at least I could not—type creatively in the same manner as I scrawled my barely-legible notebook odysseys. But after a decade of writing longhand, and then turning around and typing those words into and effects deprivation a Word document, my wrists were perpetually sore, and my forearms plagued by a recurrent tingling numbness. Document? Fear of abstract Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, of a hand clenched into document analysis a useless claw, scared me enough to a page, alter my habits. So I pushed on past my ingrained superstition and discovered that in fact I could conjure expression from the percussion of my fingers on the keys. And every muscle and nerve from my knuckles to document analysis, my shoulder blades thanked me.
Part of my decision to return to writing longhand was about trying to rediscover the joy of writing I used to know before I was a “Writer.” I am captive now to a weird writer’s vanity—the vanity of believing all my written words might be significant. Abstract For Research Paper? It’s an absurd idea. I still generate far more future trash than I do marketable prose. But I no longer feel good “free-doodling.” Writing has become a commodity, or more accurately the time I have for writing is a commodity, and thus I feel the pressure to make that time count. Each word part of a sentence, part of a paragraph, part of a final essay to be submitted, part of a book of said essays to be offered up as sacrifice to the capricious gods of publishing. By getting “serious” about writing, I robbed the act of fun. I used to spend hours maniacally scribbling away in coffee shops, putting mostly future-less prose to page. Sure I was going to historical document essay, be a writer someday. But I wasn’t there yet, and my 90s daydreams of writer greatness were barely more realistic than my previously imagined futures as a rock star or NBA power forward. Somewhere out there people were publishing, but that was no concern of mine.
I was just sharpening my teeth, blasting out hyper-caffeinated prose, working myself into shape, a writing Rocky with the theme song in my head. Then one day you publish something. Then you get into an MFA program. Publish a few more things. Become Nonfiction Editor for a lit journal. Go to some conferences.
Get into a PhD program. Critical Duchess? Compile a big enough Word document to have a book or two or three. And where once I merrily dashed off reams of sketches without intent, now I agonize over all the work—the finished pieces still searching for document analysis, homes, all my megabytes of stalled stories, embers of essay. Essay? Now I cringe when the word-flow dams up, when the essay, “essayer” fails to bear fruit. Now I feel the pressure to produce. Now that I have stepped into the ring I have to confront, each time I write, the fear that it might not happen, that nobody is guaranteed a book contract just for finishing their work, that I might peak with a few good essays and then fade away… I wrote the causes of sleep deprivation essays, dead swamped in grief. I wrote in historical document essay regret. I wrote in anger. Lambasted myself on paper terminology, the page for being unable to save my alcoholic friend. Lambasted him on the page for being unwilling to save himself.
I wrote in forgiveness. I wrote in love. I wrote in remembrance. As the analysis essay, years scrolled by and the death receded back in the rear-view mirror I wrote with increasing detachment, when I wrote him at all. The tidal wave of terminology early words slowed to a river, then a stream, then a trickle. I had said all I could say, disgorged my pages and turned instead to dabbling with rearrangements, trying to make the puzzle pieces fit into some semblance of a whole. I missed his April birthday this year, for document analysis essay, the first time since his death.
Today, May 13 th , is three years since we got that call—three years plus a couple days dead and gone. The past is malleable; we shape it and paper, polish it until it resembles what is most palatable to our current selves, and our reflection of historical analysis those previous incarnations. But the past is also unpredictable, and like magma oozing along underneath our tectonic plates it occasionally burbles up and breaks through the surface in ways we can’t fathom. Early October, the mid-George W. Bush years, waiting for a train at the Milan airport. It had been six years since that summer in Holland, my brief interlude as romantic expat abroad, and of sleep essays, yet waiting for the train I could feel the swell of nostalgia and sorrow bursting up from a long-dormant core, spurred by the simple fact that it was the historical essay, first time I’d been back in a page diary essay Europe since those events. Historical Essay? Melancholy seeping from my pores like magma, and a visceral certainty that I could punch through the printing paper, wall of the tunnel to find that other me, that other past lurking in shadows just outside the corner of historical my vision.
I think part of the allure of blogging is not just the immediacy of your words, the timeliness in response to current events, but also the immediacy of the self. This is who I am, right now. Essay? This is my life, my ideas, my brain on the page at this moment , date-stamped for perpetuity. This is the real-time wine and wafer; eat and historical essay, drink and a page of my diary, be one with me. Because even in historical the quickest publication turnarounds there is normally a lag-time of a page diary months or sometimes years between those words you wrote at that moment when they were fully you, and historical document essay, the day those words go public.
By the on my last duchess, time my words see the light of historical document analysis day I am often tired of them, having rolled the Sisyphean literary boulder up the hill, writing, shaping, re-shaping. And then you see those words from this lag-time, where they are always that younger you, always a slightly different version, so that in reading yourself at the moment of publication you are reading your own history. Printing Paper Terminology? Some of document analysis my oldest Word documents pre-date the Millennium. I can read these stories and attempted memoirs and see myself, but only porfolio essays a refracted version. In a sense I reclaim my history every time I reread them, which is why it is simultaneously exhilarating and frightening to read those old pieces—or to delve into my old journals, which date back nearly a quarter-century. In the intervening decades those memories were sanded down and sun-bleached, but then I will re-read that passage from the journal of an document analysis angst-ridden 19-year-old and be viscerally reminded of who I was then, of that younger, smaller me that still exists in this older form, still forms the inner rings of the causes deprivation essays, tree of me. The faces within the face, “preserved like fossils on superimposed layers,” as Christopher Isherwood says in A Single Man. Historical Document Analysis? And some part of me in the present will be changed by paper this re-engaged history, the analysis, dredging revisions of the factually erroneous silt accumulated over abstract for research apa, time. Aren’t we writers, particularly we Nonfictioneers, just like Leonard Shelby, the protagonist in historical essay Memento— who, having lost all short-term memory, must constantly reconstruct himself from his scrawled notes? Those important truths tattooed all over porfolio essays, his torso, never to be forgotten.
Aren’t we writers tattooing ourselves every time we publish? The first two times I was published, I celebrated by treating myself to a new tattoo as reward. I had decided that each new publication would merit a new tattoo, that I would web myself in meaningful ink, become a respectable, literary, non-murderous Leonard Shelby. But I haven’t kept up that tradition. I meant to, but as subsequent publications happened I realized that they were not all of equal significance, and probably not all worthy of their own ink.
And I had other things to spend money on, other people to consider. Tattoos are expensive, and other than my first publication, which paid for the tattoo and even left some spare change— thank you Milkweed! —none of the essay, subsequent publications, if they have paid at all, have paid enough to cover new ink. I have moved on, for the moment, to writing the living. Writing a book about last duchess my biological father, or more accurately about historical document analysis essay our relationship, and what it meant to grow up with a gay father in porfolio essays the 1980s during the height of the AIDS crisis. This is a story I’ve always known I had to tell, one that friends and professors alike have chided me for historical essay, delaying. I had originally thought that maybe I wouldn’t write this book until my father died. That maybe out of respect for terminology, him, I ought to historical document, wait. But I realized something important, in porfolio essays the process of writing the book of the dead friend: it isn’t easier when they’re gone. In many ways it’s harder.
What you might think of as the advantage of avoiding those awkward moments— they’ll never read it —are offset by the guilt one feels for writing them without the possibility of correction. Of being able to historical document essay, say anything you want. Of presenting their likeness without consent. Part of a page of my me fears certain passages I’ve written already about my father, things that will surely hurt him to read. Part of document essay me also fears the terminology, passages I haven’t written yet, the historical document analysis, stories I’m slowly working myself up to, the causes of sleep essays, ones I can’t imagine having a conversation with my father about. Historical Essay? But we can do that. We can talk . And maybe in essay talking about these events, the stories themselves will become better, truer—more purely Nonfiction—as we hash out the differences in our memories to find a palatable shared truth. Historical Essay? Isn’t that much more likely to essay, be true than my singular version of events? Isn’t that more fair, more honest? Those old Microsoft Word documents are in danger of becoming outdated, of living past the current technology’s ability to reach back and speak to them.
It’s weird to historical document analysis essay, think about because we always assume that technological improvements are without consequence, inherently positive. But of a page of my diary essay course with each passing year the incentive diminishes for the engineers at Microsoft to make sure that the newest version of Word is still configured to be compatible with antique, pre-Millennium versions of historical document analysis itself. A Page Of My Diary Essay? And I keep ignoring the historical document, compatibility messages when I open one of these ancient scrolls, confident in the fact that we no longer live in the dark ages of technology when Apple and Microsoft spoke separate languages, warring across a tech channel like the French and paper terminology, the British. But I know that one day—maybe not next year, or ten years from now—but some day in the future my precious scrawls from 1997 will no longer be readable. Which leads to a counter-intuitive and strangely exhilarating thought: let them die. Delete all. Delete them all. Like John Steinbeck burning The Oklahomans —his first attempt at The Grapes of Wrath— and document essay, starting over diary essay, from scratch. Imagine the weightlessness of returning to a blank slate. Of digitally burning everything not already in print.
Of saying thanks for all the practice, now toss those canvasses into the bonfire and historical analysis, begin anew. What if we could start over? What if we could erase everything we’d ever written, and truly forget? What would my next sentence be if I knew I would never re-read my old words? Kirk Wisland’s work has appeared in The Normal School, Creative Nonfiction, The Diagram, Paper Darts, Electric Literature, Phoebe, Essay Daily, and the Milkweed Press Anthology Fiction on a Stick. He is person essay a doctoral student in Creative Writing at Ohio University. He has not yet hit #8220;delete all.#8221; Lying in Translation: Notes Towards a Truthful MemoirBrooke Champagne. Essay? In the grocery stores, dime stores, department stores of the terminology, New Orleans East neighborhood where I grew up, my grandmother stole and I lied. Document Essay? It became part of the person, rhythm of our days: Lala brought us into the English-speaking world, where the Americans talked like chirping, or was it squawking birds—I can’t pin down the analogous word, but I knew she didn’t like the sound of it, ese maldito ingles —and she spoke only Spanish, so I served as translator. Very quickly I learned I must lie.
Because at analysis essay, TGY off Michoud Boulevard, Lala deigned to purchase household items like toilet paper or detergent, but stole whatever tchotchke it was I wanted. In the printing paper terminology, check-out line the cashier might ask how we were doing, to analysis, which Lala would reply in Spanish, “I’m fantastic, you dummy, because I’m stealing from you, and there’s nothing you can do about it.” All those sad cashiers from my memory thought our routine so cute: the Ecuadorian woman and the granddaughter who spoke for her. That nice lady who complimented their haircuts, or the orderliness of the store. The woman who, no matter what inexplicable foreign sounds were coming from her mouth, was, according to her granddaughter, always having a nice day. Lying in translation was simply part of my childhood. I couldn’t tell the of my diary essay, world the truth about who Lala was. Document? At home she was my world, and I hers— mi amor , mi vida , mi tesoro —but in public she made me cringe. She couldn’t even speak English, and it didn’t matter that she declined to learn by abstention because she hated the language so.
All the world’s books, as far as I knew, were written in terminology English. In this language, learning happened, so in my estimation, Lala refused to learn. I identified Spanish with fierce love and anti-intellectualism, and analysis, English where rules were made and and effects of sleep essays, followed. My English expanded through school and the limitless stories and worlds offered by books. My Spanish had one character, one plot, one god, and that was Lala. Analysis Essay? She both admired and inspirational person essay, begrudged my time with reading, and I knew the day would come when I was forced to pick a language. The more ensconced I became in the English-speaking world, especially when I was at home with Lala, the more of a traitor I became.
Sometime in historical analysis essay my adolescence I permanently defected to English. I spent the first ten years of my life speaking Spanish every day, and in the subsequent twenty-five years I may have spoken three months’ worth of the language. I learned to love American boys and men in terminology English, but because of Lala, I thought for some time I’d never be able to grapple with complex ideas in Spanish. In Spanish I only felt. In Spanish one was either the betrayer or the betrayed. Spanish was my dreamy past, and English the historical document essay, a more certain, stolid present and future. Porfolio Essays? The irony is historical document analysis that when I became a writer I had no interest in writing fiction, or at least in printing terminology fictionalizing our story. I didn’t want to historical essay, create a zany Hispanic grandmother performing zany stunts. I had to porfolio essays, write her . Analysis? But through force of childhood habit, I was out of printing paper terminology practice in telling her truthfully. And for all the “what is historical analysis essay truth in memoir?” debates surrounding this genre, I think the porfolio essays, foremost strategy for writing it is pretty straightforward: try not to lie.
Tell the truth as you remember it: don’t make more or less of anything or anyone, including yourself. For me this has been complicated by not only my early propensity to lie, but that the truth as I remember it happened in essay Spanish. Translating these memories and printing paper, Lala’s actions into English feels false. In considering this false feeling, I’m reminded of a moment in Richard Rodriguez’s memoir Hunger of Memory , when as a boy he’s asked by a friend of his, a gringo , to document analysis, translate what Rodriguez’s Mexican grandmother has just yelled out to him from her window: “He wanted to know what she had said. I started to tell him, to paper, say—to translate her Spanish words into English. Historical Document? The problem was, however, that though I knew how to translate exactly what she had told me, I realized that any translation would distort the abstract for research, deepest meaning of her message: It had been directed only to me.
This message of intimacy could never be translated because it was not in document the words she had used but passed through them. So any translation would have seemed wrong; her words would have been stripped of terminology any essential meaning. Historical Analysis? Finally, I decided not to tell my friend anything. I told him that I didn’t hear all she had said.” What Rodriguez expresses here is the untranslatability not of diary language, but of people and their intimacies. I feel already the person I’ve sketched so far is more Latina imp than Lala.
How to capture her largeness, her generosity followed by her startling moments of pettiness, without allowing the reader to hear and understand her voice directly? And I cannot, as some bilingual authors do, write our story first in the language closest to the experience. Historical Document Analysis Essay? My Spanish is no longer, and perhaps never was, that strong. Today I can still tell Lala I love her and narrate the changing details of my life; I can still make her laugh. But if she were unable to hear, I couldn’t write any of of my diary it for her in a language she could understand. In his 1800 essay “On Language and Words,” philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer proposes a specific marker for the mastery of a language: when the speaker is capable of translating not words but oneself into the other language. This issue of retaining one’s personality and document analysis essay, authentic self across languages remains troubling because in my distance from Spanish, I’m not sure how much I can accurately define who I was when I lived in printing that language, or who I am within Spanish even now. Historical Document Analysis Essay? I recall my young, primarily Spanish-speaking self as devoid of personality, as completely dependent on Lala’s love alone, as a vessel in which the only thing more powerful than the will to please was the causes and effects of sleep, silently-brewing mutiny over historical essay, my leader and diary, her language. Essay? When I think of person who I am in Spanish now, when I speak it with Lala, I wonder if I’m still more who she would like me to be—the loud, brash, fearless woman she once was—than I actually am. In Spanish I search more vigilantly for the humor, the absurdity, the magic of living, I find colors and sounds bolder and more daunting, I hear in every sentence a song. It’s an exhausting way to live, which may be why I don’t do it (or speak it) often.
To be an always-on vaudevillian in one’s second language is historical essay no small task. With that in mind, let me translate a joke from Spanish. Last winter I visited Cuba to prepare for a writing exchange this summer between my students at the University of Alabama and for research paper apa, Cuban students at the University of San Geronimo in Havana. As part of our exploration, a colleague and I visited the Tropicana Club, famous for its lush tropical gardens, stunning light shows, and nearly-nude dancers. We arrived early and as I was served my first drink, an icy Cristal cerveza in its tall green bottle, a bird shat all over the left side of document analysis my head, shoulder, dress. The mortified waiters hastily brought me napkins and, more promptly than they did the surrounding tables, my complimentary bottle of porfolio essays Havana Club Rum. Everyone apologized profusely: disculpeme , perdoname , que pena . But one waiter knew just what to say as he dabbed my shoulder with a moist napkin: mejor un pajaro que un caballo . Better a bird than a horse. And the waiter’s joke made me laugh. Made me forget all about the bird shit. But the more I’ve thought of the joke since, what it would be like if someone told it to me in English after I’d been shat on by an Alabamian bird, I don’t think it would hold the analysis essay, same weight.
I don’t know if it would be as fun. Magical realism isn’t just a writing genre in abstract paper apa Latin American cultures: it’s a way of seeing the world. For a second at the Tropicana, I thought, yeah, I really do need to watch for the flying horses. No: los caballos que volan . As alluded to earlier, Schopenhauer asserts that we think differently in every language, that we construct new ways of seeing that don’t exist in our original language, where there may be lacking a conceptual equivalent. A further inference might be made, which is that we feel differently in every language, too. A bird will more readily shit on me in Spanish, in the language where I’ll more readily laugh at historical, it. It makes sense for me to momentarily fear flying horses in Spanish, as ludicrous as that sounds when I’m translating it now. When I write about Lala, I could tell just the facts: when she was five years old she watched her mother die of tuberculosis, choking on her blood; she was taken in by three vindictive aunts who chopped off her hair, made her kneel on abstract for research paper apa, rice so often she rarely had skin there; she’s a raised eyebrow away from five feet tall, but in my memory she’s massive, capable of historical document analysis flooding the of my diary, kitchen and drowning us with her tears when she cried, and she cried often, in her fear and her anger that I didn’t love her enough. In her I saw all those sad stories manifested in her body.
She could literally drown me. I did my best not to make her cry. That’s the problem with facts. The truth of how I read her and felt about historical document analysis her slips in a page essay around them. Translating words and phrases from Spanish to English, while a vigorous academic exercise, isn’t my greatest difficulty in analysis writing about my past with Lala. What’s most confounding is finding a way to translate her actions.
What if I told you of one of the specific ways in porfolio essays which Lala loved: how she kissed me as a child, kissed every place, every powdered part? And that she kissed there well into the years I have memory, kissed even when I could name those private parts, in those days before I felt ashamed of them? How can I translate her intention which, despite all of document essay Lala’s failings, I’ve only ever read as absolute love? I can tell you that in English-speaking MFA workshop critiques, Lala’s love has been compared to the destructive, perverse one found in Kathryn Harrison’s The Kiss , the memoir in which the narrator recounts her love affair with her biological father. What happened to me was abuse, I’ve been informed, and was advised by some peers not to write about it. Or at least fictionalize my story, with the tacit implication it would make readers more comfortable. Is it through these kisses, they asked, that I want to be known as a writer?
Now, long out of the MFA workshop, I still ask myself whether or not I can be trusted now to know what I felt across not just languages, but cultures. To express my struggles with language and interpretation, I need English. To express the most important parts of myself, how I learned to love and how I learned to be, I need Spanish. But what does it mean if my facility with Spanish isn’t what it used to be? Through losing a great deal of one of my languages, have I lost significant parts of myself? Now just one more story (or is paper it a riddle, or a joke, a puzzle?), one that Lala told me dozens of times growing up. It’s the refrain of my childhood: el cuento del gallo pelon . The story of the bald rooster. Here’s how the story often went: Lala: Do you want me to tell you the story about the bald rooster? Lala: I didn’t say anything about yes . I asked you if you wanted to historical document essay, hear the abstract paper apa, story of the historical document essay, bald rooster. Me: Please, just tell me! Lala: I don’t understand what you mean by please . Essays Duchess? I’m simply asking if you want to hear the story of the bald rooster.
Me: I want to hear the story! You’re getting on my nerves! Lala: Here you sit talking about nerves and stories when I’m trying to tell you my story of the historical document analysis essay, bald rooster. And on and on critical essays last duchess, this non-story would nightmarishly go. Through this story neither teller nor listener ever leave the historical analysis, question—the story is never finished. It requires perhaps the devotion of a child to continuously ask for more when resolution is this improbable, and and effects of sleep, a lover of language to begin the circuitous dialogue in the first place. This story, as is turns out, is an appropriate metaphor for my work on historical document, the Lala memoir. Of My Diary Essay? I’ve been writing parts of it for eleven years, off and on. Friends say “tell me more, tell me more,” and historical document, I respond, I am telling it . Lala.
Memoir. What are you writing? I’m writing it. This story. That story. And on and on the dialogue goes with no resolution. I don’t know if there’s any solution to porfolio essays, the “how do I write this memoir?” dilemma other than to write first and worry over potential problems later. If there’s a solution to document analysis, my own, it may be in its tentative title. Translating my Lala stories requires necessary lies across my languages. Paper? Though translation may be maddening, may feel false, may require stops and starts, the alternative is the silence Richard Rodriguez answered with when asked what his grandmother had said.
My grandmother is called Lala. I want to tell you what she said and what she did. How her love could be frightening, and sublime. Through the best words I can find, if not always the exact ones, I’ll try to show you. Rodriguez, Richard. Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez . Document Analysis? New York: Random House, 1982. Print. Schulte, Rainer and John Biguenet, eds. Theories of Translation: An Anthology of Essays from Dryden to abstract for research apa, Derrida . Chicago: Chicago UP, 2002. Historical Document Analysis? Print. Brooke Champagne was born and raised in printing New Orleans, LA and now writes and teaches in historical Tuscaloosa, AL.
Her work appears or is forthcoming in Los Angeles Review , New Ohio Review , Prick of the Spindle , and paper, Louisiana Literature , among other journals. She is at work on her first collection of historical analysis personal essays, and her memoir about her grandmother, Lala. I used to abstract for research apa, think I was born for big. things. I would be well-known, admired. Change the world. But fame is for the dead. Van Gogh, Once, Francesca Cuzzoni refused to. sing the first aria in Handel’s. Essay? opera. Madame, he said, I know you. are a veritable devil, but I would. have you know that I am Beelzebub, chief of them all. Handel was either a musical genius. or, if Sir Isaac Newton can be. trusted with anything, unremarkable. save for the elasticity of his. Then Handel took the. soprano by the waist and swore that. he would throw her from the window… Michelangelo in a. late at night.
Picture him by. candlelight, working tendon. from of my diary essay, bone, muscle from muscle. as if untwining lengths of. Or Professor von Hagen in a. Historical Analysis Essay? black leather fedora exchanging. fluids for plastic in the most. splendid parts of the human. lungs laced with purple veins, translucent sheets of a page of my flesh. Document? Watch bones bend in his hands. Watch him fashion, form, sculpt, create. What is art if not tender. revelation?
What is art if not. Abstract? dedicated to love? Look to the. body. Touch it. Run your. fingers over the shapes of it. Historical Document Essay? Taste it. Smell it. The ecstasy of an ear drove Van.
Gogh to madness, forgetting. hunger and thirst in the sun. with his canvas empty before. When I connect the freckles on. the back of my left shoulder, I. have a Chagall. Printing Terminology? Aqueous sky. An anchorless range of. mountains. A tilty, four-layer, rum chocolate cake.
A man, drunk, is dismembered by historical document essay a. passing train. His wife buys a red. dress, her heart filled with wet. ash. Essay? The dress is blue red, cold red. She licks sugar from her fingers. The scrape of her shoes on document, cement. make her think of diary rats. Historical Document? She sits in the kitchen with her feet on a stepstool. wearing the same expression she puts on for church.
Sir Isaac Newton heard the of my diary essay, opening of the dawn. Thomas Edison was afraid of the dark. Document Analysis? Lord Carnarvon and his dog died at apa, the precise moment. the power failed in Cairo. Think of the clipped light caught. in the wife’s kitchen window: a measure of blue, a stitch of historical essay green, a ribbon of pink across. the bridge of her nose.
How it comes on swift wings, such small disturbances of. Traci O. Connor is a novelist, poet, flash-memoir writer, and of my diary essay, author of the short story collection, Recipes for Endangered Species (Tarpaulin Sky Press). Historical Document Analysis? She has been a professor, a radio talk-show host, and a construction worker. She also played college basketball a long time ago, plays the piano sporadically now, cooks without recipes, and loves TV. She lives with her spouse, the writer Jackson Connor, in Athens, OH with a various number of children depending, one labradoodle, and a cat named Fred.
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Essay 2: Historical Analysis/Critical Response
Kate Chopin Chopin, Kate (Short Story Criticism) - Essay. Kate Chopin 1851–-1904. (Born Katherine O'Flaherty) American novelist, short story writer, poet, essayist, diarist, and memoirist. The following entry presents criticism on Chopin's short fiction from 1988 through 2002. For criticism of Chopin's short fiction published prior to analysis essay, 1988, see SSC, Vol.
8. A popular local colorist during her lifetime, Chopin is best known today for and effects deprivation her psychological novel The Awakening (1899) and for such often-anthologized short stories as “Desiree's Baby” and “The Story of an historical, Hour.” In these, as in inspirational essay many of her best works, she transcended simple regionalism and portrayed women who seek spiritual and sexual freedom amid the restrictive mores of nineteenth-century Southern society. Chopin is today recognized for her pioneering examination of sexuality, individual freedom, and the consequences of action—themes and historical analysis essay, concerns important to many contemporary writers. Chopin was born to a prominent St. A Page Essay? Louis family.
Her father died in a train accident when Chopin was four years old, and her childhood was profoundly influenced by her mother and great-grandmother, who descended from historical essay, French-Creole pioneers. Chopin also spent much time with her family's Creole and mulatto slaves, becoming familiar with their unique dialects. After her graduation from a convent school at the age of seventeen, she spent two years as a belle of fashionable St. Printing? Louis society. In 1870 she married Oscar Chopin, a wealthy Creole cotton factor, and moved with him to New Orleans. For the next decade, Chopin pursued the demanding social and domestic schedule of a Southern aristocrat, her recollections of which would later serve as material for her short stories. In 1880, financial difficulties forced Chopin's growing family to move to her father-in-law's home in Cloutierville, a small town in Natchitoches Parish located in Louisiana's Red River bayou region.
There, Chopin's husband oversaw and subsequently inherited his father's plantations. Upon his death in 1883, Chopin insisted upon assuming his managerial responsibilities, which brought her into historical document analysis contact with almost every segment of the community, including the French-Acadian, Creole, and duchess, mulatto sharecroppers who worked the plantations. The impressions she gathered of these people and Natchitoches Parish life later influenced her fiction. In the mid-1880s Chopin sold most of her property and left Louisiana to live with her mother in St. Louis.
Family friends who found her letters entertaining encouraged Chopin to write professionally, and she began composing short stories. After an apprenticeship marked by routine rejections, Chopin began having her stories published in the most popular American periodicals, including America, Vogue, and the Atlantic. Between 1894 and 1897 she published the collections Bayou Folk and A Night in document analysis Acadie, the success of which solidified her growing reputation as an terminology, important local colorist. Publishers later rejected a novel and document analysis, short story collection, A Vocation and porfolio essays, a Voice (finally published in 1991), on historical document analysis essay moral grounds, citing what they considered their unseemly promotion of female self-assertion and on my, sexual liberation. Historical Document Analysis? Moreover, the hostile critical and printing paper terminology, public reaction to her later novel The Awakening largely halted Chopin's career; she had difficulty finding publishers for later works and was ousted from local literary groups.
Demoralized, she wrote little during her last years. A cerebral hemorrhage abruptly ended her life at the age of fifty-three. Major Works of historical analysis essay, Short Fiction. The stories of Bayou Folk, Chopin's first collection, largely reflect her skills as a local colorist and often center on the passionate loves of the Creoles and Acadians in her adopted Natchitoches Parish. For example, “A Lady of Bayou St.
John” portrays a young widow who escapes the abstract, sexual demands of historical essay, a suitor by immersing herself in memories of her dead husband, while “La Belle Zoraide” chronicles a mulatto slave's descent into madness after her mistress sells her lover and deprives her of their child. In A Night in Acadie Chopin continued to utilize the Louisiana settings that figured in Bayou Folk. However, the romanticism of the earlier collection is replaced by a greater moral ambivalence concerning such issues as female sexuality, personal freedom, and social propriety. In “A Respectable Woman” a happily married woman becomes sexually attracted to Gouvernail, a family friend invited by her husband to visit their home for a week. Of My Essay? Disturbed by her feelings, she is relieved when Gouvernail leaves, but as the following summer approaches, she encourages her husband to analysis, invite him to visit again. Chopin later expanded upon this essentially amoral perception of adultery in diary essay “The Storm,” a story written near the end of her career, which portrays a woman's extramarital affair as a natural impulse devoid of moral significance. Early reviewers of A Night in Acadie objected to the volume's sensuous themes. Historical Document Essay? Similar concerns were later raised by publishers who rejected Chopin's next volume, A Vocation and inspirational essay, a Voice. Historical Document Analysis Essay? In these stories Chopin largely abandons local setting to printing terminology, focus upon the psychological complexity of analysis essay, her characters.
Tales such as “Two Portraits,” “Lilacs,” and “A Vocation and a Voice” examine contrary states of innocence and printing paper, experience and ways that society divides rather than unites the two. Historical? In “The Story of an Hour,” the best-known work in the collection, Chopin returns to the issue of marriage and selfhood in her portrayal of Mrs. Mallard, a woman who learns that her husband has died in inspirational person essay a train accident. Initially overcome by grief, she gradually realizes that his “powerful will” no longer restricts her and that she may live as she wishes. While she joyfully anticipates her newfound freedom, however, her husband returns, the report of his death a mistake, and Mrs. Historical Essay? Mallard collapses and dies of heart failure. Although reviewers and readers throughout the printing paper terminology, late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries condemned Chopin's frank treatment of such then-taboo subjects as female sexuality, adultery, and miscegenation, since the 1950s serious critical attention has been focused on analysis essay her pioneering use of psychological realism, symbolic imagery, and sensual themes. While their psychological examinations of porfolio essays, female protagonists have made Chopin's short stories formative works in document the historical development of feminist literature, they also provide a broad discussion of a society that denied the value of sensuality and female independence.
Once considered merely an author of local color fiction, critics contend that she explored universal thematic concerns in her novels, short stories, and essays. Commentators have noted her influence on later feminist writing and person essay, consider her a major American short story writer. Access our Kate Chopin Study Guide for Free. A Night in Acadie 1897. The Complete Works of Kate Chopin. 2 vols. (novels, short stories, poetry, and essays) 1969. Kate Chopin: The Awakening, and Other Stories (novel and short stories) 1970. The Storm, and Other Stories, with The Awakening (short stories and novel) 1974. The Awakening, and Selected Short Stories of Kate Chopin (novel and short stories) 1976. A Vocation and a Voice 1991. Matter of historical document analysis essay, Prejudice Other Stories 1992.
A Pair of Silk Stockings and Other Stories 1996. At Fault (novel) 1890. The Awakening (novel) 1899. A Kate Chopin Miscellany (letters, essays, diary entries) 1979. Kate Chopin's Private Papers (memoirs) 1998. Emily Toth (essay date spring 1988) SOURCE: Toth, Emily. “Kate Chopin's New Orleans Years.” New Orleans Review 15, no. 1 (spring 1988): 53-60. [ In the following essay, Toth explicates biographical aspects of Chopin's stories set in New Orleans. ] “N. Orleans I liked immensely; it is so clean—so white and green. Although in April, we had profusions of inspirational, flowers—strawberries and historical, even black berries,” Kate O'Flaherty of St.
Louis wrote in her diary for May 8, 1869. 1. She had just returned from a two-month trip with her mother, cousin and inspirational person, friends—her first long venture from home. Exactly thirteen months later, Kate O'Flaherty would be marrying Oscar Chopin of Louisiana and. (The entire section is 5693 words.) Get Free Access to historical document analysis essay, this Kate Chopin Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on printing terminology the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Roslyn Reso Foy (essay date summer 1991) SOURCE: Foy, Roslyn Reso. Essay? “Chopin's ‘Desiree's Baby’.” The Explicator 49, no. 4 (summer 1991): 222-23.
[ In the following essay, Foy asserts that “Desiree's Baby” is an exploration of the dark side of the a page essay, protagonist's personality. Analysis? ] In Kate Chopin's “Desiree's Baby,” Armand's ruthlessness is more psychologically complicated than it appears on first reading. His cruelty toward the porfolio essays, slaves, and ultimately toward his wife and child, is not simply a product of nineteenth-century racism. The story transcends its social implications to explore the dark side of personality. Armand is a man who must deal with a demanding social climate. (The entire section is 591 words.)
Get Free Access to this Kate Chopin Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Blythe, Anne M. Essay? “Kate Chopin's ‘Charlie’.” In Kate Chopin Reconsidered: Beyond the printing, Bayou, edited by Lynda S. Boren and Sara deSaussure Davis, pp. 207-15. Historical Document Essay? Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992. [ In the following essay, Blythe counters the prevailing Freudian interpretation of “Charlie” and critical on my last duchess, asserts that it “be read as an exceptionally strong and forthright story of the growth into womanhood of a young girl of unusually fine qualities and potential.” ] Kate Chopin's story “Charlie”—written in 1900, the document essay, year following the publication of person, The Awakening, but not published until 1969—has been almost completely neglected by. (The entire section is 3840 words.)
SOURCE: Ellis, Nancy S. “Insistent Refrains and Self-Discovery: Accompanied Awakenings in Three Stories by Kate Chopin.” In Kate Chopin Reconsidered: Beyond the essay, Bayou, edited by Lynda S. Boren and Sara deSaussure Davis, pp. 216-29. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1992. [ In the a page of my essay, following essay, Ellis delineates the role of historical analysis essay, music in porfolio essays “After the historical analysis essay, Winter,” “At Cheniere Caminada,” and “A Vocation and a Voice.” ] In The Awakening, Mlle. Critical Essays Duchess? Reisz's piano music triggers Edna Pontellier's first emotional arousing: “The very first chords … sent a keen tremor down Mrs. Pontellier's spinal column. Historical Essay? It was not the first time she had heard an artist at. (The entire section is 5560 words.) Sylvia Bailey Shurbutt (essay date spring 1993) SOURCE: Shurbutt, Sylvia Bailey. “The Can River Characters and Revisionist Mythmaking in the Work of Kate Chopin.” The Southern Literary Journal 25, no. 2 (spring 1993): 14-23.
[ In the porfolio essays, following essay, Shurbutt maintains that in historical document essay her fiction Chopin “revises accepted myths about duty, marriage, and paper apa, sexuality in order to achieve a more realistic understanding of the human condition.” ] One of the threads weaving its way through the writing of women from historical analysis, Amelia Lanier to Virginia Woolf is the attempt to recast into a more palatable form traditional Western myth with its patriarchial point of view—a point of view which molds our realities, fixes our values, and. (The entire section is a page essay, 4234 words.) SOURCE: Cutter, Martha J. “Losing the Battle but Winning the War: Resistance to Patriarchal Discourse in Kate Chopin's Short Fiction.” Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers 11, no. Historical Document Analysis? 1 (1994): 17-36. [ In the following essay, Cutter traces the printing, development of historical document, Chopin's resistance to causes of sleep deprivation, patriarchal authority as evinced in document essay her short fiction. Diary? ] In “‘A Language Which Nobody Understood’: Emancipatory Strategies in historical document The Awakening, ” Patricia S. Yaeger argues that The Awakening describes “a frightening antagonism between a feminine subject and the objectifying world of discourse she inhabits” (211). 1 This antagonistic relationship also is. (The entire section is 10079 words.) Suzanne D. Green (essay date fall-winter 1994)
SOURCE: Green, Suzanne D. “Fear, Freedom, and last, the Perils of Ethnicity: Otherness in historical Kate Chopin's ‘Beyond the Bayou’ and Zora Neale Hurston's ‘Sweat’.” Southern Studies 5, nos. Porfolio Essays? 3-4 (fall-winter 1994): 105-24. [ In the following essay, Green finds parallels in the portrayal of marginalized women in “Beyond the Bayou” and Zora Neale Hurston's “Sweat.” ] In the short fiction of analysis, Kate Chopin and Zora Neale Hurston, we often see women—particularly women of a page essay, color—portrayed as a microcosm of society in which we are to view them not only as individuals, but as symbolic representations of the universal problems that women face. Within the microcosm that. (The entire section is 9170 words.) Sandra Gunning (essay date autumn 1995) SOURCE: Gunning, Sandra. “Kate Chopin's Local Color Fiction and the Politics of historical analysis, White Supremacy.” Arizona Quarterly 52, no.
3 (autumn 1995): 61-86. [ In the following essay, Gunning examines issues of class, race, ethnicity, sexuality, and male aggression in “In Sabine,” “La Belle Zoraide,” and essay, “A No-Account Creole.” ] In Kate Chopin's 1894 local color story “A No-Account Creole,” Euphrasie Manton charts a course to economic and romantic happiness with Wallace Offdean, the New Orleans businessman whose company holds the mortgage on a local plantation in historical document analysis Manton's native Natchitoches parish. But while Chopin seemed to have originally conceived her. (The entire section is 10111 words.) Lawrence I. Berkove (essay date 1996) SOURCE: Berkove, Lawrence I. “‘Acting Like Fools’: The Ill-Fated Romances of for research paper apa, ‘At the 'Cadian Ball’ and ‘The Storm’.” In Critical Essays on historical analysis Kate Chopin, edited by Alice Hall Petry, pp. 184-96. Paper? New York: G. Document Analysis? K. Hall Co., 1996.
[ In the printing paper, following essay, Berkove elucidates Chopin's attitude toward adultery and morality as evinced through her stories “At the analysis essay, 'Cadian Ball” and “The Storm.” ] Since its long-delayed publication in and effects deprivation essays 1969, “The Storm” has generally been read as Kate Chopin's protest at the narrow and analysis essay, unnatural morality of turn-of-the-century America. The story's startling last sentence in particular has been taken to be her boldly. (The entire section is a page essay, 6472 words.) Heather Kirk Thomas (essay date 1996) SOURCE: Thomas, Heather Kirk. Document Essay? “‘The House of Sylvie’ in Kate Chopin's ‘Athenaise’.” In Critical Essays on for research paper Kate Chopin, edited by Alice Hall Petry, pp.
207-17. New York: G. Historical Essay? K. Hall Co., 1996. [ In the abstract paper, following essay, Thomas explores Sylvie's narrative function in “Athenaise.” ] The imagination that produces work which bears and invites rereadings, which motions to historical document analysis essay, future readings as well as contemporary ones, implies a shareable world and an endlessly flexible language. —Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark 1. Per Seyersted, perhaps Kate Chopin's most.
(The entire section is on my last duchess, 5449 words.) Elizabeth Ann Wolf (essay date winter-spring 1997) SOURCE: Wolf, Elizabeth Ann. “The Politics of Rhetorical Strategy: Kate Chopin's ‘La Belle Zoraide’.” Southern Studies 8, nos. 1 2 (winter-spring 1997): 43-51. [ In the following essay, Wolf contends that Chopin's indirect rhetorical strategy functions to attack prevailing myths of racial superiority and historical document analysis essay, Southern womanhood in “La Belle Zoraide.” ] The large body of Kate Chopin's fiction was written in the 1890s, during a critical transition in the history of the social and causes of sleep deprivation essays, legal classification of Creole identity in Louisiana 1 . This point does not assume its full significance, however, until it is considered in the context of essay, Louisiana's. (The entire section is 3179 words.) Pearl L. Brown (essay date March 1999) SOURCE: Brown, Pearl L. “Awakened Men in Kate Chopin's Creole Stories.” American Transcendental Quarterly 13, no. 1 (March 1999): 69-82.
[ In the following essay, Brown discusses Chopin's depiction of men who experience liberation from cultural restrictions in their relationships with women. ] Much has been written about Kate Chopin's defiant women. Not only Edna Pontellier, the rebellious heroine in The Awakening, but also the independent-minded women in her Creole stories have received extensive commentary. However, very little has been written about Chopin's defiant men, some of whom have experiences that parallel those of the women. Just as a woman in an. (The entire section is 6045 words.) Lawrence I. Diary Essay? Berkove (essay date winter 2000) SOURCE: Berkove, Lawrence I. “Fatal Self-Assertion in Kate Chopin's ‘The Story of an Hour’.” American Literary Realism 32, no. 2 (winter 2000): 152-58. [ In the following essay, Berkove views the character of Louise Mallard in historical essay “The Story of an Hour” as “an immature egotist and a victim of her own extreme self-assertion.” ] Kate Chopin's thousand-word short story, “The Story of an paper, Hour,” has understandably become a favorite selection for collections of historical document analysis, short stories as well as for paper terminology anthologies of American literature.
Few other stories say so much in so few words. Historical Analysis? There has been, moreover, virtual critical agreement on what the story says: its heroine. (The entire section is 3262 words.) John A. Staunton (essay date autumn 2000) SOURCE: Staunton, John A. “Kate Chopin's ‘One Story’: Casting a Shadowy Glance on the Ethics of Regionalism.” Studies in for research American Fiction 28, no.
2 (autumn 2000): 203-34. [ In the following essay, Staunton considers Chopin's attitude toward regionalism and local color fiction and discusses her short fiction as regionalist writing. ] In Kate Chopin's first two critical essays, both written in 1894, the same year her first collection of short fiction, Bayou Folk, was published, the St. Historical Analysis Essay? Louis-born writer—who was best known for her Louisiana fictions—demonstrates the porfolio essays, ambivalence with which many nineteenth-century American authors approached terms like. (The entire section is 13863 words.) Andrew Crosland (essay date winter 2001) SOURCE: Crosland, Andrew. “Kate Chopin's ‘Lilacs’ and the Myth of document analysis, Persephone.” ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews 14, no.
1 (winter 2001): 31-4. [ In the following essay, Crosland explores Chopin's use of the Persephone myth in her story “Lilacs.” ] The myth of Persephone provides a framework for Kate Chopin's 1894 story “Lilacs,” a tale of ambiguous good and evil subtly defined through mythological allusion. Chopin's use of myth in her other writing, the prominence of mythology in the literary magazines of her day, her familiarity with authors who employed it, and evidence in the story itself all argue for paper terminology her reliance on it. (The entire section is 1678 words.) Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock (essay date spring 2002) SOURCE: Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. “In Possession of the Letter: Kate Chopin's ‘Her Letters’.” Studies in essay American Fiction 30, no. 1 (spring 2002): 45-62. [ In the following essay, Weinstock contrasts the treatment of female sexuality in for research paper Chopin's “Her Letters” and The Awakening.] The scandal surrounding the publication of historical document analysis essay, Kate Chopin's 1899 The Awakening tarnished its author's reputation and “effectively removed the inspirational person, novel from wide circulation and influence for fifty years following its publication.” 1 The book was derided by Chopin's contemporaries as “trite and sordid,” 2 and the behavior of its heroine, Edna Pontellier. (The entire section is 7681 words.)
Beer, Janet. Document Analysis? “‘Dah you Is, Settin' Down, Lookin' Jis' Like W'ite Folks!’: Ethnicity Enacted in Kate Chopin's Short Fiction.” In Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 24-39. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1997. Attempts to porfolio essays, demonstrate that “Chopin's Louisiana is a post-colonial rather than an American post-bellum society. Document Analysis? …” Boren, Lynda S. and Sara deSaussure Davis, eds. Kate Chopin Reconsidered: Beyond the Bayou, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992, 248 p. Collection of essays on Chopin's novels and short stories. . (The entire section is 431 words.)
Kate Chopin Homework Help Questions. In The Story of an Hour, exposition provides us with the characters, the setting, the narrative frame, but its main purpose is to lead the paper, reader away from the evolution in Mrs. Analysis Essay? Mallard. When. Beyond the Bayou by Kate Chopin features a black woman called Jacqueline, but who is known as La Folle (Crazy Woman in French) because of the way that she has drawn an imaginary line through. Many of abstract paper apa, Kate Chopin's short stories deal with the experiences of women in a culture dominated by historical men. So it is with this story. A young woman, Nattie, is intent on making a match for herself with. The theme of Ripe Figs is that human maturity is related to the seasons of the year, a process that cannot be hastened. In Kate Chopin's story, the young character Babette wants to go to Bayou.
Settings play a key role in porfolio essays establishing the characters of this terrific short story all about the way that a woman is able to manipulate her way into a wealthy marriage, in historical essay spite of an incident. Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Kate Chopin, Stephen Crane, Sherwood Anderson, Herman Melville, Jack London, Edgar Allan Poe, O. Henry, Bret Harte.
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David Mamet Mamet, David (Vol. 166) - Essay. (Full name David Alan Mamet) American playwright, screenwriter, director, essayist, novelist, and poet. The following entry presents an overview of Mamet's career through 2001. For further information on his life and works, see CLC, Volumes 9, 15, 34, 46, and document essay, 91. Best known for causes and effects of sleep deprivation essays his plays and screenplays, particularly for efforts such as American Buffalo (1975), Glengarry Glen Ross (1983), and the film The Untouchables (1987), Mamet's works typically address power struggles and issues of dominance involving characters who use language to protect themselves and to advance their personal agendas.
In addition to his many award-winning plays, screenplays, and essays, Mamet has also written novels, children's books, television scripts, and historical, poetry, and paper apa, has developed a reputation as an accomplished stage and film director. His creations for the stage and screen are noted for their unique use of historical essay dialogue which appropriates the vernacular and mimics the jargon of specific occupations and social groups. Mamet was born in Chicago and raised in and effects of sleep essays, a Jewish community on historical document analysis the city's south side. Inspirational Essay. After his parents divorced, he lived with his mother in document, Olympia Fields, a Chicago suburb. Printing Paper Terminology. He attended a private school and worked at the Hull House Theatre. At Goddard College in Vermont, Mamet studied literature and drama. He also studied acting in historical, New York City, where he worked with noted dramatist Sanford Meisner. Meisner exposed Mamet to person essay the ideas of historical analysis Konstantin Stanislavsky, a Russian producer and dramatist, who remains a major influence on Mamet's work. Mamet taught for one year at Marlboro College in Vermont, where he wrote his first play, Lakeboat (1970), which his students eventually staged. After working at a variety of inspirational person jobs, Mamet returned to Goddard as a drama instructor, where he wrote an early version of Sexual Perversity in Chicago (1974).
In 1972 Mamet returned to Chicago and formed the St. Nicholas Company with actor William H. Historical Analysis. Macy. During the causes of sleep essays, 1970s, several of Mamet's plays—including Duck Variations (1972), Sexual Perversity, and American Buffalo —enjoyed successful and critically acclaimed productions in New York City. American Buffalo and historical document analysis essay, Sexual Perversity each won an Obie award for distinguished playwriting. In 1977 Mamet and porfolio essays, actress Lindsay Crouse married, divorcing later in 1991. That same year Mamet married Scottish actress Rebecca Pidgeon. Mamet wrote his first screenplay in 1979, a film adaptation of the James Cain novel The Postman Always Rings Twice.
Throughout the 1980s, Mamet wrote and document analysis essay, directed numerous films and plays. He won the Pulitzer Prize for drama and the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award in 1984 for Glengarry Glen Ross, which was originally produced in London in 1983. Mamet has lectured and taught at several universities and colleges, including the essay, University of Chicago, Yale University, New York University, and Columbia University. Historical. Mamet's work is often compared to that of English playwright Harold Pinter and person essay, Irish playwright Samuel Beckett. One of the few major American playwrights to also find success as a screenwriter, Mamet was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1994. Lakeboat revolves around an document analysis, Ivy League college student, Dale, who spends his summer working on a freighter in a page of my essay, the Great Lakes.
Expecting a thrilling experience filled with adventures, Dale is initially disappointed at the mundanity of historical essay daily life on the ship. Deprivation. However, as Dale befriends the various crew members—who each wrestle with their own issues of identity, regret, and sorrow—he learns more about himself and the world than he expected. The one-act Sexual Perversity in essay, Chicago focuses on two young characters, Danny and Debbie, who are both involved in same-sex relationships. The two meet and begin to causes deprivation forge a relationship of their own, but Danny's loud-mouthed misogynist friend Bernie, and Debbie's former partner Joan, manage to destroy the burgeoning relationship through emotional manipulation and meddling. The two-act play American Buffalo takes place in a secondhand junk store and revolves around three characters. Document Analysis Essay. The store's owner Donny and his employee Bobby conspire to rob one of the shop's customers with the unwelcomed assistance of printing paper terminology one of Donny's friends, Teach. Teach immediately questions Bobby's competence, which increases Donny's suspicion of Teach. The struggle for dominance and the distrust that occurs between the characters, coupled with a key misunderstanding, eventually erupts into physical violence. The Postman Always Rings Twice, Mamet's first effort as screenwriter, concerns a wayward drifter's romance with the historical analysis essay, wife of critical on my last a cafe owner. His next screenplay—for the document essay, 1982 film The Verdict —was based on a Barry Reed novel and terminology, centers on a downtrodden, alcoholic lawyer who battles injustice within the judicial system to win a malpractice lawsuit for a woman who suffered brain damage during childbirth. Glengarry Glen Ross, one of Mamet's most acclaimed works, is a satirical portrayal of analysis essay four Florida real estate agents in competition to become their company's top salesperson while they victimize their unsuspecting customers along the way.
Although Mamet portrays the agents as unethical and amoral, he shows respect for printing their finesse and sympathizes with their overly competitive way of life. Mamet's trademark dialogue—including staccato, interrupted utterances and a wealth of profanity—effectively conveys hidden meanings and is a constant presence throughout the drama. For the 1987 film The Untouchables, Mamet borrowed from the popular radio and document essay, television series about famed U.S. Treasury agent Eliot Ness, to create a storyline that follows Ness's fight to uphold Prohibition law and his legal battles with gangster Al Capone. House of Games (1987), Mamet's debut as a film director, explores the character of Margaret Ford, a psychiatrist, who becomes involved and causes essays, later obsessed with a group of poker-playing con men operating out of a bar called the House of document analysis Games. Things Change, a 1988 film that Mamet co-wrote with Shel Silverstein, portrays an elderly man named Gino who is a page diary, charged with murder when he is mistaken for historical essay a powerful gangster. A satire of the Hollywood film industry, the play Speed-the-Plow (1988) centers on a Hollywood producer, Bobby Gould, and his secretary, Karen. Karen is having an affair with Bobby and persuades him to produce a film adaptation of porfolio essays a literary work instead of historical document analysis essay a big-budget, crowd-pleasing Hollywood movie. Mamet's 1991 film Homicide features a Jewish detective named Bobby Gold who becomes involved in a drug arrest where friction develops between the city police force and federal authorities.
During the inspirational essay, course of the historical analysis essay, film, Bobby strives to accept his Jewish heritage, becoming part of an underground Jewish organization that uses terrorism to root out society's racist elements. Oleanna (1992) explores a female student's sexual harassment suit against her male professor and analyzes relationships of of sleep power and gender in document analysis, the world of academia. The balance of power—both real and perceived—shifts from character to character, culminating in causes and effects of sleep deprivation essays, a shockingly violent physical act. Mamet's screenplay for Hoffa (1992) focuses on the life of document analysis essay teamster union leader Jimmy Hoffa. The film provides an overview of essays last Hoffa's career and offers an alternative explanation for Hoffa's unsolved disappearance in 1975. Set in the 1950s, the Obie award-winning The Cryptogram (1994) depicts a month in the lives of a precocious ten-year-old name John, his mother Donny, his father Robert, and a family friend named Del. The play opens with John unable to fall asleep, too excited about an impending camping trip with his father. It is soon revealed that Robert, who never appears onstage, has abandoned his wife and child, and that Del has assisted in his deceptions. Struggling with the emotional consequences of Robert's departure and the nature of document their own friendship, Del and Donny are unable or unwilling to meet John's most basic needs.
In the 1997 screenplay The Edge, Charles Morse, an accomplished billionaire, finds himself stranded in paper terminology, the Alaskan wilderness with Robert Green, a fashion photographer who may be having an affair with Charles's wife. Despite their suspicions about each other, the two men are forced to rely on each other when they are attacked by a large grizzly bear. Another 1997 work, Wag the Dog, is based on Larry Beinhart's novel American Hero, which follows a presidential adviser and a Hollywood producer who join forces to manufacture a cover-up for a presidential scandal. Mamet's script was noted for its timely exploration of the power of the media, particularly because the document analysis essay, film was released just before several political scandals were exposed within the critical, administration of U.S. Historical Document. President Bill Clinton. Mamet returned to directing with The Spanish Prisoner (1997), a film that revolves around a man named Joe who develops a mysterious formula that promises to make his company millions.
Fretful about gaining adequate compensation for the formula, Joe befriends a mysterious comrade, Jimmy, who takes advantage of Joe's gullibility. In 1999 Mamet wrote and directed The Winslow Boy, a pre-World War I period drama based on Terence Rattigan's 1946 play. Causes And Effects. The plot centers around a deceitful boy who is expelled from military school for stealing and his father's unrelenting attempts to essay clear the boy's name. In 2002 Mamet wrote and directed State and person, Main (2000), a satire about Hollywood, film crews, and document essay, movie industry insiders. The film focuses on a temperamental producer who attempts to make a film in a small town and is forced to cope with a variety of problems—his leading actor has a penchant for teenage girls, his leading actress objects to the nude scenes she earlier agreed to do, and his talented new screenwriter has difficulties adjusting to Hollywood's version of the creative process. Heist (2001) portrays Joe Moore, an aging master thief who is reluctantly drawn into one final, masterful robbery involving large amounts of inspirational essay gold bars.
Mamet has also written several essay collections which address a variety of document analysis essay topics including Mamet's Jewish heritage, the on my last duchess, future of film, and essay, the Information Age. He has also published a number of nonfiction works in on my duchess, which he includes lectures on filmmaking techniques and analysis essay, his opinions about the Stanislavsky method of acting. In addition, Mamet has written several novels, children's books, and a collection of poetry. Critical response to Mamet's unique use of dialogue, vernacular, and jargon has widely varied. Many critics, notably C. W. E. Bigsby and Anne Dean, have drawn attention to Mamet's use of of my diary essay language to create dramatic conflict and his skill at reproducing the speech patterns of various social groups. Other critics have strenuously objected to this technique, stating that such vernacular lends a stilted, unrealistic quality to his works.
Some commentators have argued that Mamet's severely fragmented and historical document analysis essay, interrupted dialogue is too formal and unnatural, becoming almost incomprehensible at times. However, supporters of Mamet's language devices have described his characters and and effects deprivation essays, their dialogue as eloquent and believable. A number of reviewers have additionally bemoaned Mamet's overabundance of characters who are con men, hustlers, criminals, and connivers operating in competitive and historical document essay, male-dominated environments. These critics have commented that Mamet's focus on complex games, aggressive and selfish characters, duplicitous relationships, and male camaraderie and machismo causes his work to rely too heavily on generalizations about gender and class. Feminist critics have argued that Mamet's male characters display blatant chauvinism and homophobia, and have lamented the porfolio essays, strange absence of female characters in his works, citing these as evidence of his questionable perceptions about men and women. The critical reaction to Oleanna has epitomized this debate—with one faction of critics censuring Mamet for what they perceive to historical analysis essay be a gross simplification of of my diary essay gender relations and harassment suits, while the other faction defends the play as an important and complex statement about the abuse of power in document analysis, academic circles. In general, most critics have agreed that Mamet writes engaging and porfolio essays, complex narratives, praising his ability to historical document analysis essay successfully write for a variety of diary genres. Many reviewers have asserted that Mamet is a worthy successor to such noted American playwrights as Henry Miller, Tennessee Williams, and Eugene O'Neill. Access our David Mamet Study Guide for Free. Lakeboat (play) 1970. Duck Variations (play) 1972.
* Sexual Perversity in Chicago (play) 1974. American Buffalo (play) 1975. A Life in the Theater (play) 1977. The Water Engine (play) 1977. The Woods (play) 1977. A Life in the Theater (television screenplay) 1979. The Postman Always Rings Twice (screenplay) 1981. Edmond (play) 1982. The Verdict (screenplay) 1982. Glengarry Glen Ross (play) 1983. House of Games [director and.
(The entire section is 276 words.) Get Free Access to document analysis this David Mamet Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to last ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.
Download our handy iOS app for document analysis free. Leo Sauvage (review date 13 June 1988) SOURCE: Sauvage, Leo. Porfolio Essays. “Mamet's Unreal Hollywood.” New Leader 121, no. 10 (13 June 1988): 20-1. [ In the following review, Sauvage contends that Speed-the-Plow displays good acting and directorship, but is a stagnant commentary on the Hollywood film industry. ] The new David Mamet play that opened recently at the Royale Theater is historical analysis essay, called Speed-the-Plow, apparently after an old form of farewell once used among farmers. This seems apt, given the for research, author's fondness for spreading stercoreaceous metaphors around like manure.
Yet we are probably meant to understand the title as applying to the field of sex rather than agriculture. (The entire section is 1605 words.) Get Free Access to this David Mamet Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. David Van Leer (review date 29 October 1990) SOURCE: Van Leer, David. Document Essay. “Speed-the-Brow.” New Republic 28, no. 1 (29 October 1990): 32-6. [ In the following review, Van Leer discusses many of Mamet's works that were produced from the mid-1970s to 1988. ] In the past fifteen years David Mamet has established himself as one of our most powerful playwrights best known for a page diary Sexual Perversity in Chicago, American Buffalo, Glengarry Glen Ross, and Speed-the-Plow, he is praised for the contemporaneity of his deadbeat settings and characters, for the honesty of his gritty dialogue, for the intensity of his moral vision. Not simply a chronicler of analysis modern life, Mamet is a prophet decrying the. (The entire section is 3508 words.)
Stanley Kauffmann (review date 28 October 1991) SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. “Crimes and Various Criminals.” New Republic 205, no. 18 (28 October 1991): 26-7. [ In the following excerpt, Kauffmann negatively assesses the film Homicide.] Up to now David Mamet has usually been very sure about where he stood in relation to realism. In plays like American Buffalo and for research, Glengarry Glen Ross, he intensified realism past naturalism to the point of abstraction.
In a play like The Water Engine or a screenplay like House of Games, he began with a species of document analysis essay abstraction and used realism as underpinning. But his second screenplay, Things Change, seemed less secure vis-a-vis realism. His third. (The entire section is a page, 980 words.) Richard Combs (review date November 1991) SOURCE: Combs, Richard. “Framing Mamet.” Sight and Sound 1, no. 7 (November 1991): 16-17.
[ In the following review, Combs examines Homicide and historical essay, House of inspirational essay Games, focusing particularly on Mamet's theater background and its influence on his cinematic approach. ] The plot of historical document analysis essay Homicide hinges on person a word. But between the historical analysis, beginning and porfolio essays, the end of the film the word changes. ‘GROFAZ’ is a clue that police officer Bobby Gold finds on analysis a strip of paper while prowling a rooftop in printing, search of document analysis a sniper. Or at least there might have been a sniper, and a page, he might have been taking shots at a Jewish family, one of whom, an old woman who ran a corner store in a poor. (The entire section is 2599 words.) J. Essay. Hoberman (review date November 1991) SOURCE: Hoberman, J. Review of Homicide, by David Mamet.
Sight and last, Sound 1, no. 7 (November 1991): 15-16. [ In the document essay, following review, Hoberman focuses on the portrayal of for research paper tensions between Jews and African Americans in Homicide.] With the unselfconscious absorption of someone working something out for himself, David Mamet has concocted an historical document, urban policier that has a deracinated Jewish detective searching for his identity in a grim world of tribal violence. Homicide ostensibly pits Jews against blacks and Jews against neo-Nazis, but its underlying vision is causes of sleep, that of Jews against the world. Mamet is a master of unpleasantness, but his latest is awful in a. (The entire section is 1432 words.) SOURCE: Brewer, Gay. “Studied Simplicity: David Mamet's On Directing Film. ” Literature Film Quarterly 20, no. 2 (1992): 167-68. [ In the following review, Brewer favorably assesses On Directing Film, contending that it provides insights on Mamet's filmmaking approach. ] David Mamet has never wanted for confidence.
With workmanlike application of his talent, he has succeeded as playwright, but also as poet, screenwriter, and filmmaker. On Directing Film consists of historical analysis essay revised lectures from a course Mamet taught at Columbia University. The preface apologizes for his scant experience behind the camera, only two films: “… I was the most dangerous. (The entire section is 1132 words.) Stanley Kauffmann (review date 26 October 1992)
SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. “Deaths of Salesmen.” New Republic 207, no. 18 (26 October 1992): 30-1. [ In the following review of Glengarry Glen Ross, Kauffmann studies the structural differences between the film version and the original play. ] David Mamet wrote the screenplay of Glengarry Glen Ross, and the difference from his original play underscores one of his attributes: his sensitivity to form. It clearly wasn't enough for him to terminology do the usual rotisserie slicing of a play for film serving, cutting it up and rearranging it differently on the platter, with a garnish of material that was only document analysis essay described in the play and can now be shown. Mamet obviously. (The entire section is 1325 words.) Elaine Showalter (review date 6 November 1992) SOURCE: Showalter, Elaine. Person. “Acts of Violence.” Times Literary Supplement, no. 4675 (6 November 1992): 16-17. [ In the following review, Showalter contends that Mamet fails to objectively address harassment in Oleanna.] By all counts, this should be a championship season for the playwright David Mamet.
The movie version of his Pulitzer Prize-winning play, Glengarry Glen Ross, opened to rave reviews and a prediction of an Oscar for historical document analysis Jack Lemmon; there's great anticipation of another movie, Hoffa, for critical essays last duchess which he wrote the screenplay, and historical, which is porfolio essays, expected to garner more Oscar nominations for document analysis its star, Jack Nicholson; his latest book of causes deprivation essays, The. (The entire section is 2753 words.) Stefan Kanfer (review date 14-18 December 1992) SOURCE: Kanfer, Stefan. “Problems of historical document analysis essay Craft.” New Leader 125, no. Abstract For Research. 16 (14-18 December 1992): 26-7. [ In the document, following review, Kanfer asserts that Oleanna is “inconsistent” and possesses a “confused purpose.” ] Hero is the surprising word that men employ when they speak of Jack the Ripper. Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will. Women have very little idea of how much men hate them. Germaine Greer, The Female Eunuch. Decently married bedrooms across America are the.
(The entire section is 1110 words.) Eva Resnikova (review date 18 January 1993) SOURCE: Resnikova, Eva. “Fool's Paradox.” National Review 95, no. 1 (18 January 1993): 54-6. [ In the following review, Resnikova writes that Mamet has merely presented “his theory of sexual anger” in Oleanna.] David Mamet's latest play, Oleanna (the infelicitous title refers to a fool's paradise), now at the Orpheum Theater, has been touted in several quarters as a response to the issues raised in last year's Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill hearings. But the connection turns out to be spurious: not only did the real-life hearings make for more gripping theater than Mamet's gerrymandered play, but Oleanna is not even primarily about sexual harassment. (The entire section is 1052 words.) Murray Kempton (review date 11 February 1993)
SOURCE: Kempton, Murray. “The Jumper.” New York Review of Books 90, no. 4 (11 February 1993): 31. [ In the following review, Kempton criticizes Hoffa 's portrayal of Teamsters' union leader Jimmy Hoffa. ] Danny De Vito's Hoffa is artfully constructed, masterfully played, and travels at speeds beyond the prescriptive norm. It weaves back and forth across the porfolio essays, dividing line between truth and myth with the controlled recklessness of an over-the-road trucker making up time by breaching the peace of mind of drivers slower than himself. Jack Nicholson's Jimmy Hoffa is magnificent, but it is historical document analysis, not Jimmy Hoffa. Printing Paper. Nicholson has caught and occasionally even come close. (The entire section is 1731 words.) David Skeele (essay date December 1993) SOURCE: Skeele, David. “The Devil and David Mamet: Sexual Perversity in Chicago as Homiletic Tragedy.” Modern Drama 36, no.
4 (December 1993): 512-18. [ In the historical analysis, following essay, Skeele discusses how Mamet's early works mimic medieval morality plays, especially Sexual Perversity in Chicago.] It has frequently been noted that David Mamet is a moralist, a keen social critic who uses the groping inarticulations and dizzying verbal constructions of of my diary his characters to form a chorus of complaint against the spiritual emptiness at the core of America. What has less frequently been noted is that Mamet is sometimes very nearly a medieval moralist, using themes. (The entire section is 3211 words.)
Jim McCue (review date 15 July 1994) SOURCE: McCue, Jim. Analysis Essay. “Will Somebody Please Tell Him?” Times Literary Supplement, no. 4763 (15 July 1994): 21. [ In the causes and effects deprivation, following review of A Whore's Profession, McCue summarizes several key points of the collection and then pans The Cryptogram for historical what he judges to be wandering, fragmentary dialogue. ] David Mamet is forthright with opinions, so it is fair to use his collected “Notes and essays” as a bundle of paper sticks with which to beat his new play at historical essay the Ambassadors Theatre. A Whore's Profession, recently published by Faber, includes many prescriptions for drama on the stage and in film, emphasizing always advancement of the action.
But any. (The entire section is 1029 words.) David Worster (essay date fall 1994) SOURCE: Worster, David. “How to Do Things with Salesmen: David Mamet's Speech-Act Play.” Modern Drama 37, no. 3 (fall 1994): 375-90. [ In the following essay, Worster examines the characters in Glengarry Glen Ross, their discussions about critical essays, speech, and what their conversations reveal about their respective social status. ] Stanley Fish once called Coriolanus Shakespeare's speech-act play, because it is “about speech acts [and] the rules of document their performance. … It is a page of my essay, also about historical document essay, what the theory is critical on my last, about, language and its power.” 1 If Coriolanus is document analysis, Shakespeare's speech-act play, then Glengarry Glen Ross is David Mamet's, for. (The entire section is 7356 words.) Stanley Kauffmann (review date 21 November 1994)
SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. “Office Hours.” New Republic 211, no. Paper Apa. 21 (21 November 1994): 24-5. [ In the following review, Kauffmann assesses Oleanna, arguing that the film version is historical, only slightly better than the play. ] David Mamet dazzles. Here are a few selections from his crowded career (and he's not yet 50). Film: House of Games, which he wrote and directed; the screenplays of The Verdict and of Hoffa. Theater: The Water Engine, American Buffalo, Glengarry Glen Ross, The Shawl, Speed the printing paper terminology, Plow, a version of Uncle Vanya (now filmed, reviewed here two weeks ago). Historical Analysis. He has published books of porfolio essays essays. (The entire section is 1288 words.) SOURCE: Radavich, David. “Man among Men: David Mamet's Homosocial Order.” In Fictions of Masculinity: Crossing Cultures, Crossing Sexualities, edited by Peter F. Murphy, pp. Historical Document Analysis. 123-36.
New York: New York University Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Radavich examines Mamet's male characters in works such as Sexual Perversity in Chicago, Glengarry Glen Ross, American Buffalo, and others. Radavich asserts that many of Mamet's male characters portray a fear of inspirational both homosexuality and women. ] Apart from document analysis essay C. W. E. Bigsby's booklength study (1985), curiously little scholarly attention has been paid to the insistent masculinity of David Mamet's plays. Published in. (The entire section is inspirational person, 4623 words.) Leon Wieseltier (review date 24 April 1995) SOURCE: Wieseltier, Leon. “Machoball Soup.” New Republic 212, no. 17 (24 April 1995): 46. [ In the following review, Wieseltier compares Mamet's short novel Passover with his film Homicide.]
As a boy, I was pretty good with a knife. I carved wood, I cut line, I cleaned fish, I hurled my finely weighted, mother-of-pearl-handled pocketknife with cool accuracy, blade-first, usually in competition with the other nice Jewish boys who summered in the same hills and woods, and once with deadly accuracy, right between the historical, eyes of critical essays a copperhead snake that threatened a friend who was trapped on a rock in a brackish corner of essay Swan Lake. A Page Of My Essay. I was a local hero after that. (The entire section is 1215 words.) Ronald C. Wendling (review date 23 September 1995)
SOURCE: Wendling, Ronald C. Review of The Village, by historical analysis David Mamet. America 173, no. 8 (23 September 1995): 26-7. [ In the following review, Wendling comments favorably on The Village.] One impulse of our postmodern culture has been to place the grandest triumphs of spirit on a level with the inspirational person essay, banalities of analysis everyday life (for instance, a Michelangelo T-shirt). The effect is to porfolio essays defy modernist urges to glorify the past or to give art an ideality and historical document analysis essay, separateness that somehow debases the lives we live now. Inspirational Person Essay. This first novel by dramatist and historical analysis essay, screenwriter David Mamet, already a Pulitzer Prize-winner for Glengarry Glen Ross, avoids such simple iconoclasm. (The entire section is 752 words.) SOURCE: Bechtel, Roger. “P.C. Power Play: Language and Representation in David Mamet's Oleanna. ” Theatre Studies 41 (1996): 29-48.
[ In the following essay, Bechtel interprets Oleanna through the printing terminology, ideas of literary theorist Stanley Fish. Historical Document Essay. ] David Mamet is nothing if not provocative. Critics and scholars have long held. (The entire section is 8634 words.) Stanley Kauffmann (review date 16 September 1996) SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. “Shop Talk.” New Republic 215, nos. 12-13 (16 September 1996): 28-9.
[ In the following review, Kauffmann criticizes the casting choices for the film version of a page of my diary American Buffalo, but provides a positive assessment of the work overall. ] Obviously the one-set play with very few characters is document, not suitable for filming—except that, like so many obvious wisdoms, it's untrue. Precepts bend to talent. Stevie and The Caretaker and My Dinner with Andre, all made from small-scale theater works, are valuable films. Printing Paper Terminology. American Buffalo is another. David Mamet made the historical analysis essay, screen adaptation of his play. (The entire section is 1250 words.) SOURCE: Ryan, Stevan. “ Oleanna : David Mamet's Power Play.” Modern Drama 39, no.
3 (fall 1996): 392-403. [ In the paper, following essay, Ryan examines Mamet's intended messages about power relations, especially those found in academic settings as portrayed in Oleanna.] Although playwright David Mamet has stated that he began working on Oleanna before Anita Hill's testimony against Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas made sexual harassment in the workplace a topic of historical conversation in the early 1990s, there is no doubt that the play's timeliness was used to boost ticket sales. The play's promotional mailout, for example, announced that ticket buyers could. (The entire section is abstract for research paper, 5195 words.) Thomas H. Goggans (essay date winter 1997) SOURCE: Goggans, Thomas H. “Laying Blame: Gender and Subtext in David Mamet's Oleanna. ” Modern Drama 40, no. 4 (winter 1997): 433-41. [ In the following essay, Goggans asserts that protagonist Carol reveals consistent signs of child sexual abuse in Oleanna.] “The Bitch Set Him Up” —that's what Daniel Mufson thought the working title of Oleanna could have been, after he appraised the critical responses to document the play's 1992 New York production, adding that “one can expect few other reactions when Carol is such a viper.” 1 Mamet's presentation of the conflict between a professor and his female student is marked by ambiguous.
(The entire section is 3507 words.) Stanley Kauffmann (review date 27 October 1997) SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. Inspirational Essay. “Wait a While.” New Republic 217, no. 17 (27 October 1997): 26-7. [ In the following excerpt, Kauffmann comments on the predictability of The Edge.] This, as it turns out, is National Forbearance Week—anyway, I hope so. Three important artists have produced wavering work, and without blinking the historical document analysis essay, present facts, it's the moment for causes and effects those of us who value those artists to historical document analysis remember what they have done and to await what may come from them. David Mamet, a premier American dramatist, is essentially an urban writer. Most of his best plays— The Water Engine, American Buffalo, Glengarry Glen Ross, for. (The entire section is 495 words.)
Stefan Kanfer (review date 29 December 1997) SOURCE: Kanfer, Stefan. Abstract For Research Paper Apa. “Diverting Sorrows.” New Leader 80, no. 19 (29 December 1997): 35. [ In the following review, Kanfer provides a negative judgment of the three plays in The Old Neighborhood.] David Mamet has made a considerable reputation out of staccato and historical document analysis, scatology. When his characters are not strafing each other with threats, they saturate the diary, air with the language of the barracks and document analysis essay, the gutter. Often this has the effect of candid, vigorous expression—capturing the way people actually talk under pressure. Critical On My. Such was the case in full-length works like Speed the historical, Plow and Glengarry Glen Ross.
It is not the case in his latest effort. (The entire section is 663 words.) Juliet Fleming (review date 10 April 1998) SOURCE: Fleming, Juliet. “Now You're Talkin' Sense.” Times Literary Supplement, no. 1958 (10 April 1998): 19. [ In the following review, Fleming evaluates the porfolio essays, strengths and weaknesses of Wag the Dog and historical document, The Edge.] David Mamet's voluminous work exists in a variety of forms and relations.
Since 1970, he has written more than thirty full-length stage plays, from Duck Variations (1972), Sexual Perversity in inspirational person essay, Chicago (1974), American Buffalo (1975), to Glengarry Glen Ross (for which he won the 1984 Pulitzer Prize), Speed-the-Plow (1988) and historical document essay, Oleanna (1992). Other publications include three collections of dramatic sketches. (The entire section is a page of my, 1819 words.) Stanley Kauffmann (review date 27 April 1998) SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. “Trickery and analysis, Tradition.” New Republic 218, no. Abstract Paper Apa. 17 (27 April 1998): 26-7.
[ In the following review, Kauffmann comments on the role of trickery and deceit in The Spanish Prisoner, and analysis, bemoans the film's transformation from business drama to critical essays on my duchess crime thriller. ] Deception is a key theme in David Mamet. House of historical analysis essay Games, for instance, moves through a series of seeming truths to revelations that expose those truths as mere tricks. Life, Mamet frequently reminds us, may possibly not be worse than it seems, but certainly is different from what we think it at first. In the causes essays, new film that Mamet has written and directed. (The entire section is 678 words.) Raphael Shargel (review date 4-18 May 1998) SOURCE: Shargel, Raphael. Historical Document Analysis. “Fallen Innocents.” New Leader 131, no. 6 (4-18 May 1998): 20-1. [ In the following excerpt, Shargel praises the complex plot and enthralling nature of a page of my diary essay The Spanish Prisoner, lauding Mamet's use of analysis suspense and paper terminology, surprise. Document Analysis. ] David Mamet's favorite game is the high stakes con. In his best movies, a team of conspirators fleeces a privileged and gullible individual.
But while most examples of this generally lighthearted genre focus on the machinations of the sharpers, Mamet's much darker works put the causes, sucker at the center. His protagonists risk everything they hold dear—their financial resources, their integrity, their honor, even their. (The entire section is 842 words.) Bharat Tandon (review date 8 May 1998) SOURCE: Tandon, Bharat. Analysis Essay. “An Important Topic for a Novel.” Times Literary Supplement, no. 4962 (8 May 1998): 22. [ In the following review, Tandon asserts that The Old Religion is a departure for Mamet and critical essays last, comments on the novel's focus on meditative introspection, whereas he believes many other of Mamet's works rely heavily on external action and dialogue. ] In David Mamet's 1991 film Homicide, Bobby Gold (played by Joe Mantegna, a Mamet regular), an assimilated Jewish detective, visits a Jewish library to seek the meaning of what may be a murder clue: the word “GROFAZ” scrawled on historical analysis essay a scrap of paper.
And as he waits, he encounters another seeker after. (The entire section is 1992 words.) Kate Kellaway (review date 26 June 1998) SOURCE: Kellaway, Kate. “Thanks for the Memories.” New Statesman (26 June 1998): 49. [ In the following review, Kellaway praises the cast performances, the sets, and the writing in The Old Neighborhood, lauding the subtle, dark nature of the three plays. ] A little light shines on a brown case, which casts a shadow. The Old Neighborhood, a trio of plays by David Mamet now at the Royal Court, is last, about a man cut through at the roots. Bobby's relationships—even with family and old friends—are so insecure they cannot hold him for long.
His case waits on the stage like a warning. Bobby is played by essay Colin Stinton. It is impossible to believe that he is. (The entire section is 763 words.) David Mamet and Nick James (review date October 1998) SOURCE: Mamet, David, and Nick James. “Suspicion.” Sight and of my, Sound 8, no. 10 (October 1998): 23-4. [ In the following interview, Mamet and historical document analysis essay, James discuss the details of writing and shooting a script, and in particular the adaptation of the Terence Rattigan play The Winslow Boy for the screen. Causes Deprivation. ] In his 1991 book On Directing Film, David Mamet says that, “the work of the director is the work of constructing the shot list from the script. Historical Document. The work on the set is nothing.
All you have to do on the set is stay awake, follow your plans, help the actors be simple, and keep your sense of humour.” Sitting on a crate outside an printing paper terminology, Edwardian townhouse of document essay imposing. (The entire section is 2550 words.) John A. Price (review date winter 1999) SOURCE: Price, John A. Review of causes and effects of sleep True and analysis, False, by David Mamet. Journal of Popular Culture 33, no.
3 (winter 1999): 147-48. [ In the following review, Price outlines Mamet's main messages about acting in True and False.] In David Mamet's True and critical last duchess, False, the historical, Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright and Oscar-nominated screenwriter reveals the unique perspective of how a playwright views the rehearsal and performance aspects of critical essays last duchess a text. In this book, Mamet offers an alternative to analysis essay the standard “Method” acting approach. Without specifically addressing his own plays, Mamet's scalding criticism of Stanislavski and the American “Method” can. (The entire section is 659 words.) Howard Pearce (essay date June 1999) SOURCE: Pearce, Howard. “Plato in Hollywood: David Mamet and last duchess, the Power of Illusions.” Mosaic 32, no. 2 (June 1999): 141-56. [ In the essay, following essay, Pearce examines two female characters—one in inspirational essay, House of Games and another in Speed-the-Plow —analyzing their identities as artists and how other characters and historical analysis, audience members relate to them. ] As Aristotle long ago observed, mimesis is a two-way street: as much as humans take pleasure in seeing representations of themselves, so much are they disposed to imitate what they see. As Plato's dialogues suggest, however, dramatic characters can take different forms, just as there are different ways of.
(The entire section is 6777 words.) M. S. Mason (review date 18 June 1999) SOURCE: Mason, M. S. “‘Boston Marriage’: Barbs beneath Victorian Propriety.” Christian Science Monitor (18 June 1999): 20. [ In the following review, Mason comments favorably on the characters and dialogue in Boston Marriage.] Every new David Mamet play is a significant event. Boston Marriage is no different.
Its world premiere last week at the American Repertory Theatre here was often amusing and certainly sharp. The play does for diary essay hard-edged female characters what many of his others have done for hard-edged males—expose the document analysis essay, cruelty, venality, and predatory impulses in them. But unlike the causes and effects of sleep deprivation essays, men of Mr. Mamet's Glengarry Glen Ross . (The entire section is 678 words.) Martin Schaub (essay date fall 1999) SOURCE: Schaub, Martin. “Magic Meanings in Mamet's Cryptogram. ” Modern Drama 42, no. 3 (fall 1999): 326-37. [ In the following essay, Schaub examines the setting, the autobiographical elements, and the structure of The Cryptogram.] My premise is that things do mean things; that there is a way things are irrespective of the way we say things are, and if there isn't, we might as well act as if there were. “And that's how it is on this bitch of an earth.” 1. In one of his earlier essays, Mamet recalls what he thinks was a “magic moment” in theatre: “I thought: isn't it the truth: people are. (The entire section is 4901 words.)
Juliet Fleming (review date 18 February 2000) SOURCE: Fleming, Juliet. “Footnotes on historical essay Mars.” Times Literary Supplement, no. 5055 (18 February 2000): 22. [ In the following review, Fleming summarizes the stylistic elements of Wilson.] The most arresting thing about David Mamet's new novel [ Wilson ] is its dust jacket. The front cover (reproduced here) displays the trompe l'oeil effect, complete with coffee stains, of a pile of comics—all without year-dates, but each in essays, the unlocatably “dated” style of comic art.
The magazine on top, Bongazine, shows its price (“Still only 4c. Slightly higher on Mars”) and features, against analysis essay, a background of spinning planets and imploding stars, an. (The entire section is 1885 words.) Jack Gibson (review date 17 March 2000) SOURCE: Gibson, Jack. “Deerhunter in Search of a New Model.” Times Literary Supplement, no. 5059 (17 March 2000): 19.
[ In the following review, Gibson writes favorably of Jafsie and John Henry praising the collection for its wit, trademark terseness, and dramatic style. ] Essayists come in three varieties: the self-revealer (Montaigne, Lamb, Woolf, etc), the whistleblower (Bacon, Orwell, Vidal, etc) and, more recently, the audacious villain who dresses up a hotch-potch of causes of sleep slight, repetitive and inelegant magazine-fillers to look like a book (no names). David Mamet as essayist, however, is characteristically awkward to classify. In fact, this new collection. (The entire section is 633 words.) Richard W. Mitchell (review date spring 2000) SOURCE: Mitchell, Richard W. Historical Essay. Review of Three Uses of the Knife, by David Mamet. Comparative Drama 34, no.
1 (spring 2000): 115-18. [ In the following review, Mitchell criticizes many of the views presented in person, Three Uses of the Knife, but allows that the book may have some validity in historical document, its advice concerning commercial playwriting. ] As one might expect from a book written by popular playwright and occasional agent provocateur of theater, David Mamet, Three Uses of the Knife: On the Nature and Purpose of Drama is, at various times, thought-provoking, irreverent, contentious, and conventional. And Effects Of Sleep Deprivation Essays. Like many of Mamet's plays, this book offers some innovative. (The entire section is 1515 words.) Myles Weber (essay date spring 2000) SOURCE: Weber, Myles. “David Mamet in Theory and Practice.” New England Review 21, no. 2 (spring 2000): 136-41. [ In the following essay, Weber discusses Mamet's ideas about the historical document analysis, role of theater in a page of my, contemporary society, focusing on writings in which Mamet addresses the historical analysis essay, structure of porfolio essays tragedies versus melodramas. ] David Mamet's publication record challenges the widely accepted falsehood that the value of a playwright's professional stock plummets if he is perceived as prolific. Over the past three decades, Mamet has written more than twenty original full-length plays. In addition, he has published numerous adaptations, two volumes of prose fiction, two poetry. (The entire section is document analysis essay, 2942 words.)
Bella Merlin (essay date August 2000) SOURCE: Merlin, Bella. “Mamet's Heresy and Common Sense: What's True and False in True and causes of sleep, False. ” New Theater Quarterly 14, no. Document Analysis. 3 (August 2000): 249-54. [ In the following essay, Merlin dissects Mamet's advice to actors in True and False, contending that Mamet misunderstands or misinterprets the Stanislavsky Method of Physical Actions. A Page Of My Diary Essay. ] Although it's over two years now since the historical document essay, appearance of David Mamet's book, True and inspirational person, False: Heresy and Common Sense for the Actor, recent experience spurs me to offer a riposte to the provocative way in analysis, which Mamet assaults contemporary acting practice, taking a few hefty swipes at Stanislavsky as he does so. (The entire section is printing terminology, 3940 words.)
Geoffrey Macnab (review date February 2001) SOURCE: Macnab, Geoffrey. Review of State and Main, by David Mamet. Sight and Sound 11, no. 2 (February 2001): 52-3. [ In the analysis essay, following review, Macnab pans State and Main for a loosely formed plot, laborious visual gags, and printing paper terminology, a lack of deftness usually displayed in Mamet's work. Analysis Essay. ] A movie crew arrives in Waterford, Vermont to shoot a feature [in Mamet's film, State and Main ]. Director Walt Price needs an old mill for the film, which is set in the 19th century, but discovers the town doesn't have one—although its tourist brochure claims otherwise. Writer Joe White is abstract, assigned to revise his screenplay to historical analysis essay make the most of Waterford as it stands. When. (The entire section is 948 words.) Stanley Kauffmann (review date 30 April 2001) SOURCE: Kauffmann, Stanley. Terminology. “Stages of Mastery.” New Republic 25, no.
4502 (30 April 2001): 30-1. [ In the following excerpt, Kauffmann provides a lukewarm assessment of the film version of Lakeboat, bemoaning the choices for historical document analysis essay director and porfolio essays, cast but praising the naturalism he sees in historical analysis, the plot and dialogue. ] Political thrillers come in two kinds. (To speak only of well-made ones: the others don't signify.) In the first kind, the intrigues are clear in every detail. In the second, the intrigues are in the main just as clear, but some of the paper, details are too compacted and brisk to be understood; the historical document analysis, viewer is and effects of sleep, aware only that heavy doings are in progress. The odd. (The entire section is 675 words.)
Kevin Thomas (review date 9 November 2001) SOURCE: Thomas, Kevin. “Mamet Scores Big with an Expert Heist. ” Los Angeles Times (9 November 2001): F14. [ In the following review, Thomas lauds Heist for a tight plot, twisting suspense, and dark wit. ] David Mamet's Heist is the thinking person's caper flick, with its endlessly clever plotting revealing character under the utmost pressure. Mamet explores the limits of trust and loyalty and also the document, limits of strength and ability in porfolio essays, the face of advancing age, and he does so with dark wit and humor while moving like lightning. Full of action and suspense, Heist is above all a gratifyingly adult entertainment. (The entire section is 520 words.) John Wrathall (review date December 2001) SOURCE: Wrathall, John. Review of Heist, by historical document analysis essay David Mamet. Sight and Sound 11, no. 12 (December 2001): 53.
[ In the following excerpt, Wrathall comments on paper what he considers Mamet's directorial shortcomings, specifically in historical document analysis essay, Heist.] Boston, the present. Joe Moore and his gang—girlfriend Fran, Bobby Blane and Don Pincus—carry out a brilliant jewel heist [in Heist ]. For Research Apa. But Moore's face is caught on surveillance camera. He decides to retire. His fence Bergman, however, refuses to give him his cut unless he carries out “the Swiss job,” which Bergman has already invested money in setting up. Needing money to fund his retirement, Moore. (The entire section is 1071 words.) Jonathan Levi (review date 6 January 2002)
SOURCE: Levi, Jonathan. “Following in His Footnotes.” Los Angeles Times (6 January 2002): R4. [ In the following review, Levi finds Wilson obtuse. ] It was Alfred North Whitehead who said “all philosophy is merely footnotes to Plato.” But it has taken David Mamet to write a footnote positing Aristotle as the true author of document analysis “Dink Stover at Yale.” This observation is apa, only one of the document essay, many instances of serendipity in Mamet's latest work of fiction, a curio titled Wilson: A Consideration of the Sources. Presumably written several hundred years from now, Wilson is a super-academic commentary on the ur-historical text of future. (The entire section is 790 words.) Badenhausen, Richard. “The Modern Academy Raging in the Dark: Misreading Mamet's Political Incorrectness in Oleanna. And Effects Of Sleep Essays. ” College Literature 25, no. 3 (fall 1998): 1-19. Badenhausen examines Mamet's study of analysis essay language and power issues in academia in Oleanna. French, Philip. Review of Heist, by David Mamet. London Observer (25 November 2001): 9. French critiques the abstract paper, mixing of elements from the analysis, heist-genre film and the con man movie, but lauds what he perceives as wit and porfolio essays, thrilling elements in historical document analysis, Heist.
Hubert-Leibler, Pascale. “Dominance and Anguish: The Teacher-Student.
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essay leo tolstoy Fasting! And even an analysis of how to fast, and where to begin! The notion seems ridiculous and wild to the majority of historical document men. I remember how, with pride at his originality, an Evangelical preacher, who was attacking monastic asceticism, once said to me Ours is not a Christianity of fasting and privations, but of porfolio essays beefsteaks. Christianity, or virtue in general?and beefsteaks!
During a long period of darkness and historical document analysis lack of all guidance, Pagan or Christian, so many wild, immoral ideas have made their way into our life (especially into that lower region of the first steps toward a good life?our relation to food, to which no one paid any attention), that it is difficult for us even to understand the audacity and senselessness of upholding, in our days, Christianity or virtue with beefsteaks. We are not horrified by this association, solely because a strange thing has befallen us. We look and see not: listen and hear not. There is no bad odor, no sound, no monstrosity, to printing paper terminology which man cannot become so accustomed that he ceases to remark what would strike a man unaccustomed to historical document analysis essay it. Of My? Precisely so it is in the moral region. Christianity and morality with beefsteaks! A few days ago I visited the slaughter house in analysis essay our town of Toula. It is of my built on the new and historical analysis improved system practised in large towns, with a view to causing the animals as little suffering as possible. It was on a Friday, two days before Trinity Sunday. There were many cattle there. A Page? [?] Long before this [?], I had wished to visit a slaughter house, in document analysis order to see with my own eyes the abstract apa reality of the question raised when vegetarianism is discussed.
But at first I felt ashamed to do so, as one is always ashamed of going to look at suffering which one knows is about to take place, but which one cannot avert; and so I kept putting off my visit. But a little while ago I met on the road a butcher returning to document analysis essay Toula after a visit to essay his home. He is not yet an experienced butcher, and historical his duty is to stab with a knife. I asked him whether he did not feel sorry for the animals that he killed. He gave me the usual answer: Why should I feel sorry?
It is necessary. Abstract For Research? But when I told him that eating flesh is not necessary, but is only a luxury, he agreed; and then he admitted that he was sorry for the animals. But what can I do? I must earn my bread, he said. At first I was afraid to kill. Historical Document Analysis? My father, he never even killed a chicken in all his life.
The majority of Russians cannot kill; they feel pity, and express the printing terminology feeling by the word fear. This man had also been afraid, but he was so no longer. He told me that most of the historical document analysis work was done on causes and effects, Fridays, when it continues until the evening. Not long ago I also had a talk with a retired soldier, a butcher, and he, too, was surprised at document analysis, my assertion that it was a pity to kill, and said the causes and effects usual things about its being ordained; but afterwards he agreed with me: Especially when they are quiet, tame cattle. Historical Essay? They come, poor things! trusting you. It is very pitiful. This is dreadful!
Not the suffering and death of the animals, but that man suppresses in himself, unnecessarily, the highest spiritual capacity?that of and effects of sleep sympathy and pity toward living creatures like himself?and by violating his own feelings becomes cruel. Analysis? And how deeply seated in the human heart is the a page diary injunction not to take life! Once, when walking from Moscow, I was offered a lift by some carters who were going from Serpouhof to a neighboring forest to fetch wood. It was the Thursday before Easter. I was seated in the first cart, with a strong, red, coarse carman, who evidently drank.
On entering a village we saw a well-fed, naked, pink pig being dragged out of the first yard to be slaughtered. It squealed in a dreadful voice, resembling the shriek of a man. Just as we were passing they began to essay kill it. A man gashed its throat with a knife. The pig squealed still more loudly and piercingly, broke away from the men, and ran off covered with blood. Being near-sighted I did not see all the details. I saw only the human-looking pink body of the pig and heard its desperate squeal; but the carter saw all the details and person essay watched closely. They caught the pig, knocked it down, and finished cutting its throat. When its squeals ceased the carter sighed heavily. Do men really not have to answer for such things? he said.
So strong is man's aversion to all killing. But by example, by encouraging greediness, by the assertion that God has allowed it, and, above all, by habit, people entirely lose this natural feeling. On Friday I decided to historical document analysis go to Toula, and, meeting a meek, kind acquaintance of mine, I invited him to accompany me. Yes, I have heard that the arrangements are good, and have been wishing to go and see it; but if they are slaughtering I will not go in. Why not? That's just what I want to see! If we eat flesh it must be killed.
It is worth remarking that this man is a sportsman and himself kills animals and birds. So we went to the slaughter house. Even at the entrance one noticed the heavy, disgusting, fetid smell, as of carpenter's glue, or paint on glue. The nearer we approached, the stronger became the deprivation smell. The building is essay of red brick, very large, with vaults and high chimneys. We entered the gates. To the inspirational essay right was a spacious enclosed yard, three-quarters of an acre in extent?twice a week cattle are driven in here for historical document analysis essay, sale?and adjoining this enclosure was the porter's lodge. To the left were the chambers, as they are called?i.e., rooms with arched entrances, sloping asphalt floors, and contrivances for moving and a page essay hanging up the carcasses. On a bench against the wall of the porter's lodge were seated half a dozen butchers, in aprons covered with blood, their tucked-up sleeves disclosing their muscular arms also besmeared with blood. Historical Document Essay? They had finished their work half an hour before, so that day we could only see the empty chambers.
Though these chambers were open on both sides, there was an oppressive smell of a page essay warm blood; the analysis floor was brown and shining, with congealed black blood in the cavities. One of the butchers described thejirocess of slaughtering, and showed us the place where it was done. I did not quite understand him, and paper terminology formed a wrong, but very horrible, idea of the way the animals are slaughtered; and I fancied that, as is often the case, the reality would very likely produce upon me a weaker impression than the imagination. But in this I was mistaken. The next time I visited the slaughter house I went in good time. It was the Friday before Trinity?a warm day in June. The smell of glue and blood was even stronger and more penetrating than on my first visit. The work was at historical, its height.
The duty yard was full of cattle, and printing terminology animals had been driven into all the enclosures beside the historical analysis chambers. In the street, before the entrance, stood carts to which oxen, calves, and cows were tied. Other carts drawn by good horses and filled with live calves, whose heads hung down and swayed about, drew up and were unloaded; and similar carts containing the carcasses of on my last oxen, with trembling legs sticking out, with heads and bright red lungs and historical document analysis essay brown livers, drove away from the slaughter house. The dealers themselves, in essays on my duchess their long coats, with their whips and historical document analysis knouts in their hands, were walking about the yard, either marking with tar cattle belonging to the same owner, or bargaining, or else guiding oxen and bulls from the great yard into duchess, the enclosures which lead into the chambers. These men were evidently all preoccupied with money matters and historical document analysis essay calculations, and any thought as to of my diary essay whether it was right or wrong to historical analysis kill these animals was as far from their minds as were questions about the chemical composition of the inspirational blood that covered the floor of the chambers. No butchers were to document analysis essay be seen in the yard; they were all in causes of sleep essays the chambers at work. That day about a hundred head of document analysis essay cattle were slaughtered. I was on the point of entering one of the chambers, but stopped short at the door. I stopped both because the chamber was crowded with carcasses which were being moved about, and also because blood was flowing on the floor and dripping from terminology, above. All the butchers present were besmeared with blood, and historical had I entered I, too, should certainly have been covered with it.
One suspended carcass was being taken down, another was being moved toward the door, a third, a slaughtered ox, was lying with its white legs raised, while a butcher with strong hand was ripping up its tight-stretched hide. Through the door opposite the one at which I was standing, a big, red, well-fed ox was led in. Printing Paper? Two men were dragging it, and hardly had it entered when I saw a butcher raise a knife above its neck and analysis stab it. The ox, as if all four legs had suddenly given way, fell heavily upon its belly, immediately turned over on one side, and began to work its legs and all its hind-quarters. Another butcher at once threw himself upon the ox from the side opposite to the twitching legs, caught its horns and twisted its head down to the ground, while another butcher cut its throat with a knife. From beneath the paper terminology head there flowed a stream of blackish-red blood, which a besmeared boy caught in a tin basin.
All the document analysis time this was going on of my diary essay, the ox kept incessantly twitching its head as if trying to get up, and waved its four legs in analysis essay the air. The basin was quickly filling, but the ox still lived, and, its stomach heaving heavily, both hind and fore legs worked so violently that the butchers held aloof. For Research Paper? When one basin was full, the boy carried it away on his head to the albumen factory, while another boy placed a fresh basin, which also soon began to fill up. But still the ox heaved its body and worked its hind legs. When the blood ceased to flow the butcher raised the animal's head and document began to skin it. Of My Essay? The ox continued to writhe. The head, stripped of its skin, showed red with white veins, and kept the historical document essay position given it by the butcher; on both sides hung the skin. Still the animal did not cease to essays duchess writhe. Than another butcher caught hold of one of the legs, broke it, and historical document analysis essay cut it off. In the remaining legs and the stomach the convulsions still continued. The other legs were cut off and thrown aside, together with those of other oxen belonging to the same owner.
Then the a page essay carcass was dragged to the hoist and hung up, and the convulsions were over. Thus I looked on from the door at the second, third, fourth ox. It was the same with each: the same cutting off of the head with bitten tongue, and the same convulsed members. The only difference was that the butcher did not always strike at once so as to cause the animal's fall. Sometimes he missed his aim, whereupon the ox leaped up, bellowed, and, covered with blood, tried to escape. But then his head was pulled under a bar, struck a second time, and historical he fell.
I afterwards entered by the door at which the oxen were led in. Diary Essay? Here I saw the same thing, only nearer, and therefore more plainly. Historical Document? But chiefly I saw here, what I had not seen before, how the causes essays oxen were forced to enter this door. Each time an ox was seized in the enclosure and pulled forward by a rope tied to its horns, the animal, smelling blood, refused to advance, and sometimes bellowed and drew back. It would have been beyond the strength of two men to drag it in historical analysis essay by force, so one of the butchers went round each time, grasped the animal's tail and twisted it so violently that the gristle crackled, and the ox advanced. When they had finished with the cattle of one owner, they brought in those of another. The first animal of his next lot was not an ox, but a bull ?a fine, well-bred creature, black, with white spots on its legs, young, muscular, full of energy.
He was dragged forward, but he lowered his head and inspirational person essay resisted sturdily. Then the butcher who followed behind seized the tail, like an engine-driver grasping the handle of document analysis essay a whistle, twisted it, the gristle crackled, and the bull rushed forward, upsetting the for research men who held the historical document essay rope. Then it stopped, looking sideways with its black eyes, the whites of which had filled with blood. But again the tail crackled, and the bull sprang forward and reached the required spot. The striker approached, took aim, and struck.
But the printing paper terminology blow missed the mark. Essay? The bull leaped up, shook his head, bellowed, and, covered with blood, broke free and rushed back. The men at the doorway all sprang aside: but the paper apa experienced butchers, with the dash of men inured to danger, quickly caught the rope; again the tail operation was repeated, and again the bull was in historical essay the chamber, where he was dragged under the bar, from porfolio essays, which he did not again escape. Historical Document Essay? The striker quickly took aim at the spot where the hair divides like a star, and, notwithstanding the blood, found it, struck, and porfolio essays the fine animal, full of life, collapsed, its head and legs writhing while it was bled and the head skinned. There, the cursed devil hasn't even fallen the right way! grumbled the butcher as he cut the skin from the historical head. Five minutes later the person essay head was stuck up, red instead of black, without skin; the eyes, that had shone with such splendid color five minutes before, fixed and glassy. Afterwards I went into the compartment where small animals are slaughtered?a very large chamber with asphalt floor, and tables with backs, on which sheep and calves are killed. Here the work was already finished; in historical document analysis the long room, impregnated with the smell of blood, were only abstract two butchers. One was blowing into analysis, the leg of a dead lamb and critical last patting the historical document swollen stomach with his hand; the other, a young fellow in printing terminology an apron besmeared with blood, was smoking a bent cigarette. There was no one else in the long, dark chamber, filled with a heavy smell.
After me there entered a man, apparently an ex-soldier, bringing in historical analysis a young yearling ram, black with a white mark on its neck, and its legs tied. This animal he placed upon one of the tables, as if upon a bed. Critical Essays? The old soldier greeted the butchers, with whom he was evidently acquainted, and began to ask when their master allowed them leave. Historical Document Essay? The fellow with the cigarette approached with a knife, sharpened it on the edge of the table, and answered that they were free on holidays. Porfolio Essays? The live ram was lying as quietly as the dead inflated one, except that it was briskly wagging its short little tail and historical document its sides were heaving more quickly than usual.
The soldier pressed down its uplifted head gently, without effort; the butcher, still continuing the causes and effects deprivation conversation, grasped with his left hand the historical analysis head of the ram and cut its throat. The ram quivered, and the little tail stiffened and ceased to wave. The fellow, while waiting for the blood to flow, began to relight his cigarette, which had gone out. The blood flowed and the ram began to writhe. The conversation continued without the slightest interruption. It was horribly revolting. [?]
[A]nd how about those hens and chickens which daily, in thousands of kitchens, with heads cut off and streaming with blood, comically, dreadfully, flop about, jerking their wings? And see, a kind, refined lady will devour the carcasses of these animals with full assurance that she is doing right, at paper, the same time asserting two contradictory propositions: First, that she is, as her doctor assures her, so delicate that she cannot be sustained by essay vegetable food alone, and that for her feeble organism flesh is indispensable; and, secondly, that she is so sensitive that she is unable, not only herself to inflict suffering on animals, but even to for research paper bear the sight of suffering. Whereas the poor lady is weak precisely because she has been taught to live upon document essay food unnatural to man; and paper terminology she cannot avoid causing suffering to animals?for she eats them. will inevitably follow one definite sequence, and in this sequence the first thing will be self-control in food?fasting. And in fasting, if he be really and document analysis seriously seeking to person live a good life, the first thing from which he will abstain will always be the use of animal food, because, to say nothing of the excitation of the passions caused by analysis essay such food, its use is simply immoral, as it involves the performance of an act which is contrary to the moral feeling?killing; and is called forth only by greediness and the desire for tasty food. Porfolio Essays? [?] [W]e cannot pretend that we do not know this. We are not ostriches, and cannot believe that if we refuse to look at what we do not wish to see, it will not exist. Essay? This is especially the case when what we do not wish to see is what we wish to eat. A Page Of My Diary Essay? If it were really indispensable, or, if not indispensable, at least in some way useful! But it is quite unnecessary, and historical only serves to paper develop animal feelings, to historical document analysis excite desire, and to promote fornication and drunkenness.
And this is continually being confirmed by the fact that young, kind, undepraved people?especially women and girls?without knowing how it logically follows, feel that virtue is person incompatible with beefsteaks, and, as soon as they wish to be good, give up eating flesh. What, then, do I wish to say? That in historical document essay order to be moral people must cease to eat meat? Not at all. I only wish to say that for a good life a certain order of good actions is indispensable; that if a man's aspirations toward right living be serious they will inevitably follow one definite sequence; and that in this sequence the first virtue a man will strive after will be self-control, self-restraint. And in seeking for self-control a man will inevitably follow one definite sequence, and in this sequence the first thing will be self-control in food ?fasting.
And in fasting, if he be really and seriously seeking to live a good life, the paper first thing from which he will abstain will always be the use of animal, food, because, to say nothing of the excitation of the passions caused by such food, its use is simply immoral, as it involves the essay performance of an act which is contrary to the moral feeling ?killing; and is called forth only by greediness and the desire for diary, tasty food.