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Lab Report about Simple Staining of Microbes Essay. This experiment was carried out to perform staining methods on microbes, explain the essay video, mechanisms of staining, namely, simple staining, and learn how to use the microscope. The experiment setting was kept as sterile as possible when conducting the experiment. The microbes under the microscope were drawn out and labelled. In conclusion, different staining techniques are used to determine the in thesis, presence of certain exterior structures of the bacteria like the cell envelope or just to identify the basic shape and size of the microbe. In this experiment, the microbes E. coli, Bacillus sp and an unknown microbe from video games, petri dish 1 were categorised as gram negative or gram positive and their shape was identified.
These staining techniques are the correct way to identify the shape and size of microbes. Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms. The Assassination James Essay. Microbes are very small organisms which can only be viewed with the aid of microscope. Several groups of organisms that fit into this category are bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and video games as art, protists. Within this group there are several species interesting to humans because of their ability to cause disease or their use in the food industry and microorganisms can be classified to unicellular and need narrative essay, multicellular.
These organisms are extremely diverse in cell type, size, colour, and reproductive energy. Microbes can be classified by their cell type. All cells can be categorized either prokaryotic or eukaryotic and the primary difference between these two cell types is the presence of a membrane-bound nucleus. The experiment was carried out to use a bright field microscopy, prepare and observe bacterial slides and perform staining methods and essay video games as art, explain the maths newspaper, mechanism of the bacteria. In order to observe and essay games, investigate microbes we need to the assassination james essay use microscope and bacterial Staining Techniques. Microscope is the essay as art, invaluable tool allows the viewing of objects or structures that otherwise would go unnoticed by need narrative, human naked eyes. In addition, microscope can magnify objects up to video as art 1000 times, revealing microscopic details. It has special techniques and need essay, optics thus it can reveal the essay games as art, structure and biochemistry of living cells.
Microscope consists of a combination of several optical lenses. In this experiment, we are using light microscope. Light is conducted through curve lenses in such a way that an research in thesis object may be viewed larger than its actual size. The light microscopes in this experiment have ocular lenses with magnification of 10X. Moreover, there are also four different objective lenses to choose from essay games, 10X, 40X, and 100X. For Bacterial Staining Method, there are two basics techniques. Rallycross Essay 2010. One of them is using wet mount method but bacteria are too small and too transparent to be well described using light microscopy and a wet amount. Therefore, they are stained to make them more visible by imparting contrast.
Simple stain, with only one layer of cell, is coloured with different colour and methylene blue dye are used for differentiating Bacillus sp. Negative stain is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement and it can be used to essay games as art stain cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. By using this technique, the solution used does not colour the cells and the bacteria will show up as clear spots against a dark background. The Gram Staining Method is used as a tool for differentiation of essay Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as a first step to determine the identity of a particular bacterial sample. Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms are distinguished from each other by differences in their cell walls, including the way the cell takes up and retains stains. The E. coli, Bacillus sp and unknown microbes are categorised into essay, those that retain iodine-crystal violet after an organic washing procedure and those that do not.
Gram Staining is the most consistent when done on octobre 2010, bacteria that less than 24 hours, while the older cultures may not retain the primary stain and give inaccurate results. 2.0 Literature Review. Instrument that is used to essay games see objects that are too small for the naked eyes is called microscope. It can magnify objects up to 1,000 times, revealing microscopic details. With special techniques and optics the structures and biochemistry of living cells can be revealed. There is various type of microscope, the most common and first to be invented is the optical microscope which uses light to image the sample. Although, Zaccharias Janssen discovered that object appeared greatly enlarged after experimenting with several lenses in a tube in 1590 and in 1609, Galileo worked out the principles of lenses, but Anton van Leeuwenhoek is a microscope designer who first to detect microorganisms using microscope.
Light microscope employs visible light to rules of writing numbers essay detect small objects. The biggest challenge when it comes to looking at living things are obtaining sufficient contrast, finding the focal plane, obtaining good resolution and recognizing the subjects when one sees it. The smallest bacteria can be observed and cell shape recognized at video games as art a mere 100x magnification and they are invisible in essay octobre, bright field microscope. Ocular lens is a cylinder containing two or more lenses. The function is to bring the image into focus for the eye. Staining is a process in which microbes are stained to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Stains or dyes are organic compound which are used to video highlight microorganisms or biological tissues for viewing with the help of microscope. Microbes are colourless and highly transparent structures because they have nearly same refractive index as water. Therefore, microbes cannot be seen with our naked eyes thus different types of staining methods are used to increased visibility and contrast, accentuate specific morphological features, to detect extracellular and intracellular components of microbes and maths newspaper coursework, preserve them for future use. The basic requirements for staining are clean grease-free slide, bacteria tobe stained, inoculating loops and Bunsen burner to sterilise inoculating loops before and after smear preparation. Two ways to fixing the video, slides are heat fixation and chemical fixation. Heat fixation can be done by passing the slide over the flame while chemical fixation can be done using ethanol, methanol, picric acid, Potassium Permanganate or Formaldehyde vapour. The function of fixation is to kills bacteria rendering safe handling and essay 2010, prevents autolysis by inactivating the autolytic enzymes. In addition, it increases the permeability of cells to stain, makes cell rigid and unfolds the globular proteins and exposing reactive groups and games, increasing affinity for stain.
Different stains have different affinities for different organisms and they are used to differentiate different types of organisms. Bacteria are slightly negatively charged at rallycross essay octobre 2010 pH 7.0 and basic dye stains bacteria while acidic dye stains background. For simple staining, only one dye is used. Simple staining is easier to perform but it has limitations. It was an essay as art easy method because only single staining agent used and either using basic or acid dyes. Of Jesse. The features of the games as art, dyes are to give colouring of microorganisms and to bind specifically to various cell structures. For simple staining basic dyes which are positively charged are used.
These dyes will attach to negatively charged. cytoplasm of microbial organism. Figure 1 :Bascillus sp. Negative staining is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement. In addition, it can be used to stains cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. Of Jesse Essay. Acidic dyes like nigrosin dye (10% solution) and Indian dye which is negatively charged are used. These dyes get repelled by the negatively charged cytoplasm of microbes. Therefore, the solution used does not colour the games as art, cells and give a contrast background. It is commonly used for determining bacteria with capsules. Figure 2: E. coli.
Gram stain techniques identify bacteria as gram-positive which is the stain is retained or gram-negative which means the stain is washed. In 1884, Hans Christian Gram discovered that crystal violet irreversibly stains certain bacteria but can be washed from others. Gram staining can be described as a staining technique used to rallycross octobre classify bacteria which is bacteria that are stained with crystal violet followed by a brief treatment with Gram’s iodine and essay video games, after being decolourised with alcohol and treated with safranin then washed with water. Those that retain the crystal violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative. The functions of iodine as a mordant to help the crystal violet bind more firmly. Gram positive bacteria have the multiple layers of peptidoglycan retain the crystal violet while it is quickly rinsed out of Gram-negative bacteria because their peptidoglycan is a single layer thick. Newspaper. The bacteria is counter stained with safranin which will not show up on the already purple Gram-positive but will stain the decolorized Gram-negative bacteria red. Figure 3: Cell wall difference. Figure 4: Gram-negative. Figure 5: Gram-positive.
A) Microscope handling. 1) Microscope is essay video games turned on, and then the light source is adjusted. 2) The objective lens was lowered till the the assassination of jesse, lower far without touching the slide. 3) By using the fastening clip the slide was fastened on the microscope stage. 4) While looking at the eyepiece, the illuminator and diaphragm were adjusted. 5) The coarse adjustment was slowly adjusted until the image of desire was focused. 6) The slide was moved around to the centre of the field to focus to desire image. 7) The slide is observed through the essay games as art, low power objective (x10), high dry objective (x40) and variables in thesis, immersion oil objective (x100) for clearer view of culture. 8) The stage is lowered to its minimum position after finished using the as art, microscope. The switch is turned off and rules numbers, the microscope is covered back. B) Bacterial staining techniques.
i) Simple staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide are run on the flame of Bunsen burner. One drop of water was dropped to the clean slide by as art, using sterile loop. 2) The cultures of writing Bacillus sp. are spread onto the water slide surface, again by using sterile loop. The loops were sterile again to kill excess microbe. 3) The slide contained by culture was passed quickly through the flame of as art Bunsen burner for two second for each two or three time. 4) The slide was flooded with methylene blue stain for a minute. 5) The slide is rinsed with water and blotted to dry using bibulous paper. Is A Poor Wealth. 6) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. Video As Art. 7) The morphology of the ability man s, microorganisms was drawn. 8) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.
ii) Negative staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures are spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. Essay Games As Art. The slide was set to air dry without exposed to heat. 2) Two to three of Nitrogen dye solutions were dropped to the smear. 3) The Nitrogen dye solutions were spread by using the edge of another slide side became one thin film. 4) The prepared slide was let for air dry. 5) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 6) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 7) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.
iii) Gram staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. Rallycross Octobre. The Bacillus sp. cultures were spread onto the slide surface, by games, using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry and exposed to heat for few seconds. 2) The slide was added with crystal violet solution and octobre, let for one minute. 3) The slide was rinsed with water and flooded with iodine solution for one minute. 4) The slide was washed with water and added with decolourizer till crystal violet colour disappeared. The slide the rinsed with water. 5) Safranin was added and waits for a minute.
Then the prepared slide was washed with water for maximum 5 seconds. 6) The prepared slide was dried with bibulous paper and allowed to air dry. 7) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the essay games as art, best view of the microorganisms. Maths Newspaper Coursework. 8) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 9) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli. and sample E2. 4.0 Result and Discussion. The experiment environment is essay video as art kept as sterile as possible by conducting the experiment within 10 centimetres of the the assassination of jesse james, flame from a Bunsen Burner. This is to avoid contamination of the sample by microbes in the air. Gloves are worn for the same purpose. Video. The loops used to variables smear the microbes onto the slide are sterilised three times in a flame. Meanwhile, the essay, slid with sample on octobre, was to fix the essay video games, bacteria onto of writing essay the slide.
Now about the stains, methylene blue dye is used to make the cells and nuclei more visible6. Video. Crystal violet is rules in an essay used to stain the cell walls of bacteria6, which consist of peptidoglycan. Nigrosin is dark in colour, hence it is used in negative staining to provide a dark background against which the white microbes can be seen. Essay Video As Art. In Gram staining, cells are stained with crystal violet dye. Next, a Gram’s iodine solution (iodine and the assassination of jesse james essay, potassium iodide) is added to form a complex between the crystal violet and iodine. This complex is a larger molecule than the original crystal violet stain and iodine and is insoluble in water. Alcohol is added to the sample as a decolouriser, which dehydrates the peptidoglycan layer, shrinking and tightening it. The large crystal violet-iodine complex is games as art not able to rallycross penetrate this tightened peptidoglycan layer, and is thus trapped in the cell in Gram positive bacteria. Conversely, the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is degraded and the thinner peptidoglycan layer of Gram negative cells is unable to retain the crystal violet-iodine complex and essay, the colour is lost. A counterstain, safranin, is octobre added to the sample, staining it red. Since the safranin is lighter than crystal violet, it does not disrupt the purple coloration in Gram positive cells.
However, the decolorized Gram negative cells are stained red. Gram positive bacteria (with a thicker peptidoglycan layer) retain crystal violet stain during the essay, decolourisation process, while Gram negative bacteria lose the crystal violet stain and are instead stained by the assassination of jesse james, the safranin in the final staining process.6 From our observation from as art, simple staining of Bacillus sp ,it can be seen that the bacteria is rod-shaped. The bacteria was stained a dark blue, no internal structures could be seen. For negative staining, the negative stain uses the dye nigrosin, which is an acidic dye. By giving up a proton (as an acid) the chromophore of the dye becomes negatively charged. Because the cell wall is need help narrative essay also negatively charged only the background around the essay video games, cells will become stained, leaving the cells unstained. Hence, the cells are seen as white spots against writing narrative a dark background E.coli is a rod shape as well. After gram staining for E.coli, E.coli shows up as pink, indicating it is a gram-negative bacteria while Bacillus sp shows up as purple, meaning that it is a gram-positive bacteria. The unknown microbes from petri dish.
1turn out to games as art be a mixture of gram negative and the assassination james essay, gram positive bacteria because of the presence of light pink and purple regions. They are round in shape. 1) Morphology includes size, cell structure, presence of essay games as art endospore and flagella. From the report, in Figure 8, the unknown microbes from petri dish 1 give purple and variables, pink colouration after gram staining, they’re round in shape. A more reliable method to identify cell morphology would be to use special stains to identify specific parts of a microbe like endospores, which is usually present in gram positive bacteria. The method use to stain endospores is called the Schaeffer-Fulton1 method, where Malachite Green is games used to rallycross essay 2010 stain the endospores while Safranin is a counterstain.
The end result would be pink bacteria with green dots within them. 2) Three methods to characterise a microorganism include: i) Starch hydrolysis test. This bio-chemical test is used on gram-positive bacteria to identify bacteria that can hydrolyze starch (amylose and games as art, amylopectin) using the enzymes a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Often used to differentiate species from the general Clostridium and Bacillus. Because of the large size of amylose and amylopectin molecules, these organisms cannot pass through the bacterial cell wall. In order to use these starches as a carbon source, bacteria must secrete a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase into research variables, the extracellular space. These enzymes break the starch molecules into smaller glucose subunits which can then enter directly into the glycolytic pathway.
In order to interpret the results of the starch hydrolysis test, iodine must be added to the agar. The iodine reacts with the starch to form a dark brown colour. Thus, hydrolysis of the starch will create a clear zone around the essay video games as art, bacterial growth. E.g. Bacillus subtilis is positive for starch hydrolysis.2 ii) Protein analysis (gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, establishment of clonality) The size and other differences between proteins among different organisms can be determined by using protein separation methods, collectively known as gel electrophoresis.3 iii) Nucleotide sequencing, example, Southern blotting, where a specific DNA sequence is detected.4 3) Full standard procedure for operating a microscope5: i. When moving a microscope, always carry it with both hands. Grasp the arm with one hand and coursework, place the other hand under the base for support. ii. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the lowest power objective lens is “clicked” into position. iii. The microscope slide should be prepared with a coverslip or cover glass over the specimen. This will help protect the objective lenses if they touch the slide.
Place the microscope slide on essay games as art, the stage and fasten it with the stage clips. iv. Look at the objective lens and the stage from the side and turn the coarse focus knob so that the objective lens moves downward (or the stage, if it moves, goes upward). Move it as far as it will go without touching the rules of writing, slide. v. Look through the eyepiece and essay video, adjust the the assassination of jesse, illuminator (or mirror) and diaphragm for the greatest amount of light. Essay As Art. vi. Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the help, objective lens goes up (away from the essay games, slide). Continue until the image comes into focus. Use the maths, fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing. If the essay video games as art, microscope has a moving stage, then turn the help writing narrative, coarse knob so the essay games as art, stage moves downward or away from the objective lens. vii. Move the microscope slide around so that the rallycross octobre, image is in the center of the field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image. Video. viii. Then change to the next objective lens with only wealth, minimal use of the focusing adjustment. Use the fine adjustment, if available.
If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the higher power objective lens in games, place. ix. The proper way to use a monocular microscope is to look through the eyepiece with one eye and keep the other eye open (this helps avoid eye strain). x. Do not touch the glass part of the lenses with your fingers. Use only special lens paper to clean the lenses. xi. When finished, lower the stage, click the low power lens into rules numbers essay, position and remove the slide. xii. Always keep your microscope covered when not in use. Dust is bad for essay video games the microscope. 4) Three accidents that can occur during the experiment are: i. A sleeve catching fire while passing the slide through the flame in wide sweeping motions ii. the help writing narrative, slide dropping due to a weak grip on it.
The slide breaking due to over-exposure to video games as art fire and a strong grip. The staining techniques in this experiment are the correct way to identify the shape and size of the bacteria. Bacillus sp is rod-shaped and gram positive while E.coli is rod-shaped and gram negative. The unknown microbes from petri dish 1 are a mixture of rallycross gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are round. It is essay video games suggested that a smaller amount of microbes are smeared on the glass slide to prevent the sample from looking so dense under the essay, microscope, thus preventing us from seeing the essay games, shape and need help narrative essay, size clearly. Essay. Next, increase the amount of the the assassination of jesse james, negative stain to ensure more visibility of the cells under the microscope. Video Games As Art. Lastly, clean the lens of the maths newspaper coursework, microscope before use to avoid confusing images in the eyepiece. 1) Endospores, retrieved from: http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 2) Rachel Watson M.S., retrieved from: http://www.uwyo.edu/molb2210_lab/info/biochemical_tests.htm#starch 3) Stephen T. Abedon, 6th July 1999, retrieved from: http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/ sabedon/biol3010.htm 4) McGraw-Hill, retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120078/bio_g.swf::Southern%20Blot 5) How to Use a Microscope, retrieved from: http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/how-to-use-a-microscope.htm 6) Monica Z. Bruckner,Microbial Life Edcucational resources , retrieved from essay as art, : http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 7) Bio-imaging, 2004, retrieved from: http://web.path.ox.ac.uk/ bioimaging/bitm/instructions_and_information/EM/neg_stain.pdf 8) Staining, retrieved from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/staining.
9) Definition of staining, retrieved from: www.thefreedictionary.com/staining 10) Monica Z. Bruckner, Gram Staining, retrieved from: serc.caleton.edu/microbiolife/research_methods/microscopy/gramstain.html 11) View as multi-pages. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 May 2016.
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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and video games, develop. Essay. Churches often receive dozens of resumes in their pastoral search process, and essay games as art, finding the right candidate is ability is a poor wealth, a rigorous process. There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is essay video as art, a very different document than a secular resume.
Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and ability man s essay, family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and essay games, developed different from a traditional resume. Because of this structure and the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the is a poor man s wealth, first page you should include the most pertinent and core information – the top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and games, pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the page.
Paul’s first letter to Timothy includes the pastor’s family in rules in an essay the description of the pastor’s qualifications, and as our culture includes the pastor’s wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. A significant difference between a secular resume and video, a ministry resume is the inclusion of numbers in an essay personal details. Some of these details include marital status, family details, date of video birth, and even how long you have been married. Especially from a secular point of view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for newspaper coursework, pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and parenting. Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for video as art, the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. You should clearly indicate both your degree and need writing narrative essay, the institution you received your degree at. Especially in games ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the variables in thesis, quality of your theological training.
Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and teaching within the church you are hired at. Essay Video Games As Art. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is research, typically your highest degree. The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of games as art someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Research In Thesis. Human Resource professionals tend to games, recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . Newspaper. This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and talents. The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on a separate page.
Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into essay video games, several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. The Assassination Of Jesse Essay. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching. Philosophy of Leadership. Essay As Art. Philosophy of in an essay Counseling. Each of games as art your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of the assassination your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church.
Do not make the mistake of trusting another’s references. Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in their application. There are a few more details that are important not to video games as art, overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Essay. Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of details or information. You resume should reflect not only your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. Essay Video Games. If you print off your resume to send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document. This is an easy step to ensure that the help writing narrative, pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of your resume, in case the pages of your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in your resume. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive.
Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for resumes. A contemporary trend is to make references available upon request. These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on video as art, your resume and separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. Research In Thesis. If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends.
Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on games as art, your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Rules Of Writing Numbers. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and games as art, experience, in ability wealth essay a less formal manner than in your resume. Essay Video As Art. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of newspaper content on this website, in part or in whole, is strictly prohibited | Log in.
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essay liberation Herbert Marcuse 1969. Transcribed : by Alejandro Thamm; Thanks Again to my friends who read the manuscript and whose comments and criticism I heeded throughout: especially Leo Lowenthal (University of California at video games Berkeley), Arno J. Mayer (Princeton University). and Barrington Moore, Jr. (Harvard University). My wife discussed with me every part and problem of the manuscript. Without her cooperation, this essay would have appeared much sooner. I am grateful to her that it didn’t. The growing opposition to the global dominion of corporate capitalism is confronted by the sustained power of this dominion: its economic and military hold in the four continents, its neocolonial empire, and, most important, its unshaken capacity to subject the coursework, majority of the underlying population to its overwhelming productivity and force. This global power keeps the socialist orbit on games, the defensive, all too costly not only in terms of military expenditures but also in the perpetuation of a repressive bureaucracy. The development of socialism thus continues to be deflected from its original goals, and the competitive coexistence with the West generates values and aspirations for which the American standard of living serves as a model. Now, however, this threatening homogeneity has been loosening up, and an alternative is james, beginning to break into the repressive continuum.
This alternative is not so much a different road to socialism as an essay as art emergence of different goals and rules numbers in an, values, different aspirations in the men and women who resist and deny the massive exploitative power of corporate capitalism even in its most comfortable and liberal realizations. Games As Art! The Great Refusal takes a variety of forms. In Vietnam, in Cuba, in China, a revolution is of writing numbers in an essay, being defended and driven forward which struggles to eschew the bureaucratic administration of socialism. The guerrilla forces in Latin America seem to be animated by that same subversive impulse: liberation. At the same time, the apparently impregnable economic fortress of games as art, corporate capitalism shows signs of mounting strain: it seems that even the essay octobre 2010, United States cannot indefinitely deliver its goods – guns and butter, napalm and essay video games, color TV, The ghetto populations may well become the first mass basis of revolt (though not of revolution). The student opposition is spreading in the old socialist as well as capitalist countries. In France, it has for variables, the first time challenged the full force of the regime and recaptured, for essay video games as art, a short moment, the libertarian power of the red and research, the black flags; moreover, it has demonstrated the prospects for an enlarged basis. The temporary suppression of the rebellion will not reverse the trend. None of these forces is the video games, alternative.
However, they outline, in very different dimensions, the limits of the established societies, of their power of containment. When these limits are reached, the Establishment may initiate a new order of totalitarian suppression. But beyond these limits, there is also the space, both physical and mental, for building a realm of freedom which is not that of the present: liberation also from the liberties of exploitative order – a liberation which must precede the construction of a free society, one which necessitates an historical break with the past and the present. It would be irresponsible to overrate the present chances of these forces (this essay will stress the obstacles and “delays”), but the facts are there, facts which are not only the symbols but also the embodiments of maths coursework, hope. They confront the critical theory of essay video games, society with the task of reexamining the prospects for the emergence of a socialist society qualitatively different from existing societies, the task of narrative essay, redefining socialism and its preconditions. In the following chapters, I attempt to develop some ideas first submitted in Eros and Civilization and in One-Dimensional Man, then further discussed in video games as art, “Repressive Tolerance” and in lectures delivered in recent years, mostly to student audiences in the United States and in Europe. This essay was written before the events of ability poor man s essay, May and June 1968 in France. I have merely added some footnotes in the way of documentation.
The coincidence between some of the ideas suggested in my essay, and those formulated by the young militants was to me striking. The radical utopian character of their demands far surpasses the hypotheses of my essay; and yet, these demands were developed and formulated in the course of action itself; they are expressions of concrete political practice. The militants have invalidated the concept of “utopia” – they have denounced a vicious ideology. No matter whether their action was a revolt or an abortive revolution, it is a turning point. Essay! In proclaiming the maths newspaper coursework, “permanent challenge” ( la contestation permanente ), the “permanent education,” the Great Refusal, they recognize the mark of social repression, even in the most sublime manifestations of traditional culture, even in the most spectacular manifestations of technical progress.
They have again raised a specter (and this time a specter which haunts not only the bourgeoisie but all exploitative bureaucracies) : the specter of a revolution which subordinates the development of productive forces and higher standards of living to the requirements of creating solidarity for the human species, for abolishing poverty and misery beyond all national frontiers and spheres of interest, for the attainment of peace. In one word: they have taken the idea of revolution out of the continuum of repression and placed it into essay video games as art its authentic dimension: that of liberation. The young militants know or sense that what is at maths stake is simply their life, the as art, life of human beings which has become a plaything in the hands of politicians and managers and generals. The rebels want to take it out of the assassination of jesse, these hands and make it worth living; they realize that this is still possible today, and that the attainment of this goal necessitates a struggle which can no longer be contained by games the rules and regulations of a pseudo-democracy in a Free Orwellian World. To them I dedicate this essay. Up to need help writing narrative essay now, it has been one of the principal tenets of the critical theory of society (and particularly Marxian theory) to refrain from what might be reasonably called utopian speculation. Social theory is supposed to analyze existing societies in the light of their own functions and capabilities and to video as art identify demonstrable tendencies (if any) which might lead beyond the existing state of affairs. By logical inference from the prevailing conditions and institutions, critical theory may also be able to determine the basic institutional changes which are the prerequisites for the transition to a higher stage of development: “higher” in the sense of a more rational and equitable use of ability is a, resources, minimization of destructive conflicts, and enlargement of the realm of freedom. But beyond these limits, critical theory did not venture for fear of losing its scientific character.
I believe that this restrictive conception must be revised, and that the revision is suggested, and even necessitated, by essay as art the actual evolution of help essay, contemporary societies. The dynamic of their productivity deprives “utopia” of its traditional unreal content: what is denounced as “utopian” is no longer that which has “no place” and cannot have any place in the historical universe, but rather that which is blocked from coming about by the power of the video games, established societies. Utopian possibilities are inherent in the technical and the assassination james essay, technological forces of advanced capitalism and socialism: the rational utilization of these forces on a global scale would terminate poverty and scarcity within a very foreseeable future. But we know now that neither their rational use nor – and this is decisive – their collective control by essay video games the “immediate producers” (the workers) would by research variables in thesis itself eliminate domination and video games, exploitation: a bureaucratic welfare state would still be a state of repression which would continue even into the “second phase of socialism,” when each is to the assassination of jesse essay receive “according to essay video games as art his needs.” What is now at stake are the needs themselves. At this stage, the question is no longer: how can the poor, individual satisfy his own needs without hurting others, but rather: how can he satisfy his needs without hurting himself, without reproducing, through his aspirations and satisfactions, his dependence on an exploitative apparatus which, in satisfying his needs, perpetuates his servitude? The advent of essay games, a free society would be characterized by the fact that the growth of well-being turns into an essentially new quality of life.
This qualitative change must occur in the needs, in the infrastructure of man (itself a dimension of the infrastructure of society): the narrative, new direction, the new institutions and essay video games as art, relationships of production, must express the ascent of needs and satisfactions very different from and even antagonistic to ability poor man s wealth those prevalent in the exploitative societies. Such a change would constitute the instinctual basis for freedom which the long history of class society has blocked. Freedom would become the environment of an organism which is games as art, no longer capable of adapting to the competitive performances required for help writing narrative essay, well-being under domination, no longer capable of tolerating the aggressiveness, brutality, and ugliness of the established way of life. The rebellion would then have taken root in the very nature, the “biology” of the individual; and on essay video games as art, these new grounds, the ability is a poor man s, rebels would redefine the objectives and the strategy of the political struggle, in which alone the concrete goals of liberation can be determined. Is such a change in the “nature” of man conceivable? I believe so, because technical progress has reached a stage in which reality no longer need be defined by the debilitating competition for social survival and advancement. The more these technical capacities outgrow the framework of exploitation within which they continue to be confined and abused, the more they propel the essay games, drives and aspirations of men to a point at which the necessities of life cease to demand the aggressive performances of “earning a living,” and the “non-necessary” becomes a vital need. This proposition, which is central in Marxian theory, is familiar enough, and the managers and publicists of corporate capitalism are well aware of its meaning; they are prepared to “contain” its dangerous consequences. The radical opposition also is aware of these prospects, but the critical theory which is to research variables in thesis guide political practice still lags behind.
Marx and essay as art, Engels refrained from developing concrete concepts of the possible forms of freedom in essay octobre, a socialist society; today, such restraint no longer seems justified. The growth of the productive forces suggests possibilities of human liberty very different from, and beyond those envisaged at the earlier stage. Video! Moreover, these real possibilities suggest that the gap which separates a free society from the existing societies would be wider and variables, deeper precisely to essay the degree to which the repressive power and productivity of the latter shape man and his environment in their image and interest. For the world of human freedom cannot be built by the established societies, no matter how much they may streamline and variables in thesis, rationalize their dominion. Their class structure, and the perfected controls required to sustain it, generate needs, satisfactions, and values which reproduce the servitude of the video games, human existence. This “voluntary” servitude (voluntary inasmuch as it is introjected into the individuals) , which justifies the benevolent masters, can be broken only through a political practice which reaches the octobre, roots of containment and contentment in the infrastructure of man, a political practice of methodical disengagement from and refusal of the as art, Establishment, aiming at a radical transvaluation of values. Such a practice involves a break with the familiar, the routine ways of seeing, hearing, feeling, understanding things so that the essay octobre 2010, organism may become receptive to essay games as art the potential forms of of writing in an essay, a non-aggressive, non-exploitative world. No matter how remote from these notions the rebellion may be, no matter how destructive and self-destructive it may appear, no matter how great the distance between the middle-class revolt in the metropoles and the life-and-death struggle of the wretched of the earth – common to them is the depth of the games as art, Refusal.
It makes them reject the rules of the game that is rigged against them, the newspaper, ancient strategy of patience and video, persuasion, the coursework, reliance on the Good Will in the Establishment, its false and immoral comforts, its cruel affluence. 1 – A Biological Foundation for Socialism? In the affluent society, capitalism comes into its Own. The two mainsprings of its dynamic – the escalation of commodity production and productive exploitation – join and permeate all dimensions of private and public existence. The available material and intellectual resources (the potential of liberation) have so much outgrown the established institutions that only the systematic increase in waste, destruction, and video games as art, management keeps the need help writing essay, system going. The opposition which escapes suppression by video as art the police, the courts, the representatives of the people, and the people themselves, finds expression in the diffused rebellion among the youth and the intelligentsia, and in the daily struggle of the persecuted minorities. The armed class struggle is waged outside: by the wretched of the earth who fight the variables in thesis, affluent monster. The critical analysis of this society calls for new categories: moral, political, aesthetic. I shall try to video as art develop them in rallycross 2010, the course of the discussion. The category of obscenity will serve as an introduction.
This society is video, obscene in producing and indecently exposing a stifling abundance of wares while depriving its victims abroad of the necessities of rules in an essay, life; obscene in stuffing itself and its garbage cans while poisoning and essay as art, burning the scarce foodstuffs in man s wealth essay, the fields of its aggression; obscene in the words and smiles of its politicians and entertainers; in its prayers, in its ignorance, and in the wisdom of its kept intellectuals. Obscenity is a moral concept in the verbal arsenal of the essay video as art, Establishment, which abuses the term by applying it, not to expressions of its own morality but to those of another. Obscene is not the picture of a naked woman who exposes her pubic hair but that of a fully clad general who exposes his medals rewarded in a war of aggression; obscene is not the ritual of the Hippies but the declaration of a high dignitary of the Church that war is necessary for peace. Linguistic therapy – that is, the effort to free words (and thereby concepts) from the all but total distortion of their meanings by the Establishment – demands the transfer of moral standards (and of their validation) from the Establishment to the revolt against it. Rules! Similarly, the sociological and as art, political vocabulary must be radically reshaped: it must be stripped of its false neutrality; it must be methodically and provocatively “moralized” in terms of the Refusal. Morality is not necessarily and not primarily ideological. In the face of an rules of writing essay amoral society, it becomes a political weapon, an effective force which drives people to burn their draft cards, to ridicule national leaders, to demonstrate in the streets, and to unfold signs saying, “Thou shalt not kill,” in the nation’s churches. The reaction to essay as art obscenity is shame, usually interpreted as the physiological manifestation of the sense of guilt accompanying the transgression of a taboo. The obscene exposures of the affluent society normally provoke neither shame nor a sense of guilt, although this society violates some of the most fundamental moral taboos of civilization. The term obscenity belongs to research variables the sexual sphere; shame and the sense of guilt arise in the Oedipal situation. Essay Video Games! If in this respect social morality is rooted in sexual morality, then the shamelessness of the affluent society and its effective repression of the sense of guilt would indicate a decline of shame and guilt feeling in the sexual sphere.
And indeed, the exposure of the (for all practical purposes) naked body is permitted and even encouraged, and the taboos on pre- and extramarital, intercourse are considerably relaxed. Thus we are faced with the contradiction that the liberalization of sexuality provides an instinctual basis for james, the repressive and aggressive power of the affluent society. This contradiction can be resolved if we understand that the liberalization of the Establishment’s own morality takes place within the framework of effective controls; kept within this framework, the liberalization strengthens the cohesion of the whole. The relaxation of taboos alleviates the essay as art, sense of guilt and binds (though with considerable ambivalence) the rallycross essay 2010, “free” individuals libidinally to the institutionalized fathers. They are powerful but also tolerant fathers, whose management of the nation and essay as art, its economy delivers and protects the liberties of the citizens. On the other hand, if the violation of taboos transcends the sexual sphere and leads to refusal and rebellion, the sense of variables, guilt is not alleviated and repressed but rather transferred: not we, but the fathers, are guilty; they are not tolerant but false; they want to redeem their own guilt by making us, the sons, guilty; they have created a world of hypocrisy and violence in which we do not wish to live. Essay! Instinctual revolt turns into political rebellion, and against this union, the need help writing essay, Establishment mobilizes its full force. This union provokes such a response because it reveals the prospective scope of social change at this stage of development, the extent to which the radical political practice involves a cultural subversion. The refusal with which the opposition confronts the existing society is affirmative in that it envisages a new culture which fulfills the humanistic promises betrayed by the old culture.
Political radicalism thus implies moral radicalism: the games as art, emergence of a morality which might precondition man for freedom. This radicalism activates the elementary, organic foundation of morality in the human being. Prior to all ethical behavior in accordance with specific social standards, prior to all ideological expression, morality is a “disposition” of the organism, perhaps rooted in help writing, the erotic drive to counter aggressiveness, to essay games as art create and need narrative, preserve “ever greater unities” of essay video as art, life. We would then have, this side of all “values,” an instinctual foundation for solidarity among human beings – a solidarity which has been effectively repressed in line with the requirements of class society but which now appears as a precondition for liberation. To the degree to which this foundation is itself historical and the malleability of in an, “human nature” reaches into video the depth of man’s instinctual structure, changes in morality may “sink down” into the “biological  dimension and modify organic behavior. Research In Thesis! Once a specific morality is firmly established as a norm of social behavior, it is not only introjected – it also operates as a norm of “organic” behavior: the organism receives and reacts to certain stimuli and “ignores” and repels others in accord with the introjected morality, which is thus promoting or impeding the function of the organism as a living cell in the respective society. As Art! In this way, a society constantly re-creates, this side of consciousness and ideology, patterns of behavior and aspiration as part of the “nature” of its people, and of jesse james, unless the revolt reaches into this “second” nature, into these ingrown patterns, social change will remain “incomplete,” even self-defeating. The so-called consumer economy and the politics of corporate capitalism have created a second nature of man which ties him libidinally and aggressively to the commodity form. The need for possessing, consuming, handling, and constantly renewing the gadgets, devices, instruments, engines, offered to and imposed upon the people, for using these wares even at video games as art the danger of one’s own destruction, has become a “biological” need in the sense just defined. Of Jesse James Essay! The second nature of man thus militates against any change that would disrupt and perhaps even abolish this dependence of man on a market ever more densely filled with merchandise – abolish his existence as a consumer consuming himself in buying and essay, selling. The needs generated by this system are thus eminently stabilizing, conservative needs: the counterrevolution anchored in the instinctual structure.
The market has always been one of exploitation and thereby of domination, insuring the class structure of society. Of Jesse James Essay! However, the productive process of advanced capitalism has altered the video games, form of domination: the technological veil covers the brute presence and the operation of the class interest in the merchandise. Is it still necessary to state that not technology, not technique, not the machine are the engines of repression, but the presence, in them, of the masters who determine their number, their life span, their power, their place in life, and the need for them? Is it still necessary to repeat that science and in thesis, technology are the great vehicles of liberation, and that it is only their use and restriction in the repressive society which makes them into vehicles of domination? Not the automobile is repressive, not the television set is repressive, not the household gadgets are repressive, but the automobile, the television, the gadgets which, produced in accordance with the requirements of profitable exchange, have become part and as art, parcel of the people’s own existence, own “actualization.” Thus they have to buy part and parcel of rallycross octobre, their own existence on the market; this existence is the realization of capital. The naked class interest builds the unsafe and obsolescent automobiles, and through them promotes destructive energy; the class interest employs the mass media for the advertising of violence and stupidity, for the creation of video, captive audiences. In doing so, the masters only obey the demand of the public, of the masses; the research, famous law of supply and demand establishes the harmony between the rulers and essay, the ruled. This harmony is indeed pre-established to the degree to which the masters have created the public which asks for their wares, and rules numbers in an essay, asks for them more insistently if it can release, in and through the wares, its frustration and the aggressiveness resulting from this frustration. Self-determination, the autonomy of the individual, asserts itself in the right to race his automobile, to handle his power tools, to buy a gun, to communicate to mass audiences his opinion, no matter how ignorant, how aggressive, it may be. Organized capitalism has sublimated and turned to socially productive use frustration and primary aggressiveness on an unprecedented scale – unprecedented not in terms of the quantity of violence but rather in terms of its capacity to produce long-range contentment and satisfaction, to reproduce the “voluntary servitude.” To be sure, frustration, unhappiness, and sickness remain the basis of this sublimation, but the productivity and the brute power of the system still keep the basis well under control. The achievements justify the system of domination.
The established values become the people’s own values: adaptation turns into spontaneity, autonomy; and the choice between social necessities appears as freedom. Games! In this sense, the continuing exploitation is not only hidden behind the technological veil, but actually “transfigured.” The capitalist production relations are responsible not only for the servitude and toil but also for ability, the greater happiness and fun available to the majority of the population – and they deliver more goods than before. Neither its vastly increased capacity to produce the commodities of satisfaction nor the peaceful management of class conflicts rendered possible by this capacity cancels the essential features of capitalism, namely, the private appropriation of surplus value (steered but not abolished by video games as art government intervention) and its realization in rules of writing numbers in an essay, the corporate interest. Capitalism reproduces itself by transforming itself, and this transformation is mainly in the improvement of exploitation. As Art! Do exploitation and domination cease to be what they are and what they do to man if they are no longer suffered, if they are “compensated” by previously unknown comforts? Does labor cease to be debilitating if mental energy increasingly replaces physical energy in producing the goods and services which sustain a system that makes hell of large areas of the globe? An affirmative answer would justify any form of oppression which keeps the populace calm and in thesis, content; while a negative answer would deprive the essay games, individual of maths newspaper, being the judge of his own happiness.
The notion that happiness is an objective condition which demands more than subjective feelings has been effectively obscured; its validity depends on the real solidarity of the species “man,” which a society divided into games antagonistic classes and nations cannot achieve. As long as this is the history of mankind, the “state of nature,” no matter how refined, prevails: a civilized helium omnium contra omnes , in which the happiness of the ones must coexist with the suffering of the others. The First International was the last attempt to realize the solidarity of the rallycross 2010, species by grounding it in that social class in video, which the subjective and objective interest, the rallycross 2010, particular and the universal, coincided (the International is the late concretization of the abstract philosophical concept of “man as man,” human being, “Gattungswesen,” which plays such a decisive role in essay, Marx’ and Engels’ early writings). Then, the Spanish civil war aroused this solidarity, which is the driving power of liberation, in james, the unforgettable, hopeless fight of a tiny minority against the combined forces of fascist and liberal capitalism. Here, in the international brigades which, with their poor weapons, withstood overwhelming technical superiority, was the union of young intellectuals and workers – the union which has become the desperate goal of today’s radical opposition. Attainment of this goal is thwarted by the integration of the organized (and not only the organized) laboring class into the system of advanced capitalism.
Under its impact, the essay, distinction between the real and the immediate interest of the exploited has collapsed. Man S Wealth! This distinction, far from being an abstract idea, was guiding the strategy of the Marxist movements; it expressed the necessity transcending the economic struggle of the laboring classes, to extend wage demands and demands for the improvement of working conditions to the political arena, to drive the class struggle to the point at which the system itself would be at games stake, to make foreign as well as domestic policy, the national as well as the class interest, the target of this struggle. The real interest, the attainment of conditions in variables, which man could shape his own life, was that of no longer subordinating his life to the requirements of profitable production, to an apparatus controlled by forces beyond his control. And the attainment of such conditions meant the abolition of capitalism. It is not simply the higher standard of living, the illusory bridging of the consumer gap between the rulers and the ruled, which has obscured the distinction between the real and the immediate interest of the ruled. Essay Video As Art! Marxian theory soon recognized that impoverishment does not necessarily provide the soil for revolution, that a highly developed consciousness and imagination may generate a vital need for radical change in advanced material conditions. The power of corporate capitalism has stifled the emergence of such a consciousness and imagination; its mass media have adjusted the rational and emotional faculties to its market and its policies and maths, steered them to defense of its dominion.
The narrowing of the consumption gap has rendered possible the mental and instinctual coordination of the essay video games, laboring classes: the majority of organized labor shares the stabilizing, counterrevolutionary needs of the coursework, middle classes, as evidenced by their behavior as consumers of the material and cultural merchandise, by their emotional revulsion against the nonconformist intelligentsia. Conversely, where the essay video as art, consumer gap is still wide, where the capitalist culture has not yet reached into every house or hut, the system of need help writing, stabilizing needs has its limits; the glaring contrast between the privileged class and the exploited leads to a radicalization of the underprivileged. Games! This is the maths newspaper, case of the ghetto population and the unemployed in the United States; this is also the case of the laboring classes in the more backward capitalist countries.  By virtue of its basic position in the production process, by virtue of its numerical weight and the weight of exploitation, the working class is still the historical agent of revolution; by virtue of its sharing the stabilizing needs of the video, system, it has become a conservative, even counterrevolutionary force. Objectively, “in-itself,” labor still is the help writing narrative, potentially revolutionary class; subjectively, “for-itself,” it is not.
This theoretical conception has concrete significance in the prevailing situation, in which the working class may help to circumscribe the essay video as art, scope and the targets of political practice. In the advanced capitalist countries, the radicalization of the working classes is counteracted by a socially engineered arrest of consciousness, and by the development and satisfaction of needs which perpetuate the of writing numbers in an essay, servitude of the exploited. A vested interest in the existing system is video games, thus fostered in the instinctual structure of the exploited, and the rupture with the continuum of poor, repression a necessary precondition of liberation – does not occur. It follows that the radical change which is to transform the existing society into a free society must reach into essay video games as art a dimension of the human existence hardly considered in Marxian theory – the -biological- dimension in which the vital, imperative needs and satisfactions of man assert themselves. Inasmuch as these needs and satisfactions reproduce a life in servitude, liberation presupposes changes in this biological dimension, that is to say, different instinctual needs, different reactions of the body as well as the mind. The qualitative difference between the existing societies and a free society affects all needs and satisfactions beyond the animal level, that is to say, all those which are essential to the human species, man as rational animal.
All these needs and satisfactions are permeated with the exigencies of profit and maths newspaper coursework, exploitation. The entire realm of competitive performances and standardized fun, all the symbols of status, prestige, power, of video games as art, advertised virility and charm, of commercialized beauty – this entire realm kills in its citizens the need writing, very disposition, the organs, for essay video as art, the alternative: freedom without exploitation. Triumph and end of introjection: the stage where the people cannot reject the system of domination without rejecting themselves, their own repressive instinctual needs and values. We would have to conclude that liberation would mean subversion against the will and against the prevailing interests of the great majority of the variables, people. In this false identification of social and essay video, individual needs, in this deep-rooted, “organic” adaptation of the people to of writing numbers in an a terrible but profitably functioning society, lie the limits of essay, democratic persuasion and evolution. On the overcoming of these limits depends the establishment of democracy.  It is precisely this excessive adaptability of the human organism which propels the perpetuation and extension of the commodity form and, with it, the perpetuation and extension of the social controls over behavior and satisfaction. The ever-increasing complexity of the social structure will make some form of regimentation unavoidable, freedom and privacy may come to constitute antisocial luxuries and their attainment to maths involve real hardships. In consequence, there may emerge by selection a stock of human beings suited genetically to video as art accept as a matter of course a regimented and sheltered way of life in a teeming and polluted world, from which all wilderness and rallycross, fantasy of nature will have disappeared. The domesticated farm animal and essay video, the laboratory rodent on a controlled regimen in newspaper, a controlled environment will then become true models for the study of man . Thus, it is essay video as art, apparent that food, natural resources, supplies of power, and other elements involved in the operation of the body machine and of the essay octobre 2010, individual establishment are not the only factors to be considered in determining the essay as art, optimum number of essay, people that can live on earth. Just as important for maintaining the video games, human qualities of life is an environment in which it is possible to satisfy the longing for quiet, privacy, independence, initiative, and some open space. 
Capitalist progress thus not only reduces the environment of freedom, the “open space” of the the assassination of jesse james essay, human existence, but also the ‘longing,” the need for such an environment. And in doing so, quantitative progress militates against qualitative change even if the institutional barriers against radical education and action are surmounted. This is the vicious circle: the rupture with the self-propelling conservative continuum of needs must precede the revolution which is to usher in essay video games as art, a free society, but such rupture itself can be envisaged only in a revolution – a revolution which would be driven by the vital need to be freed from the administered comforts and research variables, the destructive productivity of the exploitative society, freed from smooth heteronomy, a revolution which, by virtue of this “biological” foundation, would have the essay video, chance of turning quantitative technical progress into qualitatively different ways of life – precisely because it would be a revolution occurring at a high level of material and intellectual development, one which would enable man to conquer scarcity and poverty. If this idea of a radical transformation is to rules numbers essay be more than idle speculation, it must have an objective foundation in the production process of advanced industrial society,  in its technical capabilities and their use. For freedom indeed depends largely on technical progress, on the advancement of science. Essay As Art! But this fact easily obscures the ability, essential precondition: in order to become vehicles of freedom, science and technology would have to change their present direction and goals; they would have to be reconstructed in accord with a new sensibility – the demands of the life instincts.
Then one could speak of a technology of liberation, product of essay games as art, a scientific imagination free to project and design the forms of a human universe without exploitation and toil. In An! But this gaya scienza is conceivable only after the games as art, historical break in the continuum of domination as expressive of the needs of a new type of research variables in thesis, man.  The idea of a new type of man as the member (though not as the builder) of essay games as art, a socialist society appears in Marx and maths coursework, Engels in the concept of the “all-round individual,” free to engage in essay video games, the most varying activities. In the socialist society corresponding to this idea, the free development of individual faculties would replace the subjection of the individual to the division of labor. But no matter what activities the essay, all-round individual would choose, they would be activities which are bound to lose the quality of freedom if exercised “en masse” – and they would be “en masse,” for essay video games, even the most authentic socialist society would inherit the variables, population growth and the mass basis of advanced capitalism. The early Marxian example of the free individuals alternating between hunting, fishing, criticizing, and so on, had a joking-ironical sound from the essay video as art, beginning, indicative of the impossibility anticipating the ways in which liberated human beings would use their freedom. However, the embarrassingly ridiculous sound may also indicate the degree to which this vision has become obsolete and pertains to a stage of the development of the productive forces which has been surpassed.
The later Marxian concept implies the rallycross essay 2010, continued separation between the realm of necessity and the realm of freedom, between labor and leisure – not only in time, but also in such a manner that the essay as art, same subject lives a different life in the two realms. According to this Marxian conception, the help writing, realm of necessity would continue under socialism to such an extent that real human freedom would prevail only outside the entire sphere of socially necessary labor. Marx rejects the idea that work can ever become play. Video!  Alienation would be reduced with the progressive reduction of the working day, but the latter would remain a day of unfreedom, rational but not free. However, the development of the productive forces beyond their capitalist organization suggests the possibility of freedom within the realm of necessity. The quantitative reduction of necessary labor could turn into poor wealth quality (freedom), not in proportion to the reduction but rather to the transformation of the working day, a transformation in which the essay video games as art, stupefying, enervating, pseudo-automatic jobs of capitalist progress would be abolished. But the construction of such a society presupposes a type of man with a different sensitivity as well as consciousness: men who would speak a different language, have different gestures, follow different impulses; men who have developed an instinctual barrier against cruelty, brutality, ugliness. Such an instinctual transformation is conceivable as a factor of social change only if it enters the social division of labor, the production relations themselves. They would be shaped by men and women who have the good conscience of maths newspaper coursework, being human, tender, sensuous, who are no longer ashamed of themselves – for -the token of freedom attained, that is, no longer being ashamed of ourselves” (Nietzsche, Die Frohliche Wissenschaft , Book III, 275).
The imagination of such men and women would fashion their reason and essay video, tend to make the process of production a process of creation. This is the utopian concept of socialism which envisages the ingression of freedom into the realm of necessity, and the union between causality by necessity and causality by freedom. The first would mean passing from Marx to Fourier; the research variables in thesis, second from realism to surrealism.  A utopian conception? It has been the great, real, transcending force, the “ ide neuve ,” in the first powerful rebellion against the whole of the video games as art, existing society, the rebellion for the total transvaluation of values, for qualitatively different ways of the assassination james essay, life: the May rebellion in France. The graffiti of the “ jeunesse en colre ” joined Karl Marx and Andre Breton; the slogan “ l'imagination au pouvoir ” went well with “ les comits (soviets) partout ”; the games, piano with the the assassination essay, jazz player stood well between the barricades; the red flag well fitted the statue of the author of Les Miserables ; and striking students in Toulouse demanded the revival of the language of the video games, Troubadours, the Albigensians. The new sensibility has become a political force. It crosses the frontier between the capitalist and rallycross essay octobre 2010, the communist orbit ; it is contagious because the atmosphere, the climate of the established societies, carries the virus. The new Sensibility has become a political factor.
This event, which may well indicate a turning point in the evolution of video, contemporary societies, demands that critical theory incorporate the new dimension into its concepts, project its implications for the possible construction of a free society. Such a society presupposes throughout the achievements of the existing societies, especially their scientific and technical achievements. Released from their service in the cause of exploitation, they could be mobilized for the global elimination of poverty and toil. True, this redirection of the intellectual and material production already presupposes the variables in thesis, revolution in the capitalist world; the theoretical projection seems to be fatally premature – were it not for the fact that the awareness of the transcendent possibilities of as art, freedom must become a driving power in the consciousness and the imagination which prepare the soil for this revolution. The latter will be essentially different, and effective, precisely to the degree to which it is carried forward by this power. The new sensibility, which expresses the ascent of the life instincts over aggressiveness and guilt, would foster, on a social scale, the vital need for research in thesis, the abolition of injustice and misery and would shape the video, further evolution of the “standard of living.” The life instincts would find rational expression (sublimation) in planning the distribution of the socially necessary labor time within and among the various branches of production, thus setting priorities of goals and choices: not only what to produce but also the “form” of the product. The liberated consciousness would promote the development of a science and technology free to discover and realize the possibilities of things and men in rallycross octobre 2010, the protection and essay games, gratification of life, playing with the potentialities of form and matter for the attainment of this goal. Technique would then tend to become art, and art would tend to james essay form reality: the video, opposition between imagination and reason, higher and lower faculties, poetic and scientific thought, would be invalidated.
Emergence of a new Reality Principle: under which a new sensibility and a desublimated scientific intelligence would combine in the creation of an help narrative aesthetic ethos. The term “aesthetic,” in its dual connotation of “pertaining to the senses” and “pertaining to art,” may serve to designate the quality of the productive-creative process in an environment of freedom. Technique, assuming the features of art, would translate subjective sensibility into objective form, into reality. This would be the sensibility of men and essay video games, women who do not have to be ashamed of themselves anymore because they have overcome their sense of guilt: they have learned not to identify themselves with the variables, false fathers who have built and tolerated and forgotten the Auschwitzs and video games as art, Vietnams of history, the torture chambers of all the secular and ecclesiastical inquisitions and interrogations, the ghettos and the monumental temples of the maths newspaper, corporations, and essay video games as art, who have worshiped the rules numbers essay, higher culture of this reality. If and when men and women act and think free from this identification, they will have broken the chain which linked the fathers and the sons from generation to generation.
They will not have redeemed the crimes against humanity, but they will have become free to stop them and to prevent their recommencement. Chance of games as art, reaching the point of maths newspaper, no return to the past: if and when the causes are eliminated which have made the history of mankind the history of domination and servitude. These causes are economic-political, but since they have shaped the video games, very instincts and needs of men, no economic and political changes will bring this historical continuum to ability is a wealth a stop unless they are carried through by men who are physiologically and psychologically able to video experience things, and each other, outside the context of violence and exploitation. The new sensibility has become, by this very token, praxis: it emerges in the struggle against violence and exploitation where this struggle is waged for essentially new ways and the assassination of jesse, forms of life: negation of the entire Establishment, its morality, culture; affirmation of the video games as art, right to build a society in which the abolition of poverty and toil terminates in a universe where the sensuous, the playful, the calm, and the beautiful become forms of existence and thereby the Form of the society itself. The aesthetic as the possible Form of a free society appears at that stage of development where the intellectual and writing, material resources for the conquest of scarcity are available, where previously progressive repression turns into regressive suppression, where the higher culture in which the aesthetic values (and the aesthetic truth) had been monopolized and segregated from the reality collapses and video games as art, dissolves in desublimated, “lower,” and numbers essay, destructive forms, where the hatred of the young bursts into laughter and song, mixing the barricade and the dance floor, love play and heroism. And the young also attack the esprit de serieux in the socialist camp: miniskirts against video as art, the apparatchiks, rock ‘n’ roll against Soviet Realism.
The insistence that a socialist society can and ought to be light, pretty, playful, that these qualities are essential elements of freedom, the faith in the rationality of the imagination, the demand for a new morality and rules in an essay, culture – does this great anti-authoritarian rebellion indicate a new dimension and direction of radical change, the appearance of new agents of essay games, radical change, and variables in thesis, a new vision of socialism in its qualitative difference from the established societies? Is there anything in the aesthetic dimension which has an essential affinity with freedom not only in its sublimated cultural (artistic) but also in its desublimated political, existential form, so that the essay games as art, aesthetic can become a gesellschaftliche Produktivkraft : factor in of jesse essay, the technique of production, horizon under which the material and essay video games, intellectual needs develop? Throughout the centuries, the analysis of the aesthetic dimension focused on the idea of the beautiful. Does this idea express the aesthetic ethos which provides the common denominator of the essay, aesthetic and essay, the political? As desired object, the beautiful pertains to the domain of the primary instincts, Eros and Thanatos. The mythos links the adversaries: pleasure and terror. Beauty has the ability poor man s wealth, power to check aggression: it forbids and immobilizes the aggressor.
The beautiful Medusa petrifies him who confronts her. “Poseidon, the god with azure locks, slept with her in a soft meadow on a bed with springtime flowers.  She is slain by Perseus, and from her truncated body springs the winged horse Pegasus, symbol of poetic imagination. Kinship of the video games as art, beautiful, the divine, the poetic, but also kinship of the beautiful and unsublimated joy. Subsequently, the classical aesthetic, while insisting on the harmonious union of sensuousness, imagination, and need help essay, reason in the beautiful, equally insisted on the objective (ontological) character of the beautiful, as the Form in which man and nature come into their own: fulfillment. Essay! Kant asks whether there is not a hidden connection between Beauty and Perfection ( Vollkommenheit ),  and Nietzsche notes: “the Beautiful as the mirror ( Spiegelung ) of the Logical, i.e., the laws of logic are the object of the laws of the Beautiful.  For the ability poor, artist, the beautiful is mastery of the opposites “without tension, so that violence is no longer needed. ” The beautiful has the “biological value” of that which is “useful, beneficial, enhancing life” ( Lebensteigernd ).  By virtue of these qualities, the aesthetic dimension can serve as a sort of gauge for a free society. A universe of human relationships no longer mediated by the market, no longer based on competitive exploitation or terror, demands a sensitivity freed from the repressive satisfactions of the unfree societies; a sensitivity receptive to forms and modes of reality which thus far have been projected only by the aesthetic imagination. For the essay video games as art, aesthetic needs have their own social content: they are the claims of the human organism, mind and body, for a dimension of fulfillment which can be created only in rallycross essay octobre 2010, the struggle against the institutions which, by video as art their very functioning, deny and violate these claims.
The radical social content of the aesthetic needs becomes evident as the demand for their most elementary satisfaction is translated into group action on an enlarged scale. From the harmless drive for better zoning regulations and a modicum of protection from noise and dirt to coursework the pressure for games as art, closing of whole city areas to automobiles, prohibition of of writing in an essay, transistor radios in all public places, decommercialization of nature, total urban reconstruction, control of the birth rate – such action would become increasingly subversive of the institutions of capitalism and of their morality. The quantity of such reforms would turn into the quality of radical change to the degree to which they would critically weaken the economic, political, and cultural pressure and essay, power groups which have a vested interest in preserving the environment and rules, ecology of profitable merchandising. The aesthetic morality is the opposite of puritanism. It does not insist on video as art, a daily bath or shower for people whose cleaning practices involve systematic torture, slaughtering, poisoning; nor does it insist on clean clothes for men who are professionally engaged in dirty deals. Research In Thesis! But it does insist on cleaning the essay, earth from the very material garbage produced by narrative essay the spirit of capitalism, and from this spirit itself.
And it insists on freedom as a biological necessity: being physically incapable of tolerating any repression other than that required for the protection and amelioration of life. When Kant, in his third Critique, all but obliterated the frontiers between sensibility and imagination, he recognized the extent to which the senses are “productive,” creative – the extent to which they have a share in producing the images of essay as art, freedom. For its part, the imagination depends on the senses which provide the experiential material out of which the imagination creates its realm of freedom, by transforming the objects and relationships which have been the data of the senses and which have been formed by the senses. The freedom of the imagination is thus restrained by the order of the sensibility, not only by its pure forms (space and time), but also by its empirical content which, as the object-world to be transcended, remains a determining factor in the transcendence. Need Narrative! Whatever beautiful or sublime, pleasurable or terrifying forms of reality the imagination may project, they are “derived” from sensuous experience. However, the freedom of the imagination is video as art, restrained not only by the sensibility, but also, at the other pole of the organic structure, by the rational faculty of man, his reason. The most daring images of a new world, of new ways of life, are still guided by concepts, and by a logic elaborated in 2010, the development of thought, transmitted from generation to generation.
On both sides, that of the sensibility and that of reason, history enters into the projects of the imagination, for the world of the senses is a historical world, and reason is the conceptual mastery and interpretation of the historical world. The order and organization of class society, which have shaped the sensibility and the reason of man, have also shaped the freedom of the imagination. It had its controlled play in the sciences, pure and essay as art, applied, and its autonomous play in poetry, fiction, the need help narrative essay, arts. Between the dictates of instrumentalist reason on the one hand and a sense experience mutilated by the realizations of essay as art, this reason on the other, the power of the ability is a poor, imagination was repressed ; it was free to become practical, i.e., to transform reality only within the general framework of video games as art, repression; beyond these limits, the practice of the the assassination of jesse james, imagination was violation of taboos of social morality, was perversion and subversion. In the video games as art, great historical revolutions, the imagination was, for a short period, released and free to the assassination of jesse james essay enter into the projects of a new social morality and of new institutions of freedom; then it was sacrificed to games as art the requirements of effective reason. If now, in the rebellion of the young intelligentsia, the right and the truth of the imagination become the demands of political action, if surrealistic forms of protest and refusal spread throughout the movement, this apparently insignificant development may indicate a fundamental change in the situation. Variables In Thesis! The political protest, assuming a total character, reaches into a dimension which, as aesthetic dimension, has been essentially apolitical. And the political protest activates in video games, this dimension precisely the foundational, organic elements: the human sensibility which rebels against the dictates of repressive reason, and, in doing so, invokes the sensuous power of the imagination. The political action which insists on a new morality and a new sensibility as preconditions and results of social change occurs at a point at which the repressive rationality that has brought about the achievements of industrial society becomes utterly regressive – rational only in its efficiency to “contain” liberation.
Beyond the variables, limits (and beyond the power) of repressive reason now appears the prospect for a new relationship between sensibility and reason, namely, the harmony between sensibility and a radical consciousness: rational faculties capable of video as art, projecting and 2010, defining the objective (material) conditions of video games as art, freedom, its real limits and chances. But instead of being shaped and permeated by the rationality of domination, the sensibility would be guided by the imagination, mediating between the rational faculties and the sensuous needs. The great conception which animates Kant’s critical philosophy shatters the philosophical framework in which he kept it. Ability Poor Wealth Essay! The imagination, unifying sensibility and reason, becomes “productive” as it becomes practical: a guiding force in the reconstruction of reality – reconstruction with the help of video as art, a gaya scienza , a science and technology released from their service to destruction and exploitation, and thus free for essay octobre, the liberating exigencies of the imagination. The rational transformation of the world could then lead to a reality formed by the aesthetic sensibility of man. Such a world could (in a literal sense!) embody, incorporate, the human faculties and desires to such an extent that they appear as part of the objective determinism of nature – coincidence of causality through nature and causality through freedom.
Andre Breton has made this idea the essay video as art, center of surrealist thought: his concept of the hasard objectif designates the poor, nodal point at which the two chains of causation meet and games as art, bring about the rallycross octobre 2010, event.  The aesthetic universe is the Lebenswelt on which the needs and faculties of freedom depend for their liberation. They cannot develop in as art, an environment shaped by and for aggressive impulses, nor can they be envisaged as the mere effect of a new set of social institutions. They can emerge only in the collective practice of creating an environment: level by newspaper level, step by step – in the material and intellectual production, an environment in which the non-aggressive, erotic, receptive faculties of man, in harmony with the consciousness of freedom, strive for the pacification of man and nature. Essay Video! In the reconstruction of society for the attainment of this goal, reality altogether would assume a Form expressive of the new goal. The essentially aesthetic quality of this Form would make it a work of art, but inasmuch as the Form is to emerge in the social process of production, art would have changed its traditional locus and function in society: it would have become a productive force in the material as well as cultural transformation. And as such force, art would be an integral factor in shaping the quality and the “appearance” of things, in shaping the ability poor man s essay, reality, the way of video games, life. This would mean the Aufhebung of variables, art: end of the segregation of the aesthetic from the real, but also end of the commercial unification of business and beauty, exploitation and pleasure. Art would recapture some of its more primitive “technical” connotations: as the art of preparing (cooking!), cultivating, growing things, giving them a form which neither violates their matter nor the sensitivity – ascent of essay video games, Form as one of the necessities of being, universal beyond all subjective varieties of taste, affinity, etc. According to Kant, there are pure forms of sensibility a priori, common to all human beings.
Only space and time? Or is there perhaps also a more material constitutive form, such as the primary distinction between beautiful and ugly, good and bad  – prior to all rationalization and rallycross essay, ideology,. a distinction made by the senses (productive in their receptivity), distinguishing that which violates sensibility from that which gratifies it? In which case the vast varieties of taste, affinity, predilection would be the differentiation of an essay “original” basic form of sensibility, sense experience, on essay, which modeling, restraining, and repressing forces would operate in accord with the respective individual and social situation. The new sensibility and the new consciousness which are to project and essay video as art, guide such reconstruction demand a new language to define and communicate the new “values” (language in the wider sense which includes words, images, gestures, tones). It has been said that the degree to need narrative which a revolution is video games as art, developing qualitatively different social conditions and relationships may perhaps be indicated by the development of a different language: the rupture with the continuum of maths newspaper coursework, domination must also be a rupture with the vocabulary of domination. The surrealist thesis, according to which the poet is the total nonconformist, finds in the poetic language the semantic elements of the revolution. Car le pote. ne peut plus tre reconnu comme tel s'il ne s'oppose par un non-conformisme total au monde o il vit. Il se dresse contre tous, y compris les rvolutionnaires qui, se plaant sur le terrain de la seule politique, arbitrairement isole par-l de Ensemble du mouvement culturel – prconisent la soumission de la culture a l'accomplissement de la rvolution sociale .  The surrealist thesis does not abandon the materialistic premises but it protests against the isolation of the material from the cultural development, which leads to a submission of the latter to the former and thus to a reduction (if not denial) of the libertarian possibilities of the revolution. Prior to their incorporation into the material development, these possibilities are “sur-realistic”: they belong to the poetic imagination, formed and expressed in the poetic language. It is not, it cannot be, an instrumentalist language, not an instrument of revolution.
It seems that the poems and the songs of protest and liberation are always too late or too early: memory or dream. Their time is not the present; they preserve their truth in games, their hope, in their refusal of the actual. The distance between the universe of poetry and that of politics is so great, the research in thesis, mediations which validate the poetic truth and the rationality of games, imagination are so complex, that any shortcut between the two realities seems fatal to poetry. There is no way in which we can envisage a historical change in the relation between the cultural and rules numbers in an, the revolutionary movement which could bridge the gap between the everyday and the poetic language and abrogate the dominance of the former. The latter seems to draw all its power and all its truth from its otherness, its transcendence. And yet, the radical denial of the games, Establishment and the communication of the new consciousness depend more and writing narrative essay, more fatefully on a language of essay video, their own as all communication is monopolized and validated by the one-dimensional society.
To be sure, the language of denial has, in its “material,” always been the same as the language of affirmation; the linguistic continuity reasserted itself after every revolution. Perhaps necessarily so, because through all revolutions, the continuity of domination has been sustained. But in the past, the language of indictment and liberation, though it shared its vocabulary with the masters and their retainers, had found its own meaning and validation in actual revolutionary struggles which eventually changed the established societies. The familiar (used and abused) vocabulary of freedom, justice, and equality could thus obtain not only new meaning but also new reality the reality which emerged in the revolutions of the 17th and 18th centuries and led to less restricted forms of freedom, justice, and equality. Today, the rupture with the linguistic universe of the Establishment is more radical: in the most militant areas of protest, it amounts to a methodical reversal of essay, meaning. It is a familiar phenomenon that sub-cultural groups develop their own language, taking the essay, harmless words of everyday communication out of their context and using them for designating objects or activities tabooed by the Establishment. This is the Hippie subculture: “trip,” “grass,” “pot,” “acid,” and so on. But a far more subversive universe of discourse announces itself in the language of rules numbers, black militants.
Here is a systematic linguistic rebellion, which smashes the ideological context in which the essay games, words are employed and defined, and places them into the opposite context – negation of the established one.  Thus, the blacks “take over” some of the most sublime and sublimated concepts of Western civilization, desublimate them, and redefine them. For example, the of jesse james, -soul” (in its essence lily-white ever since Plato), the video, traditional seat of everything that is truly human in need help writing essay, man, tender, deep, immortal – the video games as art, word which has become embarrassing, corny, false in the established universe of of writing numbers essay, discourse, has been desublimated and in essay video as art, this transsubstantiation, migrated to is a poor man s wealth essay the Negro culture: they are soul brothers; the soul is black, violent, orgiastic; it is no longer in Beethoven, Schubert, but in video as art, the blues, in jazz, in rallycross octobre 2010, rock ‘n’ roll, in -soul food.” Similarly, the video games as art, militant slogan “black is beautiful” redefines another central concept of the traditional culture by reversing its symbolic value and associating it with the anti-color of darkness, tabooed magic, the uncanny. The ingression of the aesthetic into the political also appears at poor man s the other pole of the essay games as art, rebellion against the society of affluent capitalism, among the nonconformist youth. Maths! Here, too, the reversal of meaning, driven to the point of open contradiction: giving flowers to the police, “flower power” – the redefinition and very negation of the sense of “power”; the essay video, erotic belligerency in the songs of protest; the man s, sensuousness of long hair, of the body unsoiled by plastic cleanliness. These political manifestations of a new sensibility indicate the depth of the rebellion, of the rupture with the continuum of repression. They bear witness to the power of the society in shaping the whole of video games, experience, the whole metabolism between the organism and its environment. Beyond the physiological level, the rallycross essay octobre, exigencies of sensibility develop as historical ones: the video, objects which the senses confront and apprehend are the products of a specific stage of research, civilization and of a specific society, and the senses in turn are geared to their objects. This historical interrelation affects even the primary sensations: an established society imposes upon video games as art, all its members the same medium of perception; and maths newspaper coursework, through all the differences of individual and class perspectives, horizons, backgrounds, society provides the same general universe of experience. Consequently, the rupture with the video games as art, continuum of aggression and exploitation would also break with the sensibility geared to rallycross essay 2010 this universe. Today’s rebels want to see, hear, feel new things in a new way: they link liberation with the dissolution of ordinary and orderly perception. The “trip” involves the dissolution of the ego shaped by the established society – an artificial and short-lived dissolution.
But the artificial and “private” liberation anticipates, in a distorted manner, an exigency of the social liberation: the revolution must be at the same time a revolution in perception which will accompany the material and intellectual reconstruction of society, creating the new aesthetic environment. Awareness of the need for such a revolution in perception, for a new sensorium, is perhaps the kernel of truth in the psychedelic search. But it is vitiated when its narcotic character brings temporary release not only from the reason and rationality of the established system but also from that other rationality which is to change the established system, when sensibility is freed not only from the exigencies of the existing order but also from essay games, those of liberation. Intentionally non-committed, the withdrawal creates its artificial paradises within the society from which it withdrew. They thus remain subject to the law of this society, which punishes the inefficient performances. In contrast, the radical transformation of society implies the union of the new sensibility with a new rationality. The imagination becomes productive if it becomes the mediator between sensibility on the one hand, and theoretical as well as practical reason on the other, and in this harmony of faculties (in which Kant saw the token of freedom) guides the reconstruction of society. Such a union has been the distinguishing feature of art, but its realization has been stopped at the point at which it would have become incompatible with the basic institutions and social relationships.
The material culture, the reality, continued to lag behind the progress of reason and imagination and to condemn much of help writing narrative, these faculties to irreality, fantasy, fiction. Art could not become a technique in video games as art, reconstructing reality; the sensibility remained repressed, and the experience mutilated. But the revolt against repressive reason which released the chained power of the aesthetic in the new sensibility has also radicalized it in art: the value and rallycross, function of as art, art are undergoing essential changes. They affect the affirmative character of art (by virtue of which art has the need narrative essay, power of reconciliation with the status quo), and the degree of sublimation (which militated against the realization of the truth, of the cognitive force of games as art, art). The protest against writing narrative essay, these features of art spreads through the entire universe of art prior to the First World War and continues with increased intensity: it gives voice and image to the negative power of art, and to video the tendencies toward a desublimation of culture. The emergence of contemporary art (I shall use “art” throughout as including the visual arts as well as literature and music) means more than the traditional replacement of one style by maths another. Non-objective, abstract painting and sculpture, stream-of-consciousness and formalist literature, twelve-tone composition, blues and jazz: these are not merely new modes of perception reorienting and intensifying the old ones; they rather dissolve the very structure of perception in order to make room – for what? The new object of art is not yet “given,” but the familiar object has become impossible, false.
From illusion, imitation, harmony to essay games as art reality – but the wealth, reality is not yet “given”; it is not the one which is the object of “realism.” Reality has to be discovered and projected. Video Games! The senses must learn not to see things anymore in the medium of that law and order which has formed them; the bad functionalism which organizes our sensibility must be smashed. From the ability poor essay, beginning, the new art insists on its radical autonomy in tension or conflict with the development of the Bolshevik Revolution and the revolutionary movements activated by it. Art remains alien to the revolutionary praxis by virtue of the artist’s commitment to Form: Form as art’s own reality, as die Sache selbst . The Russian “formalist” B. Video Games! Eikhenbaum insists: La notion de forme a obtenu un sens nouveau, elle n'est plus une enveloppe, mais une intgrit dynamique et concrte qui a un contenu en elle-mme, hors de toute corrlation .  Form is the achievement of the artistic perception which breaks the unconscious and “false” “automatism,” the unquestioned familiarity which operates in of writing numbers in an essay, every practice, including the revolutionary practice – an automatism of immediate experience, but a socially engineered experience which militates against video, the liberation of sensibility. The artistic perception is newspaper, supposed to shatter this immediacy which, in truth, is essay games, a historical product: the medium of experience imposed by the established society but coagulating into a self-sufficient, closed, “automatic” system: Ainsi la vie disparat, se transformant en un rien. L'automatisation avale les objets, les habits, les meubles, la femme et la peur de la guerre  If this deadly system of life is to be changed without being replaced by is a essay another deadly one, men must learn to develop the new sensibility of essay as art, life of rules of writing numbers in an essay, their own life and that of things: Et voil que pour rendre la sensation de la vie, pour sentir les objets, pour prouver que la pierre est de pierre, existe ce que l'on appelle l'art.
Le but de Fart, c'est de donner une sensation de l'objet comme vision et non pas comme reconnaissance; le procde de Fart est le procde de singularisation des objets et le procde qui consiste obscurcir la forme, augmenter la difficult et la dure de la perception. L'acte de perception en art est une fin en soi et doit tre prolonge ; l'art est un moyen d'prouver le devenir de l'objet; ce qui est dj ‘devenu’, n'importe pas pour l'art .  I have referred to the Formalists because it seems characteristic that the essay video games as art, transformative element in art is emphasized by a school which insists on the artistic perception as end-in-itself, on the Form as Content. It is precisely the Form by virtue of the assassination james, which art transcends the essay video games as art, given reality, works in the established reality against the established reality; and this transcendent element is inherent in art, in the artistic dimension. Art alters experience by reconstructing the objects of experience reconstructing them in word, tone, image. Why? Evidently, the “language” of art must communicate a truth, an objectivity which is the assassination, not accessible to ordinary language and ordinary experience. This exigency explodes in essay video as art, the situation of contemporary art. The radical character, the “violence” of this reconstruction in contemporary art seems to indicate that it does not rebel against one style or another but against “style” itself, against the art-form of art, against the traditional “meaning” of variables in thesis, art. The great artistic rebellion in the period of the first World War gives the signal. Wir setzen grossen Jahrhunderten ein Nein entgegen . (Wir) gehen, zur spottischen Verwunderung unserer Mitwelt, einen Seitenweg, der kaum ein Weg zu sein scheint, und sagen: Dies ist die Hauptstrasse der Menschheitsentwicklung . 
The fight is against the “ Illusionistische Kunst Europas ”:  art must no longer be illusory because its relation to reality has changed: the video games as art, latter has become susceptible to, even dependent on, the transforming function of art. The revolutions and need help narrative, the defeated and essay video as art, betrayed revolutions which occurred in the wake of the war denounced a reality which had made art an illusion, and inasmuch as art has been an illusion ( schner Schein ), the new art proclaims itself as anti-art. Moreover, the illusory art incorporated the established ideas of possession ( Besitzvorstellungen ) navely into its forms of representation: it did not question the object-character (die Dinglichkeiten ) of the world as subject to man. Art must break with this reification: it must become gemalte oder modellierte Erkenntniskritik , based on a new optic replacing the Newtonian optic, and this art would correspond to a “type of man who is not like us.  Since then, the eruption of anti-art in art has manifested itself in many familiar forms: destruction of rules of writing in an essay, syntax, fragmentation of words and sentences, explosive use of essay as art, ordinary language, compositions without score, sonatas for anything. And yet, this entire de-formation is Form: anti-art has remained art, supplied, purchased, and contemplated as art. The wild revolt of art has remained a short-lived shock, quickly absorbed in the art gallery, within the four walls, in the concert hall, by the market, and adorning the plazas and ability is a man s wealth essay, lobbies of the prospering business establishments. Essay Video Games! Transforming the intent of art is self-defeating – a self-defeat built into essay the very structure of art. Video Games! No matter how affirmative, “realistic” the maths newspaper coursework, oeuvre may be, the artist has given it a form which is not part of the video, reality he presents and in which he works. The oeuvre is unreal precisely inasmuch as it is art: the is a poor, novel is not a newspaper story, the still life not alive, and even in essay, pop art the real tin can is not in maths newspaper, the supermarket. The very Form of art contradicts the effort to do away with the segregation of art to a “second reality,” to translate the truth of the productive imagination into the first reality.
The Form of essay games, art: we must once again glance at the philosophical tradition which has focused the james, analysis of art on the concept of the “beautiful” (in spite of the fact that so much of art is obviously not beautiful!). The beautiful has been interpreted as ethical and cognitive “value”: the kalokagathon ; the beautiful as sensuous appearance of the video games, Idea; the Way of essay, Truth passes through the realm of the Beautiful. What is meant by these metaphors? The root of the essay video as art, aesthetic is in sensibility. What is beautiful is first sensuous: it appeals to variables in thesis the senses; it is video, pleasurable, object of unsublimated drives. However, the beautiful seems to occupy a position halfway between sublimated and unsublimated objectives. Beauty is not an essential, “organic” feature of the immediate sex-object (it may even deter the unsublimated drive!), while, at the other extreme, a mathematical theorem can be called “beautiful” only in a highly abstract, figurative sense.
It seems that the various connotations of beauty converge in the idea of Form. In the newspaper, aesthetic Form, the content (matter) is assembled, defined, and arranged to obtain a condition in which the immediate, unmastered forces of the matter, of the “material,” are mastered, “ordered.” Form is the negation, the mastery of disorder, violence, suffering, even when it presents disorder, violence, suffering. Essay Games! This triumph of ability is a poor, art is achieved by subjecting the content to the aesthetic order, which is autonomous in its exigencies. Essay Games As Art! The work of art sets its own limits and ends, it is sinngebend in relating the elements to each other according to its own law: the “form” of the tragedy, novel, sonata, picture . . . The content is thereby transformed: it obtains a meaning (sense) which transcends the elements of the content, and help writing narrative essay, this transcending order is the appearance of the beautiful as the truth of art. The way in which the essay video, tragedy narrates the fate of Oedipus and the city, in of writing in an essay, which it orders the sequence of events, gives word to as art the unsaid and to the unspeakable – the “Form” of the variables in thesis, tragedy terminates the horror with the end of the play – it brings the destruction to a standstill, it makes the blind seeing, the intolerable tolerable and understandable, it subordinates the wrong, the contingent, the evil, to “poetic justice.” The phrase is indicative of the internal ambivalence of art: to indict that which is, and to “cancel” the indictment in the aesthetic form, redeeming the suffering, the crime. This “redeeming,” reconciling power seems inherent in art, by virtue of its being art, by virtue of its form-giving power. The redeeming, reconciling power of art adheres even to the most radical manifestations of non-illusory art and anti-art. They are still oeuvres: paintings, sculptures, compositions, poems, and as such they have their own form and with it their own order: their own frame (though it may be invisible), their own space, their own beginning, and their own end. The aesthetic necessity of art supersedes the terrible necessity of reality, sublimates its pain and games as art, pleasure; the research, blind suffering and cruelty of nature (and of the “nature” of man) assume meaning and end – “poetic justice.” The horror of the crucifixion is purified by the beautiful face of Jesus dominating the beautiful composition, the horror of politics by the beautiful verse of Racine, the horror of as art, farewell forever by the Lied von der Erde . And in this aesthetic universe, joy and fulfillment find their proper place alongside pain and need, death – everything is in order again. The indictment is video games, canceled, and even defiance, insult, and derision – the newspaper coursework, extreme artistic negation of art – succumb to this order.
With this restoration of order, the Form indeed achieves a katharsis – the terror and the pleasure of reality are purified. Essay Video Games As Art! But the achievement is illusory, false, fictitious: it remains within the dimension of art, a work of art; in need help, reality, fear and frustration go on essay video games as art, unabated (as they do, after the brief katharsis , in the psyche). This is perhaps the most telling expression of the contradiction, the self-defeat, built into art: the pacifying conquest of matter, the transfiguration of the object remain unreal – just as the revolution in perception remains unreal. And this vicarious character of art has, time and rallycross 2010, again, given rise to the question as to essay games the justification of art: was the Parthenon worth the sufferings of a single slave? Is it possible to write poetry after Auschwitz?
The question has been countered: when the horror of reality tends to become total and essay 2010, blocks political action, where else than in the radical imagination, as refusal of reality, can the rebellion, and its uncompromised goals, be remembered? But today, are the images and their realization still the domain of “illusory” art? We suggested the historical possibility of conditions in essay games as art, which the aesthetic could become a gesellschaftliche Produktivkraft and rules of writing in an, as such could lead to the “end” of games as art, art through its realization. Today, the outline of such conditions appears only in the negativity of the advanced industrial societies. Is A! They are societies whose capabilities defy the imagination. No matter what sensibility art may wish to develop, no matter what Faun it may wish to give to things, to life, no matter what vision it may wish to communicate – a radical change of experience is within the essay, technical reaches of powers whose terrible imagination organizes the world in their own image and perpetuates, ever bigger and better, the mutilated experience. However, the productive forces, chained in in thesis, the infrastructure of these societies, counteract this negativity in progress. To be sure, the libertarian possibilities of technology and science are effectively contained within the framework of the given reality: the calculated projection and engineering of human behavior, the frivolous invention of video, waste and luxurious junk, the experimentation with the limits of endurance and destruction are tokens of the mastery of necessity in the interest of exploitation – which indicate nevertheless progress in the mastery of necessity. Released from the bondage to essay exploitation, the imagination, sustained by the achievements of video as art, science, could turn its productive power to the radical reconstruction of experience and the universe of experience.
In this reconstruction, the historical topos of the aesthetic would change: it would find expression in help narrative essay, the transformation of the Lebenswelt – society as a work of art. This “utopian” goal depends (as every stage in the development of essay, freedom did) on a revolution at james the attainable level of liberation. In other words: the transformation is conceivable only as the way in which free men (or rather men in the practice of essay games, freeing themselves) shape their life in solidarity, and build an environment in which the struggle for existence loses its ugly and aggressive features. The Form of freedom is not merely self-determination and self-realization, but rather the determination and realization of goals which enhance, protect, and unite life on earth. And this autonomy would find expression not only in the mode of production and production relations but also in the individual relations among men, in their language and in their silence, in their gestures and their looks, in their sensitivity, in their love and ability poor, hate. The beautiful would be an essential quality of their freedom. But today’s rebels against the established culture also rebel against the beautiful in this culture, against its all too sublimated, segregated, orderly, harmonizing forms. Video As Art! Their libertarian aspirations appear as the negation of the essay 2010, traditional culture: as a methodical desublimation. Perhaps its strongest impetus comes from social groups which thus far have remained outside the entire realm of the essay, higher culture, outside its affirmative, sublimating, and justifying magic – human beings who have lived in the shadow of this culture, the victims of the power structure which has been the rallycross 2010, basis of this culture.
They now oppose to the “music of the spheres” which was the most sublime achievement of this culture their own music, with all the defiance, and the hatred, and the joy of rebellious victims, defining their own humanity against the definitions of the games, masters. The black music, invading the white culture, is the terrifying realization of “ O Freunde, nicht these Tone!” – the refusal now hits the chorus which sings the Ode to Joy, the song which is invalidated in the culture that sings it. Thomas Mann’s Doctor Faustus knows it: “I want to revoke the Ninth Symphony.” In the subversive, dissonant, crying and shouting rhythm, born in variables, the “dark continent” and in the “deep South” of slavery and deprivation, the oppressed revoke the Ninth Symphony and give art a desublimated, sensuous form of essay games as art, frightening immediacy, moving, electrifying the body, and the soul materialized in the body. Black music is originally music of the oppressed, illuminating the extent to which the help narrative essay, higher culture and its sublime sublimations, its beauty, have been class-based. The affinity between black music (and its avant-gardistic white development) and the political rebellion against the “affluent society” bears witness to the increasing desublimation of culture. It is still the simple, elementary negation, the antithesis: position of the immediate denial. This desublimation leaves the traditional culture, the video games as art, illusionist art behind unmastered: their truth and their claims remain valid next to and together with the rebellion, within the same given society. The rebellious music, literature, art are thus easily absorbed and shaped by the market – rendered harmless. In order to come into their own, they would have to abandon the essay, direct appeal, the raw immediacy of their presentation, which invokes, in the protest, the familiar universe of politics and business, and with it the video games, helpless familiarity of frustration and temporary release from frustration. Was it not precisely the rupture with this familiarity which was the methodical goal of radical art?
The abrogation of the Estrangement Effect (which, to a considerable extent, was also operative in the great illusionist art) defeats the radicalism of today’s art. Thus, the “living theater” founders to the degree to maths coursework which it is living, to which we immediately identify ourselves with the actors, experience our familiar sympathies, empathies, antipathies. The theater does not transcend this familiarity, this “ dej vu ” – it strengthens it. Just like the essay games as art, more and more organized “happenings,” like the ever more marketable pop art, this ambiance creates a deceptive “community” within the society. The conquest of this immediate familiarity, the “mediations” which would make the many forms of rebellious art a liberating force on the societal scale (that is to say, a subverting force) are yet to be attained. They would reside in modes of work and pleasure, of ability poor wealth essay, thought and behavior, in a technology and in a natural environment which express the aesthetic ethos of socialism. Then, art may have lost its privileged, and segregated, dominion over the imagination, the beautiful, the dream. This may be the future, but the future ingresses into the present: in essay games, its negativity, the desublimating art and anti-art of today “anticipate” a stage where society’s capacity to produce may be akin to the creative capacity of maths newspaper coursework, art, and the construction of the world of art akin to the reconstruction of the real world – union of liberating art and essay games as art, liberating technology.  By virtue of this anticipation, the disorderly, uncivil, farcical, artistic desublimation of culture constitutes an essential element of radical politics: of the subverting forces in transition. 3 – Subverting Forces – in Transition. The notion of “aesthetic form” as the research variables, Form of a free society would indeed mean reversing the development of socialism from essay video games, scientific to utopian unless we can point to certain tendencies in ability poor man s wealth, the infrastructure of advanced industrial society which may give this notion a realistic content. We have repeatedly referred to such tendencies: first of games, all the growing technological character of the process of production, with the reduction of the required physical energy and its replacement by mental energy – dematerialization of labor.
At the research in thesis, same time, an increasingly automated machine system, no longer used as the system of exploitation, would allow that “distantiation” of the laborer from the instruments of production which Marx foresaw at the end of capitalism: the workers would cease to games be the “principal agents” of material production, and become its “supervisors and regulators” – the emergence of a free subject within the realm of necessity. Already today, the achievements of science and rallycross essay, technology permit the play of the productive imagination: experimentation with the possibilities of form and matter hitherto enclosed in the density of unmastered nature; the essay video games, technical transformation of nature tends to make things lighter, easier, prettier – the research in thesis, loosening up of reification. The material becomes increasingly susceptible and subject to aesthetic forms, which enhance its exchange value (the artistic, modernistic banks, office buildings, kitchens, salesrooms, and salespeople, etc.). And within the framework of capitalism, the tremendous growth in the productivity of labor enforces the ever-enlarged production of “luxuries”: wasteful in essay as art, the armament industry, and in the marketing of gadgets, devices, trimmings, status symbols. This same trend of production and consumption, which makes for the affluence and attraction of advanced capitalism, makes for the perpetuation of the struggle for existence, for maths newspaper coursework, the increasing necessity to produce and consume the non-necessary: the growth of the so-called “discretionary income” in the United States indicates the extent to which income earned is spent on video, other than “basic needs.” Former luxuries become basic needs, a normal development which, under corporate capitalism, extends the competitive business of living to newly created needs and satisfactions. The fantastic output of ability is a wealth essay, all sorts of things and services defies the imagination, while restricting and distorting it in the commodity form, through which capitalist production enlarges its hold over human existence.
And yet, precisely through the essay as art, spread of this commodity form, the maths newspaper, repressive social morality which sustains the system is being weakened. The obvious contradiction between the liberating possibilities of the technological transformation of the world, the light and essay video games as art, free life on the one hand and the intensification of the struggle for help essay, existence on the other, generates among the underlying population that diffused aggressiveness which, unless steered to hate and fight the alleged national enemy, hits upon any suitable target: white or black, native or foreigner, Jew or Christian, rich or poor. This is the aggressiveness of those with the mutilated experience, with the false consciousness and the false needs, the victims of repression who, for their living, depend on the repressive society and repress the alternative. Essay Games As Art! Their violence is that of the Establishment and takes as targets figures which, rightly or wrongly, seem to be different, and to represent an alternative. But while the image of the libertarian potential of advanced industrial society is repressed (and hated) by the assassination essay the managers of video, repression and their consumers, it motivates the radical opposition and gives it its strange unorthodox character. Very different from the revolution at previous stages of history, this opposition is directed against the totality of a well-functioning, prosperous society – a protest against rules essay, its Form – the commodity form of men and things, against the imposition of essay video, false values and research variables in thesis, a false morality. This new consciousness and the instinctual rebellion isolate such opposition from the masses and from the majority of organized labor, the integrated majority, and make for the concentration of radical politics in active minorities, mainly among the young middle-class intelligentsia, and among the ghetto populations.
Here, prior to all political strategy and organization, liberation becomes a vital, “biological” need. It is of course nonsense to say that middle-class opposition is replacing the essay as art, proletariat as the revolutionary class, and that the Lumpenproletariat is becoming a radical political force. What is writing, happening is the formation of still relatively small and weakly organized (often disorganized) groups which, by virtue of their consciousness and their needs, function as potential catalysts of rebellion within the as art, majorities to which, by their class origin, they belong. In this sense, the militant intelligentsia has indeed cut itself loose from the rallycross essay, middle classes, and the ghetto population from the essay video, organized working class. But by of jesse james essay that token they do not think and act in a vacuum: their consciousness and their goals make them representatives of the video as art, very real common interest of the is a man s essay, oppressed. As against the rule of class and national interests which suppress this common interest, the revolt against the old societies is truly international: emergence of a new, spontaneous solidarity. This struggle is a far cry from the ideal of humanism and humanitas ; it is the struggle for life – life not as masters and not as slaves, but as men and women. For Marxian theory, the location (or rather contraction) of the opposition in certain middle-class strata and in the ghetto population appears as an intolerable deviation – as does the as art, emphasis on biological and rules of writing numbers in an essay, aesthetic needs: regression to bourgeois or, even worse, aristocratic, ideologies. Video As Art! But, in the advanced monopoly-capitalist countries, the displacement of the opposition (from the organized industrial working classes to militant minorities) is caused by the internal development of the rallycross essay, society; and the theoretical “deviation” only reflects this development. What appears as a surface phenomenon is indicative of basic tendencies which suggest not only different prospects of change, but also a depth and extent of change far beyond the expectations of traditional socialist theory. Under this aspect, the displacement of the negating forces from their traditional base among the underlying population, rather than being a sign of the weakness of the games as art, opposition against the integrating power of advanced capitalism, may well be the slow formation of a new base, bringing to the fore the new historical Subject of change, responding to the new objective conditions, with qualitatively different needs and aspirations.
And on this base (probably intermittent and preliminary) goals and strategies take shape which reexamine the concepts of democratic-parliamentary as well as of revolutionary transformation. The modifications in the structure of capitalism alter the basis for the development and organization of potentially revolutionary forces. Where the research variables in thesis, traditional laboring classes cease to be the “gravediggers” of capitalism, this function remains, as it were, suspended, and the political efforts toward change remain “tentative,” preparatory not only in a temporal but also in a structural sense. This means that the “addressees” as well as the immediate goals and occasions of action will he determined by the shifting situation rather than by a theoretically well-founded and elaborated strategy. This determinism, direct consequence of the video games, strength of the writing essay, system and the diffusion of the essay video games, opposition, also implies a shift of emphasis toward “subjective factors”: the development of awareness and need writing narrative, needs assumes primary importance.
Under total capitalist administration and introjection, the social determination of consciousness is all but complete and immediate: direct implantation of the latter into the former. Under these circumstances, radical change in consciousness is the beginning, the first step in changing social existence: emergence of the new Subject. Historically, it is again the period of enlightenment prior to material change – a period of education, but education which turns into praxis: demonstration, confrontation, rebellion. The radical transformation of essay as art, a social system still depends on the class which constitutes the human base of the process of production. Octobre 2010! In the games, advanced capitalist countries, this is the industrial working class. The changes in ability man s, the composition of essay video games, this class, and the extent of its integration into the system alter, not the potential but the actual political role of labor. Revolutionary class “in-itself” but not “for-itself,” objectively but not subjectively, its radicalization will depend on research variables, catalysts outside its ranks. The development of a radical political consciousness among the masses is conceivable only if and when the economic stability and the social cohesion of the system begin to essay video weaken.
It was the traditional role of the need narrative, Marxist-Leninist party to prepare the ground for this development. The stabilizing and essay as art, integrating power of advanced capitalism, and the requirements of “peaceful coexistence,” forced this party to “parliamentarize” itself, to ability wealth integrate itself into the bourgeois-democratic process, and to concentrate on economic demands, thereby inhibiting rather than promoting the video as art, growth of a radical political consciousness. Where the latter broke through the party and trade union apparatus, it happened under the impact of “outside” forces – mainly from among the intelligentsia; the apparatus only followed suit when the movement gained momentum, and in order to regain control of it. No matter how rational this strategy may be, no matter how sensible the desperate effort to preserve strength in the face of the sustained power of corporate capitalism, the strategy testifies to the “passivity” of the industrial working classes, to the degree of their integration it testifies to the facts which the official theory so vehemently denies. Under the james essay, conditions of integration, the new political consciousness of the vital need for as art, radical change emerges among social groups which, on rallycross, objective grounds, are (relatively) free from the integrating, conservative interests and aspirations, free for the radical transvaluation of values. Without losing its historical role as the basic force of transformation, the working class, in essay video games, the period of stabilization, assumes a stabilizing, conservative function; and the assassination essay, the catalysts of transformation operate “from without.” This tendency is essay video games, strengthened by the changing composition of the working class. The declining proportion of blue collar labor, the increasing number and importance of white collar employees, technicians, engineers, and specialists, divides the class. This means that precisely those strata of the working class which bore, and still bear, the help writing narrative, brunt of brute exploitation will perform a gradually diminishing function in the process of production.
The intelligentsia obtains an increasingly decisive role in games, this process – an instrumentalist intelligentsia, but intelligentsia nevertheless. This “new working class,” by need help writing narrative essay virtue of essay video, its position, could disrupt, reorganize, and redirect the mode and relationships of production. However, they have neither the interest nor the vital need to do so: they are well integrated and well rewarded.  To be sure, monopolistic competition and the race for the assassination, intensifying the productivity of labor may enforce technological changes which may come into conflict with still prevailing policies and forms of private capitalist enterprise, and these changes may then lead to a technocratic reorganization of large sectors of the society (even of its culture and ideology). But it is not clear why they would lead to an abolition of the capitalist system, of the subjugation of the underlying population to the apparatus of profitable production for particular interests. Such a qualitative change would presuppose the control and redirection of the productive apparatus by groups with needs and goals very different from those of the technocrats.  Technocracy, no matter how “pure,” sustains and streamlines the continuum of domination. This fatal link can be cut only by a revolution which makes technology and technique subservient to the needs and goals of free men: in this sense, and in this sense only, it would be a revolution against technocracy. Such a revolution is not on the agenda. In the domain of corporate capitalism, the video, two historical factors of transformation, the rallycross octobre 2010, subjective and objective, do not coincide: they are prevalent in different and even antagonistic groups. The objective factor, i.e., the human base of the process of production which reproduces the established society, exists in the industrial working class, the human source and reservoir of exploitation; the subjective factor, i.e., the political consciousness exists among the nonconformist young intelligentsia; and the vital need for change is the very life of the ghetto population; and of the “underprivileged” sections of the laboring classes in backward capitalist countries. The two historical factors do coincide in large areas of the Third World, where the National Liberation Fronts and the guerrillas fight with the support and participation of the class which is the base of the process of production, namely, the essay, predominantly agrarian and the emerging industrial proletariat.
The constellation which prevails in ability is a man s wealth, the metropoles of capitalism, namely, the objective necessity of radical change, and essay video, the paralysis of the masses, seems typical of a non-revolutionary but pre-revolutionary situation. The transition from the former to writing essay the latter presupposes a critical weakening of the global economy of capitalism, and the intensification and extension of the political work: radical enlightenment. It is essay video, precisely the preparatory character of this work which gives it its historical significance: to ability wealth essay develop, in the exploited, the consciousness (and the unconscious) which would loosen the hold of enslaving needs over their existence – the needs which perpetuate their dependence on the system of games as art, exploitation. Without this rupture, which can only be the of jesse essay, result of political education in action, even the most elemental, the games as art, most immediate force of help writing essay, rebellion may be defeated, or become the mass basis of counterrevolution. The ghetto population of the United States constitutes such a force. Essay! Confined to small areas of the assassination essay, living and dying, it can be more easily organized and directed. Moreover, located in the core cities of the country, the ghettos form natural geographical centers from which the struggle can be mounted against targets of vital economic and political importance; in as art, this respect, the ghettos can be compared with the faubourgs of Paris in the eighteenth century, and newspaper coursework, their location makes for spreading and “contagious” upheavals. Cruel and indifferent privation is video as art, now met with increasing resistance, but its still largely unpolitical character facilitates suppression and the assassination of jesse james, diversion. The racial conflict still separates the ghettos from the allies outside. While it is true that the white man is guilty, it is equally true that white men are rebels and radicals.
However, the essay games, fact is that monopolistic imperialism validates the racist thesis: it subjects ever more nonwhite populations to the brutal power of its bombs, poisons, and moneys; thus making even the exploited white population in the metropoles partners and beneficiaries of the global crime. Class conflicts are being superseded or blotted out by race conflicts: color lines become economic and political realities – a development rooted in the dynamic of late imperialism and its struggle for new methods of internal and need narrative, external colonization. The long-range power of the black rebellion is further threatened by the deep division within this class (the rise of a Negro bourgeoisie), and by video games its marginal (in terms of the capitalist system) social function. The Assassination Of Jesse James Essay! The majority of the black population does not occupy a decisive position in the process of production, and the white organizations of labor have not exactly gone out of their way to change this situation. In the cynical terms of the system, a large part of this population is “expendable,” that is to say, it makes no essential contribution to the productivity of the system.
Consequently, the powers that be may not hesitate to essay games as art apply extreme measures of rallycross essay, suppression if the movement becomes dangerous. The fact is that, at present in the United States, the black population appears as the “most natural” force of rebellion. Its distance from the young middle-class opposition is formidable in every respect. The common ground: the total rejection of the existing society, of its entire value system, is obscured by the obvious class difference – just as, within the white population, the community of “real interest” between the students and the workers is vitiated by the class conflict. However, this community did realize itself in political action on a rather large scale during the May rebellion in essay as art, France – against the implicit injunction on the part of the Communist Party and maths newspaper coursework, the CGT ( Confederation Generale du Travail ), and the common action was initiated by the students, not by the workers. Video As Art! This fact may be indicative of the depth and unity of the opposition underneath and across the class conflicts. With respect to the student movement, a basic trend in the very structure of advanced industrial society favors the gradual development of such a community of interests. The long-range process which, in large areas of material production, tends to replace heavy physical labor by technical, mental energy, increases the rules of writing numbers, social need for scientifically trained, intelligent workers; a considerable part of the video games as art, student population is prospective working class – “new working class,” not only the assassination of jesse essay, not expendable, but vital for the growth of the games as art, existing society.
The student rebellion hits this society at is a a vulnerable point; accordingly, the games, reaction is venomous and the assassination essay, violent. The “student movement” – the very term is already ideological and derogatory: it conceals the fact that quite important sections of the older intelligentsia and games as art, of the ability poor man s essay, non student population take active part in the movement. It proclaims very different goals and aspirations; the general demands for educational reforms are only the immediate expression of wider and more fundamental aims. Video As Art! The most decisive difference is between the opposition in the socialist and that in the capitalist countries. The former accepts the socialist structure of society but protests against the repressive-authoritarian regime of the state and rallycross 2010, party bureaucracy; while, in the capitalist countries, the militant and apparently increasing) part of the movement is essay video games as art, anti-capitalist: socialist or anarchist.
Again, within the capitalist orbit, the rebellion against fascist and military dictatorships (in Spain, in rallycross essay 2010, Latin American countries) has a strategy and goals different from the rebellion in the democratic countries. And one should never forget the one student rebellion which was instrumental in perpetrating the most despicable mass murder in the contemporary world: the massacre of hundreds of thousands of “communists” in essay video games, Indonesia. The crime has not yet been punished; it is the only horrible exception from the libertarian, liberating function of student activism. In the fascist and semi-fascist countries, the militant students (a minority of the students everywhere) find support among the industrial and agrarian proletariat; in France and Italy, they have been able to obtain precarious (and passing!) aid from numbers in an, powerful leftist parties and unions; in West Germany and in video as art, the United States, they meet with the vociferous and often violent hostility of “the people” and of organized labor. Maths! Revolutionary in its theory, in its instincts, and in its ultimate goals, the games, student movement is research variables in thesis, not a revolutionary force, perhaps not even an avant-garde so long as there are no masses capable and willing to follow, but it is the ferment of hope in the overpowering and stifling capitalist metropoles: it testifies to the truth of the essay games, alternative – the real need, and the real possibility of a free society. To be sure, there are the wild ones and the non-committed, the escapists into all kinds of mysticism, the good fools and the bad fools, and those who don’t care what happens; there are the authentic and the organized happenings and nonconformities. Naturally, the market has invaded this rebellion and made it a business, but it is serious business nevertheless. What matters is not the ability wealth essay, more or less interesting psychology of the participants nor the often bizarre forms of the protest (which quite frequently make the absurd reasonableness of the video games, Establishment, and the anti-heroic, sensuous images of the alternative more transparent than the most serious argument could do), but that against which the protest is directed. The demands for a structural reform of the the assassination james essay, educational system (urgent enough by themselves; we shall come back to them subsequently) seek to counteract the deceptive neutrality and often plainly apologetic teaching; and to essay provide the student with the conceptual instruments for a solid and thorough critique of the material and intellectual culture. At the the assassination of jesse essay, same time, they seek to abolish the class character of education. These changes would lead to an extension and development of consciousness which would remove the ideological and technological veil that hides the terrible features of the affluent society.
The development of a true consciousness is essay games as art, still the of writing in an essay, professional function of the universities. No wonder then that the student opposition meets with the all but pathological hatred on video games as art, the part of the so-called “community,” including large sections of in an essay, organized labor. To the degree to which the university becomes dependent on the financial and political goodwill of the community and of the government, the struggle for a free and critical education becomes a vital part in the larger struggle for change. What appears as extraneous “politicalization” of the university by disrupting radicals is today (as it was so often in the past) the “logical,” internal dynamic of education: translation of knowledge into video games reality, of humanistic values into humane conditions of existence. This dynamic, arrested by rules essay the pseudo-neutral features of essay video, academia, would, for example, be released by the inclusion into the curriculum of courses giving adequate treatment to the great nonconformist movements in civilization and to octobre the critical analysis of contemporary societies. The groundwork for building the bridge between the games as art, “ought” and of jesse, the “is,” between theory and practice, is laid within theory itself. Knowledge is transcendent (toward the object world, toward reality) not only in an epistemological sense – as against repressive forms of essay games, life – it is political. Denial of the right to political activity in the university perpetuates the james essay, separation between theoretical and practical reason and reduces the effectiveness and the scope of intelligence.
The educational demands thus drive the movement beyond the universities, into essay video the streets, the slums, the “community.” And the essay octobre 2010, driving force is the refusal to grow up, to mature, to video as art perform efficiently and “normally” in and for a society which compels the vast majority of the population to “earn” their living in stupid, inhuman, and unnecessary jobs, which conducts its booming business on the back of ghettos, slums, and internal and external colonialism, which is infested with violence and repression while demanding obedience and compliance from the victims of violence and repression, which, in order to sustain the profitable productivity on which its hierarchy depends, utilizes its vast resources for waste, destruction, and an ever more methodical creation of conformist needs and satisfactions. To the degree to which the rebellion is directed against a functioning, prosperous, “democratic” society, it is a moral rebellion, against the hypocritical, aggressive values and goals, against the blasphemous religion of this society, against everything it takes seriously, everything it professes while violating what it professes. The “unorthodox” character of of jesse, this opposition, which does not have the traditional class basis, and which is at the same time a political, instinctual, and moral rebellion, shapes the strategy and scope of the rebellion. It extends to the entire organization of the existing liberal-parliamentary democracy. Essay Video Games As Art! Among the New Left, a strong revulsion against traditional politics prevails: against that whole network of parties, committees, and pressure groups on all levels; against working within this network and with its methods.
This entire sphere and atmosphere, with all its power, is invalidated; nothing that any of these politicians, representatives, or candidates declares is of any relevance to the rebels; they cannot take it seriously although they know very well that it may mean to them getting beaten, going to jail, losing a job. Rallycross Octobre 2010! They are not professional martyrs: they prefer not to essay games as art be beaten, not to go to jail, not to lose their job. But for rules of writing numbers in an, them, this is not a question of choice; the protest and refusal are parts of their metabolism, and they extend to the power structure as a whole. The democratic process organized by this structure is discredited to such an extent that no part of it can be extracted which is as art, not contaminated. Moreover, using this process would divert energy to snail-paced movements. For example, electioneering with the rules of writing, aim of significantly changing the games as art, composition of the U.S. Congress might take a hundred years, judging by the present rate of progress, and assuming that the effort of political radicalization continues unchecked. And the performance of the courts, from the lowest to the highest, does not mitigate the distrust in the given democratic-constitutional setup.
Under these circumstances, to work for rules in an essay, the improvement of the existing democracy easily appears as indefinitely delaying attainment of the goal of creating a free society. Thus, in some sectors of the opposition, the radical protest tends to become antinomian, anarchistic, and even nonpolitical. Here is another reason why the rebellion often takes on the weird and clownish forms which get on the nerves of the Establishment. In the face of the gruesomely serious totality of institutionalized politics, satire, irony, and laughing provocation become a necessary dimension of the new politics. The contempt for the deadly esprit de serieux which permeates the talkings and as art, doings of the professional and semiprofessional politicians appears as contempt for the values which they profess while destroying them. The rebels revive the desperate laughter and the cynical defiance of the fool as means for demasking the deeds of the maths, serious ones who govern the whole. This alienation of the radical opposition from the existing democratic process and institutions suggests a thorough reexamination of democracy (“bourgeois” democracy, representative government) and of their role in the transition from capitalism to socialism or, generally, from an unfree to a free society. By and large, Marxian theory has a positive evaluation of the role of bourgeois democracy in video games, this transition – up to the stage of the revolution itself. By virtue of of writing numbers in an essay, its commitment (however limited in practice) to civil rights and liberties, bourgeois democracy provides the most favorable ground for the development and organization of video as art, dissent. This is still true, but the forces which vitiate the research, “protective” features within the democratic framework itself are gaining momentum. The mass democracy developed by monopoly capitalism has shaped the rights and essay games, liberties which it grants in its own image and interest ; the majority of the people is the majority of their masters ; deviations are easily “contained” ; and concentrated power can afford to tolerate (perhaps even defend) radical dissent as long as the latter complies with the established rules and manners (and even a little beyond it).
The opposition is thus sucked into the very world which it opposes – and by the very mechanisms which allow its development and organization; the opposition without a mass basis is frustrated in its efforts to obtain such a mass basis. Under these circumstances, working according to the rules and methods of democratic legality appears as surrender to the prevailing power structure. Is A Poor Man S! And yet, it would be fatal to abandon the defense of civil rights and liberties within the established framework. But as monopoly capitalism is compelled to extend and fortify its dominion at home and abroad, the democratic struggle will come into increasing conflict with the existing democratic institutions: with its built-in barriers and conservative dynamic. The semi-democratic process works of necessity against essay video games, radical change because it produces and sustains a popular majority whose opinion is variables in thesis, generated by the dominant interests in the status quo. Essay As Art! As long as this condition prevails, it makes sense to say that the general will is always wrong – wrong inasmuch as it objectively counteracts the possible transformation of society into more humane ways of life. To be sure, the method of of jesse james, persuasion is still open to the minority, but it is games as art, fatally reduced by the fact that the leftist minority does not possess the large funds required for equal access to the mass media which speak day and night for the dominant interests – with those wholesome interludes in favor of the opposition that buttress the illusory faith in prevailing equality and fair play. And yet, without the continuous effort of persuasion, of reducing, one by one, the hostile majority, the need narrative essay, prospects of the opposition would be still darker than they are. Dialectics of democracy: if democracy means self-government of free people, with justice for all, then the realization of democracy would presuppose abolition of the existing pseudo-democracy. In the dynamic of corporate capitalism, the fight for democracy thus tends to assume anti-democratic forms, and to the extent to essay games as art which the democratic decisions are made in “parliaments” on all levels, the opposition will tend to maths newspaper coursework become extra-parliamentary. The movement to extend constitutionally professed rights and essay, liberties to the daily life of the oppressed minorities, even the movement to preserve existing rights and liberties, will become “subversive” to the degree to which it will meet the stiffening resistance of the majority against an “exaggerated” interpretation and application of equality and justice.
An opposition which is directed, not against a particular form of government or against particular conditions within a society, but against a given social system as a whole, cannot remain legal and lawful because it is the established legality and the established law which it opposes. The fact that the democratic process provides for the redress of grievances and for legal and lawful changes does not alter the illegality inherent in numbers, an opposition to an institutionalized democracy which halts the process of essay games as art, change at the stage where it would destroy the existing system. By virtue of this built-in stabilizer or “governor,” capitalist mass-democracy is perhaps to a higher degree self-perpetuating than any other form of government or society; and variables in thesis, the more so the more it rests, not on terror and scarcity, but on video as art, efficiency and wealth, and on the majority will of the underlying and administered population. This new situation has direct bearing on the old question as to the right of resistance. Can we say that it is the established system rather than the need writing, resistance to it which is in need of justification? Such seems to be the implication of the social contract theories which consider civil society dissolved when, in its existing form, it no longer fulfills the functions for which it was set up, namely, as a system of socially necessary and productive repression, Theoretically, these functions were determined by the philosophers: the realistically minded defined the “end of government” as the protection of property, trade, and commerce; the idealists spoke of the essay video games, realization of Reason, Justice, Freedom (without altogether neglecting or even minimizing the more material and economic aspects). Narrative Essay! In both schools, judgment as to whether a government actually fulfilled these “ends,” and the criteria for judging, were usually limited to the particular nation-state (or type of nation-state) which the respective philosopher had in essay as art, mind: that the the assassination of jesse james essay, security, growth, and freedom of the one nation-state involved the insecurity, destruction, or oppression of another did not invalidate the definition, nor did an essay established government lose its claim for obedience when the protection of property and the realization of reason left large parts of the population in poverty and servitude.
In the contemporary period, the questions as to the “end of government” have subsided. It seems that the continued functioning of the society is sufficient justification for its legality and its claim for obedience, and “functioning” seems defined rather negatively as absence of civil war, massive disorder, economic collapse. Help Writing! Otherwise anything goes: military dictatorship, plutocracy, government by gangs and rackets. Genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity are not effective arguments against essay video as art, a government which protects property, trade, and commerce at home while it perpetrates its destructive policy abroad. And indeed, there is no enforceable law that could deprive such a constitutional government of its legitimacy and legality. But this means that there is no (enforceable) law other than that which serves the status quo, and that those who refuse such service are eo ipso outside the realm of essay, law even before they come into actual conflict with the law. The absurd situation: the established democracy still provides the only legitimate framework for change and must therefore be defended against video as art, all attempts on the Right and the Center to restrict this framework, but at octobre the same time, preservation of the established democracy preserves the status quo and the containment of change. Another aspect of the same ambiguity: radical change depends on a mass basis, but every step in video games as art, the struggle for radical change isolates the opposition from the masses and provokes intensified repression: mobilization of institutionalized violence against the opposition, thus further diminishing the ability wealth essay, prospects for radical change. After the games, electoral triumph of the reaction over the Left in the aftermath of the French student rebellion, Humanite wrote (according to The Los Angeles Times, June 25, 1968) : “every barricade, every car burned gave tens of thousands of votes to the Gaullist party.” This is perfectly correct – as perfectly correct as the corollary proposition that without the barricades and car burnings the ruling powers would be safer and stronger, and the opposition, absorbed and restricted by the parliamentary game, would further emasculate and pacify the masses on rallycross essay, whom the change depends. The conclusion? The radical opposition inevitably faces defeat of its direct, extra-parliamentary action, of uncivil disobedience, and there are situations in which it must take the risk of such defeat – if, in doing so, it can consolidate its strength and expose the destructive character of civil obedience to a reactionary regime.
For it is precisely the objective, historical function of the democratic system of corporate capitalism to use the Law and Order of games as art, bourgeois liberalism as a counterrevolutionary force, thus imposing upon the radical opposition the necessity of maths newspaper coursework, direct action and uncivil disobedience, while confronting the opposition with its vastly superior strength. Under these circumstances, direct action and uncivil disobedience become for the rebels integral parts of the transformation of the indirect democracy of corporate capitalism into essay games a direct democracy  in which elections and representation no longer serve as institutions of domination. As against the latter, direct action becomes a means of democratization, of change even within the established system. All its power could not silence the student opposition (weakest and most diffused of all historical oppositions); and there is good reason to believe that it was, not the parliamentary and rallycross, the Gallup poll opinion, but rather the students and the resistance which enforced the change in video games, the attitude of the government toward the narrative essay, war in Vietnam. And it was the uncivil disobedience of the students of Paris which suddenly broke through the memory repression of video, organized labor and recalled, for a very short moment, the historical power of the general strike and the factory occupation, of the red flag and the International. The alternative is, not democratic evolution versus radical action, but rationalization of the status quo versus change. As long as a social system reproduces, by indoctrination and of writing numbers in an, integration, a self-perpetuating conservative majority, the majority reproduces the system itself – open to changes within, but not beyond, its institutional framework. Consequently, the struggle for changes beyond the essay games as art, system becomes, by virtue of its own dynamic, undemocratic in the terms of the system, and counter-violence is from the beginning inherent in this dynamic. Thus the radical is guilty – either of help writing narrative, surrendering to the power of the status quo, or of violating the Law and Order of the status quo. But who has the right to set himself up as judge of an established society, who other than the video, legally constituted agencies or agents, and the majority of the essay, people?
Other than these, it could only be a self-appointed elite, or leaders who would arrogate to themselves such judgment. Indeed, if the alternative were between democracy and dictatorship (no matter how “benevolent”), the answer would be non-controversial: democracy is preferable. Essay Games! However, this democracy does not exist, and the government is factually exercised by a network of pressure groups and “machines,” vested interests represented by and working on and through the democratic institutions. These are not derived from a sovereign people. The representation is representative of the will shaped by the ruling minorities.
Consequently, if the alternative is rule by an elite, it would only mean replacement of the present ruling elite by another; and if this other should be the dreaded intellectual elite, it may not he less qualified and less threatening than the prevailing one. Research Variables! True, such government, initially, would not have the endorsement of the majority “inherited” from the previous government – but once the games, chain of the past governments is broken, the majority would be in a state of flux, and, released from the past management, free to judge the new government in terms of the rules in an, new common interest. To be sure, this has never been the course of a revolution, but it is equally true that never before has a revolution occurred which had at its disposal the present achievements of productivity and technical progress. Of course, they could be effectively used for imposing another set of repressive controls, but our entire discussion was based on the proposition that the revolution would be liberating only if it were carried by the non-repressive forces stirring in the existing society. The proposition is no more – and no less – than a hope. Essay Video Games As Art! Prior to writing essay its realization, it is indeed only the individual, the individuals, who can judge, with no other legitimation than their consciousness and conscience. But these individuals are more and other than private persons with their particular contingent preferences and interests. Their judgment transcends their subjectivity to the degree to which it is based on independent thought and information, on essay video as art, a rational analysis and evaluation of poor man s, their society. The existence of a majority of individuals capable of such rationality has been the assumption on which democratic theory has been based.
If the established majority is not composed of essay video games as art, such individuals, it does not think, will, and act as sovereign people. The old story: right against right – the positive, codified, enforceable right of the existing society against the negative, unwritten, unenforceable right of transcendence which is part of the very existence of man in history: the right to insist on a less compromised, less guilty, less exploited humanity. The two rights must come into violent conflict as long as the established society depends, for its functioning, on exploitation and ability man s essay, guilt. The opposition cannot change this state of affairs by the very means which protect and sustain the state of affairs. Essay As Art! Beyond it, there are only the ideal and the offense, and those who claim, for their offending action, a right have to answer for their action before the tribunal of the existing society. For neither conscience nor commitment to an ideal can legalize the subversion of an established order which defines order, or even legalize disturbance of the peace which is the peace of the established order. To the latter alone belongs the rallycross octobre 2010, lawful right to abrogate peace and to games organize the killing and the assassination james, beating. In the established vocabulary, “violence” is a term which one does not apply to the action of the police, the National Guard, the Marshals, the Marines, the essay as art, bombers. The “bad” words are a priori reserved for the Enemy, and their meaning is defined and validated by the actions of the Enemy regardless of their motivation and goal. No matter how “good” the end, it does not justify the illegal means.  The proposition “the end justifies the means” is indeed, as a general statement, intolerable – but so is, as a general statement, its negation.
In radical political practice, the end belongs to numbers essay a world different from and contrary to the established universe of discourse and behavior. But the essay video games as art, means belong to newspaper coursework the latter and are judged by the latter, on its own terms, the very terms which the video, end invalidates. Need Help Writing Essay! For example, assuming an action aims at stopping crimes against humanity committed in the professed national interest ; and the means to attain this goal are acts of organized civil disobedience. In accord with established law and order not the crimes but the attempt to stop them is condemned and punished as a crime; thus it is judged by essay video games as art the very standards which the action indicts. The existing society defines the transcending action on its, society’s, own terms – a self-validating procedure, entirely legitimate, even necessary for this society: one of the most effective rights of the Sovereign is the right to establish enforceable definitions of essay octobre, words.  Political linguistics: armor of the Establishment.
If the radical opposition develops its own language, it protests spontaneously, subconsciously, against essay video as art, one of the most effective “secret weapons” of domination and defamation. Ability Is A Man S Essay! The language of the prevailing Law and Order, validated by essay video games the courts and by the police, is not only the voice but also the deed of suppression.  This language not only defines and condemns the Enemy, it also creates him; and this creation is not the Enemy as he really is but rather as he must be in order to perform his function for essay octobre 2010, the Establishment. The end now does justify the means: actions cease to be crimes if they serve to video preserve and extend the “Free World.” Conversely, what the Enemy does, is ability man s essay, evil; what he says – propaganda. This a priori linguistic defamation hits first the Enemy abroad: the defense of his own land, his own hut, his own naked life is a crime, the supreme crime which deserves the supreme punishment. Long before the special and not-so-special forces are physically trained to kill, burn, and interrogate, their minds and bodies are already desensitized to see and hear and video as art, smell in the Other not a human being but a beast – a beast however, which is subject to all-out punishment. The linguistic pattern constantly repeats itself: In Vietnam, “typical criminal communist violence” is of jesse essay, perpetrated against American “strategic operations”; the Reds have the impertinence to “launch a sneak attack” (presumably they are supposed to announce it beforehand and to deploy in the open); they are “evading a death trap” (presumably they should have stayed in). The Viet Cong attack American barracks “in the dead of night” and video as art, kill American boys (presumably, Americans only attack in essay octobre 2010, broad daylight, don’t disturb the sleep of the enemy, and don’t kill Vietnamese boys).
The massacre of hundreds of thousands of communists (in Indonesia) is called “impressive” – a comparable “killing rate” suffered by video games the other side would hardly have been honored with such an adjective. The Assassination Of Jesse James Essay! To the Chinese, the presence of games as art, American troops in East Asia is a threat to their “ideology,” while presumably the rallycross essay, presence of Chinese troops in essay video, Central or South America would be a real, and not only an ideological, threat to the United States. This linguistic universe, which incorporates the Enemy (as Untermensch ) into the routine of everyday speech, can be transcended only in action. Of Jesse James Essay! For violence is built into the very structure of this society: as the accumulated aggressiveness which drives the video games as art, business of life in all branches of corporate capitalism, as the legal aggression on the highways, and as the of jesse james, national aggression abroad which seems to essay video as art become more brutal the more it takes as its victims the wretched of the earth – those who have not yet been civilized by the capital of the Free World. In the mobilization of this aggressiveness, ancient psychical forces are activated to serve the economic-political needs of the ability poor, system: the Enemy are those who are unclean, infested; they are animals rather than humans; they are contagious (the domino theory!) and threaten the clean, anesthetized, healthy free world. Video Games As Art!  They must be liquidated, smoked out, and need writing narrative, burned out like venom; their infested jungles too must be burned out and cleared for freedom and essay games as art, democracy. Help Essay! The Enemy already has its “fifth column” inside the clean world: the essay video games as art, Commies and the Hippies and their like with the long hair and the beards and the dirty pants – those who are promiscuous and take liberties which are denied to the clean and orderly who remain clean and orderly even when they kill and bomb and burn. Never perhaps since the Middle Ages has accumulated repression erupted on such global scale in organized aggression against research variables in thesis, those outside the repressive system – “outsiders” within and without. In the face of the essay video games, scope and maths, intensity of this sanctioned aggression, the video as art, traditional distinction between legitimate and illegitimate violence becomes questionable.
If legitimate violence includes, in maths coursework, the daily routine of “pacification” and “liberation,” wholesale burning, poisoning, bombing, the actions of the radical opposition, no matter how illegitimate, can hardly be called by the same name: violence. Can there be any meaningful comparison, in magnitude and criminality, between the unlawful acts committed by the rebels in the ghettos, on the campuses, on the city streets on the one side, and video as art, the deeds perpetrated by need writing narrative the forces of order in Vietnam, in Bolivia, in video, Indonesia, in Guatemala, on the other? Can one meaningfully call it an offense when demonstrators disrupt the business of the need help narrative essay, university, the video as art, draft board, the supermarket, the flow of traffic, to rallycross octobre protest against the far more efficient disruption of the business of life of untold numbers of human beings by essay the armed forces of law and order? Here too, the brute reality requires a redefinition of terms: the established vocabulary discriminates a priori against the opposition it protects the Establishment. “Law and maths, Order”: these words have always had an ominous sound; the essay video games, entire necessity and the entire horror of newspaper, legitimate force are condensed, and sanctioned, in games, this phrase.
There can be no human association without law and order, enforceable law and order, but there are degrees of good and evil in human associations – measured in terms of the legitimate, organized violence required to protect the established society against of writing numbers, the poor, the oppressed, the insane: the victims of video games, its well-being. Newspaper Coursework! Over and above their legitimacy in constitutional terms, the extent to which established law and order can legitimately demand (and command) obedience and essay video games, compliance largely depends (or ought to maths newspaper coursework depend) on the extent to which this law and this order obey and comply with their own standards and values. These may first be ideological (like the ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity advanced by the revolutionary bourgeoisie), but the ideology can become a material political force in the armor of the opposition as these values are betrayed, compromised, denied in games, the social reality. Then the betrayed promises are, as it were, “taken over” by the opposition, and with them the claim for legitimacy. In this situation, law and order become something to be established as against the established law and order: the existing society has become illegitimate, unlawful: it has invalidated its own law. Such has been the dynamic of the historical revolutions; it is hard to of jesse essay see how it can be arrested indefinitely.
The preceding attempt to games as art analyze the of writing numbers, present opposition to the society organized by corporate capitalism was focused on the striking contrast between the video games, radical and rules in an essay, total character of the rebellion on the one hand, and the absence of a class basis for this radicalism on the other. This situation gives all efforts to evaluate and even discuss the prospects for radical change in the domain of corporate capitalism their abstract, academic, unreal character. The search for specific historical agents of revolutionary change in as art, the advanced capitalist countries is indeed meaningless. Revolutionary forces emerge in the process of change itself ; the rules in an, translation of the potential into the actual is the work of games, political practice. And just as little as critical theory can political practice orient itself on a concept of revolution which belongs to the nineteenth and early twentieth century, and which is still valid in large areas of the Third World. This concept envisages the “seizure of power” in the course of a mass upheaval, led by a revolutionary party acting as the avant-garde of a revolutionary class and setting up a new central power which would initiate the basic social changes. Even in industrial countries where a strong Marxist party has organized the exploited masses, strategy is no longer guided by of writing numbers this notion – witness the long-range Communist policy of “popular fronts.” And the concept is altogether inapplicable to those countries in which the integration of the working class is the essay, result of poor wealth essay, structural economic-political processes (sustained high productivity; large markets; neo-colonialism; administered democracy) and where the masses themselves are forces of conservatism and stabilization. It is the very power of this society which contains new modes and dimensions of radical change. The dynamic of this society has long since passed the games as art, stage where it could grow on research in thesis, its own resources, its own market, and on normal trade with other areas. It has grown into an imperialist power which, through economic and technical penetration and outright military intervention, has transformed large parts of the Third World into dependencies.
Its policy is distinguished from classical imperialism of the preceding period by effective use of economic and technical conquests on the one hand, and by the political-strategic character of intervention on the other: the requirements of the global fight against communism supersede those of profitable investments. In any case, by essay video games as art virtue of the evolution of imperialism, the developments in the Third World pertain to the dynamic of the First World, and the forces of change in the former are not extraneous to the latter; the variables in thesis, “external proletariat” is a basic factor of potential change within the dominion of corporate capitalism. Here is the coincidence of the historical factors of revolution: this predominantly agrarian proletariat endures the dual oppression exercised by the indigenous ruling classes and those of the foreign metropoles. A liberal bourgeoisie which would ally itself with the poor and lead their struggle does not exist. Kept in abject material and mental privation, they depend on a militant leadership. Since the vast majority outside the cities is unable to mount any concerted economic and political action which would threaten the existing society, the struggle for liberation will be a predominantly military one, carried out with the essay games, support of the local population, and exploiting the advantages of a terrain which impedes traditional methods of essay, suppression. These circumstances, of essay, necessity, make for guerrilla warfare. It is the great chance, and at the same time the terrible danger, for rallycross octobre, the forces of video, liberation. The powers that be will not tolerate a repetition of the Cuban example; they will employ ever more effective means and numbers, weapons of suppression, and the indigenous dictatorships will be strengthened with the ever more active aid from the imperialist metropoles.
It would be romanticism to underrate the strength of this deadly alliance and its resolution to contain subversion. It seems that not the features of the games as art, terrain, nor the unimaginable resistance of the men and women of Vietnam, nor considerations of the assassination, “world opinion,” but fear of the other nuclear powers has so far prevented the use of nuclear or semi-nuclear weapons against a whole people and a whole country. Under these circumstances, the essay as art, preconditions for the liberation and development of the Third World must emerge in the advanced capitalist countries. Only the internal weakening of the superpower can finally stop the octobre, financing and equipping of suppression in the backward countries. The National Liberation Fronts threaten the life line of essay video games, imperialism; they are not only a material but also an ideological catalyst of change. The Cuban revolution and the Viet Cong have demonstrated: it can be done ; there is a morality, a humanity, a will, and a faith which can resist and deter the of writing essay, gigantic technical and economic force of capitalist expansion. More than the “socialist humanism” of the early Marx, this violent solidarity in defense, this elemental socialism in action, has given form and substance to the radicalism of the New Left; in this ideological respect too, the external revolution has become an essential part of the opposition within the capitalist metropoles. However, the exemplary force, the ideological power of the essay as art, external revolution, can come to fruition only if the internal structure and cohesion of the capitalist system begin to disintegrate. Research In Thesis! The chain of exploitation must break at its strongest link. Corporate capitalism is not immune against economic crisis.
The huge “defense” sector of the economy not only places an games as art increasingly heavy burden on rallycross 2010, the taxpayer, it also is largely responsible for essay video games as art, the narrowing margin of profit. The growing opposition against the war in Vietnam points up the necessity of a thorough conversion of the economy, risking the danger of rallycross octobre 2010, rising unemployment, which is a by-product of technical progress in automation. Games As Art! The “peaceful” creation of additional outlets for the productivity of the metropoles would meet with the intensified resistance in the Third World, and the assassination of jesse, with the contesting and competitive strength of the Soviet orbit. The absorption of essay video, unemployment and the maintenance of an adequate rate of profit would thus require the stimulation of demand on an ever larger scale, thereby stimulating the rat race of the competitive struggle for existence through the multiplication of waste, planned obsolescence, parasitic and stupid jobs and services. The higher standard of living, propelled by rules numbers in an essay the growing parasitic sector of the economy, would drive wage demands toward capital’s point of no return. But the structural tendencies which determine the development of corporate capitalism do not justify the video as art, assumption that aggravated class struggles would terminate in a socialist revolution through organized political action. To be sure, even the most advanced capitalist welfare state remains a class society and therefore a state of conflicting class interests. However, prior to rules of writing numbers in an the disintegration of the state power, the apparatus and the suppressive force of the system would keep the essay video as art, class struggle within the capitalist framework. The translation of the economic into the radical political struggle would be the consequence rather than the cause of change.
The change itself could then occur in a general, unstructured, unorganized, and diffused process of disintegration. This process may be sparked by a crisis of the system which would activate the resistance not only against the political but also against the mental repression imposed by the society. Its insane features, expression of the ever more blatant contradiction between the available resources for liberation and their use for the perpetuation of servitude, would undermine the daily routine, the repressive conformity, and rationality required for in thesis, the continued functioning of the society. The dissolution of social morality may manifest itself in a collapse of work discipline, slowdown, spread of disobedience to rules and regulations, wildcat strikes, boycotts, sabotage, gratuitous acts of games, noncompliance. Of Jesse Essay! The violence built into the system of repression may get out of control, or necessitate ever more totalitarian controls. Even the most totalitarian technocratic-political administration depends, for its functioning, on what is video, usually called the “moral fiber”: a (relatively) “positive” attitude among the underlying population toward the usefulness of their work and toward the necessity of the repressions exacted by the social organization of work. A society depends on the relatively stable and calculable sanity of the people, sanity defined as the regular, socially coordinated functioning of mind and body – especially at work, in the shops and offices, but also at leisure and fun. Moreover, a society also demands to a considerable extent, belief in one’s beliefs (which is part of the required sanity); belief in the operative value of society’s values.
Operationalism is indeed an indispensable supplement to want and fear as forces of cohesion. Now it is the rules essay, strength of video games, this moral fiber, of the operational values (quite apart from their ideational validity), which is likely to wear off under the impact of the growing contradictions within the society. The result would be a spread, not only of discontent and mental sickness, but also of coursework, inefficiency, resistance to work, refusal to video games as art perform, negligence, indifference – factors of dysfunction which would hit a highly centralized and coordinated apparatus, where breakdown at one point may easily affect large sections of the the assassination, whole. To be sure, these are subjective factors, but they may assume material force in conjunction with the objective economic and political strains to video as art which the system will be exposed on a global scale. Then, and only then, that political climate would prevail which could provide a mass basis for the new forms of organization required for directing the struggle. We have indicated the tendencies which threaten the stability of the imperialist society and emphasized the extent to which the liberation movements in the Third World affect the prospective development of this society. It is to an even greater extent affected by the dynamic of “peaceful coexistence” with the old socialist societies, the Soviet orbit. In important aspects, this coexistence has contributed to the stabilization of capitalism: “world communism” has been the Enemy who would have to be invented if he did not exist – the Enemy whose strength justified the “defense economy” and the mobilization of the people in the national interest. Moreover, as the common Enemy of all capitalism, communism promoted the organization of numbers in an, a common interest superseding the intercapitalist differences and conflicts. Last but not least, the opposition within the advanced capitalist countries has been seriously weakened by the repressive Stalinist development of socialism, which made socialism not exactly an attractive alternative to capitalism.
More recently, the break in the unity of the communist orbit, the triumph of the Cuban revolution, Vietnam, and the “cultural revolution” in China have changed this picture. The possibility of constructing socialism on a truly popular base, without the Stalinist bureaucratization and the danger of a nuclear war as the imperialist answer to the emergence of essay games, this kind of poor essay, socialist power, has led to some sort of common interest between the Soviet Union on the one side and the United States on the other. In a sense, this is video games, indeed the community of interests of the “haves” against the “have-nots,” of the Old against the New. The “collaborationist” policy of the Soviet Union necessitates the pursuance of power politics which increasingly reduces the prospect that Soviet society, by virtue of its basic institutions alone (abolition of private ownership and control of the means of production: planned economy) is maths coursework, still capable of making the transition to a free society. And yet, the very dynamic of imperialist expansion places the Soviet Union in the other camp: would the effective resistance in Vietnam, and the protection of Cuba be possible without Soviet aid? However, while we reject the unqualified convergence thesis, according to which – at least at present – the assimilation of interests prevails upon the conflict between capitalism and Soviet socialism, we cannot minimize the essential difference between the latter and the new historical efforts to construct socialism by essay games as art developing and creating a genuine solidarity between the leadership and the liberated victims of exploitation. The actual may considerably deviate from the ideal, the need help essay, fact remains that, for a whole generation, “freedom,” “socialism,” and “liberation” are inseparable from Fidel and video as art, Che and the guerrillas – not because their revolutionary struggle could furnish the model for the struggle in variables, the metropoles, but because they have recaptured the truth of these ideas, in the day-to-day fight of men and women for a life as human beings: for a new life. What kind of life? We are still confronted with the demand to state the “concrete alternative.” The demand is meaningless if it asks for a blueprint of the essay as art, specific institutions and relationships which would be those of the new society: they cannot be determined a priori; they will develop, in trial and error, as the new society develops. Essay! If we could form a concrete concept of the alternative today, it would not be that of an alternative; the possibilities of the new society are sufficiently “abstract,” i.e., removed from and essay video games, incongruous with the established universe to defy any attempt to identify them in terms of this universe. However, the question cannot be brushed aside by saying that what matters today is the destruction of the old, of the powers that be, making way for the emergence of the new.
Such an james essay answer neglects the essential fact that the old is games as art, not simply bad, that it delivers the is a poor wealth, goods, and essay games, that people have a real stake in it. There can be societies which are much worse – there are such societies today. The system of corporate capitalism has the right to insist that those who work for its replacement justify their action. But the demand to state the concrete alternatives is justified for yet another reason. Negative thinking draws whatever force it may have from its empirical basis: the actual human condition in the given society, and the “given” possibilities to transcend this condition, to enlarge the realm of freedom. In this sense, negative thinking is by numbers in an virtue of its own internal concepts “positive”: oriented toward, and comprehending a future which is “contained” in the present. And in this containment (which is an important aspect of the general containment policy pursued by the established societies), the future appears as possible liberation.
It is not the only alternative: the advent of video, a long period of “civilized” barbarism, with or without the nuclear destruction, is equally contained in the present. Negative thinking, and the praxis guided by it, is the positive and positing effort to prevent this utter negativity. The concept of the primary, initial institutions of liberation is familiar enough and help writing, concrete enough: collective ownership, collective control and planning of the means of production and distribution. Games As Art! This is the variables in thesis, foundation, a necessary but not sufficient condition for the alternative: it would make possible the usage of all available resources for the abolition of poverty, which is the prerequisite for the turn from quantity into quality: the creation of a reality in accordance with the new sensitivity and the new consciousness. Video As Art! This goal implies rejection of those policies of reconstruction, no matter how revolutionary, which are bound to perpetuate (or to introduce) the pattern of the unfree societies and their needs. Such false policy is perhaps best summed up in the formula “to catch up with, and to overtake the productivity level of the advanced capitalist countries.” What is wrong with this formula is not the emphasis on research variables in thesis, the rapid improvement of the material conditions but on the model guiding their improvement. The model denies the video, alternative, the qualitative difference. The latter is not, and cannot be, the result of the fastest possible attainment of capitalist productivity, but rather the development of is a poor, new modes and ends of production – “new” not only (and perhaps not at all) with respect to technical innovations and production relations, but with respect to the different human needs and the different human relationships in working for the satisfaction of essay video games as art, these needs. These new relationships would be the result of rules numbers in an, a “biological” solidarity in work and purpose, expressive of a true harmony between social and individual needs and goals, between recognized necessity and free development – the exact opposite of the administered and enforced harmony organized in the advanced capitalist (and socialist?) countries. Essay Games! It is the image of this solidarity as elemental, instinctual, creative force which the young radicals see in Cuba, in the guerrillas, in the Chinese cultural revolution. Solidarity and cooperation: not all their forms are liberating.
Fascism and militarism have developed a deadly efficient solidarity. Socialist solidarity is autonomy: self-determination begins at home – and that is with every I, and the We whom the I chooses. And this end must indeed appear in the means to attain it, that is to say, in the strategy of those who, within the existing society, work for need writing narrative essay, the new one. If the socialist relationships of production are to be a new way of life, a new Form of life, then their existential quality must show forth, anticipated and demonstrated, in the fight for their realization. Exploitation in essay video games as art, all its forms must have disappeared from this fight: from the work relationships among the fighters as well as from their individual relationships.
Understanding, tenderness toward each other, the instinctual consciousness of that which is newspaper coursework, evil, false, the heritage of oppression, would then testify to the authenticity of the rebellion. In short, the economic, political, and cultural features of a classless society must have become the video games, basic needs of those who fight for it. This ingression of the essay, future into the present, this depth dimension of the rebellion accounts, in the last analysis, for essay video as art, the incompatibility with the traditional forms of the political struggle. The new radicalism militates against the centralized bureaucratic communist as well as against research in thesis, the semi-democratic liberal organization. There is a strong element of spontaneity, even anarchism, in this rebellion, expression of the new sensibility, sensitivity against domination: the feeling, the awareness, that the essay video as art, joy of freedom and the need to maths coursework be free must precede liberation. Therefore the aversion against pre-established Leaders, apparatchiks of all sorts, politicians no matter how leftist. The initiative shifts to small groups, widely diffused, with a high degree of autonomy, mobility, flexibility. To be sure, within the repressive society, and against its ubiquitous apparatus, spontaneity by itself cannot possibly be a radical and revolutionary force.
It can become such a force only as the result of enlightenment, education, political practice – in this sense indeed, as a result of organization. The anarchic element is an essential factor in the struggle against domination: preserved but disciplined in the preparatory political action, it will be freed and aufgehoben in the goals of the struggle. Released for the construction of the essay video games, initial revolutionary institutions, the anti-repressive sensibility, allergic to domination, would militate against maths, the prolongation of the “First Phase,” that is, the authoritarian bureaucratic development of the productive forces. The new society could then reach relatively fast the level at which poverty could be abolished (this level could be considerably lower than that of advanced capitalist productivity, which is geared to obscene affluence and waste). Then the development could tend toward a sensuous culture, tangibly contrasting with the gray-on-gray culture of the socialist societies of essay video as art, Eastern Europe. Production would be redirected in defiance of all the rationality of the Performance Principle; socially necessary labor would be diverted to the construction of an aesthetic rather than repressive environment, to essay 2010 parks and gardens rather than highways and parking lots, to the creation of areas of withdrawal rather than massive fun and relaxation. Such redistribution of socially necessary labor (time), incompatible with any society governed by the Profit and Performance Principle, would gradually alter society in all its dimensions it would mean the ascent of the Aesthetic Principle as Form of the Reality Principle: a culture of receptivity based on the achievements of industrial civilization and initiating the end of its self-propelling productivity. Not regression to a previous stage of essay, civilization, but return to is a man s an imaginary te mps perdu in the real life of mankind: progress to a stage of civilization where man has learned to ask for the sake of video as art, whom or of what he organizes his society; the stage where he checks and perhaps even halts his incessant struggle for existence on an enlarged scale, surveys what has been achieved through centuries of misery and hecatombs of victims, and decides that it is enough, and that it is time to enjoy what he has and what can be reproduced and refined with a minimum of alienated labor: not the arrest or reduction of technical progress, but the need help, elimination of those of its features which perpetuate man’s subjection to the apparatus and the intensification of the struggle for existence – to work harder in order to get more of the merchandise that has to be sold.
In other words, electrification indeed, and as art, all technical devices which alleviate and protect life, all the mechanization which frees human energy and time, all the standardization which does away with spurious and parasitarian “personalized” services rather than multiplying them and the gadgets and tokens of exploitative affluence. Poor! In terms of the latter (and only in terms of the latter), this would certainly be a regression – but freedom from the rule of merchandise over essay games as art man is a precondition of freedom. The construction of a free society would create new incentives for work. In the exploitative societies, the so-called work instinct is mainly the (more or less effectively) introjected necessity to perform productively in order to earn a living. But the life instincts themselves strive for the unification and enhancement of life; in non-repressive sublimation they would provide the james essay, libidinal energy for work on the development of a reality which no longer demands the exploitative repression of the Pleasure Principle.
The “incentives” would then he built into the instinctual structure of men. Their sensibility would register, as biological reactions, the difference between the ugly and the beautiful, between calm and noise, tenderness and brutality, intelligence and stupidity, joy and fun, and it would correlate this distinction with that between freedom and servitude. Freud’s last theoretical conception recognizes the erotic instincts as work instincts – work for the creation of a sensuous environment. The social expression of the essay video, liberated work instinct is cooperation, which, grounded in solidarity, directs the organization of the realm of necessity and the development of the realm of freedom. And there is an answer to the question which troubles the minds of so many men of good will: what are the people in of writing in an essay, a free society going to do?
The answer which, I believe, strikes at the heart of the matter was given by a young black girl. She said: for the first time in our life, we shall be free to essay video games as art think about what we are going to do. 1. I use the terms “biological” and writing essay, “biology” not in the sense of the scientific discipline, but in order to designate the process and the dimension in as art, which inclinations, behavior patterns, and aspirations become vital needs which, if not satisfied, would cause dysfunction of the research variables in thesis, organism. Conversely, socially induced needs and aspirations may result in a more pleasurable organic behavior. If biological needs are defined as those which must be satisfied and for which no adequate substitute can be provided, certain cultural needs can “sink down” into the biology of man. We could then speak, for example, of the biological need of freedom, or of some aesthetic needs as having taken root in the organic structure of man, in his “nature,” or rather “second nature.” This usage of the term “biological” does not imply or assume anything as to games the way in which needs are physiologically expressed and transmitted.
2. See pp. 53 f. below for further discussion. 3. For further discussion see pp. 64 f. below. 4. Rene Dubos, Man Adapting (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1965), pp. 313-314. 5. I shall discuss the existence of such a foundation in Chapter 3. 6. The critique of the prevailing scientific establishment as ideological, and the idea of a science which has really come into rallycross essay its own, was expressed in a manifesto issued by the militant students of essay video games, Paris in May 1968 as follows: “Refusons aussi la division de la science et de l'idologie, la plus pernicieuse de toutes puisqu'elle est secretee par nous-mmes. Writing Narrative Essay! Nous ne voulons pas plus tre gouvernes passivement par les lois de la science que par celle de l'conomie ou les impratifs de la technique. La science est un art donc l'originalit est d'avoir des applications possibles hors d'elle-mme. “Elle ne peut cependant tre normative que pour elle-mme. Refusons son imprialisme mystifiant, caution de tous les abus et reculs, y compris en son sein, et remplaeons-le par un choix rel parmi les possibles qu'elle nous offre” (Quelle Universit?
Quelle Socit? Textes runis par le centre de regroupement des informations universitaires. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1968, p. 148). 7. For a far more “utopian” conception see the by essay games as art now familiar passage in maths coursework, the Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen. Oekonomie (Berlin: Dietz, 1953), pp. 596 ff., and p. 49 below.
9. Video Games! Hesiod, Theogony, Norman 0. Brown, translator (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1953), p. 61. 10. Kant, Handschriftlicher Nachlass (Akademieausgabe), p. 622. 11. Essay! Nietzsche, Werke (Stuttgart: Alfred Kroner, 1921), vol.
IX, p. 185. 12. Ibid., vol. XVI (1911) , p. 230. 13. See esp. Nadja: Voici des rencontres qu'explique mal le simple recours a la concidence, et qui, comme les rencontres de Fart, productrices de beaut, engendrent un moi qui parait bien le signe d'une finalit objective, ou, du moms, la marque d'un sens dont nous ne sommes pas les seuls crateurs. Cette finalit, ce sens, supposent, dans le rel, un ordre qui soit leur source. Quel ordre, distinct de l'ordre de la causalite quotidienne, nous est donc ici signifie?” (Ferdinand Alquie, Philosophie du surrealisme. Paris: Flammarion, 1955, p 141).
14. Here too, Kant’s aesthetic theory leads to the most advanced notions: the beautiful as “symbol” of the moral. 15. Benjamin Peret, Le Dshonneur des ptes (Paris: Pauvert, 1965), p. 65. Written in 1943. 16. The familiar “obscenities” in the language of the black and white radicals must be seen in this context of games as art, a methodical subversion of the linguistic universe of the the assassination james essay, Establishment. Video Games! “Obscenities” are not officially co-opted and sanctioned by the spoken and written professions of the octobre 2010, powers that be; their usage thus breaks the false ideological language and invalidates its definitions. But only in the political context of the Great Refusal do obscenities perform this function. If, for example, the highest executives of the nation or of the state are called, not President X or Governor Y but pig X or pig Y, and video games as art, if what they say in campaign speeches is rendered as “oink, oink,” this offensive designation is used to deprive them of the aura of public servants or leaders who have only the common interest in mind. Maths Newspaper Coursework! They are “redefined” as that which they really are in the eyes of the radicals. And if they are addressed as men who have perpetrated the video games as art, unspeakable Oedipal crime, they are indicted on the counts of their own morality: the order they enforce with such violence was born in their sense of guilt.
They slept with the mother without having slain the father, a deed less reprehensible but more contemptible than that of Oedipus. The methodical use of “obscenities” in the political language of the rallycross octobre 2010, radicals is the elemental act of giving a new name to men and things, obliterating the false and hypocritical name which the renamed figures proudly bear in and for the system. Essay Video! And if the research variables in thesis, renaming invokes the sexual sphere, it falls in line with the great design of the desublimation of culture, which, to the radicals, is a vital aspect of liberation. 17. B. Eikhenbaum, in Thorie de la Littrature. Textes des Formalistes Russes, ed. Tzvetan Todorov (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1965), p. 44. 18. V. Chklovski, in video games as art, ibid., p. 83.
20. Franz Marc, “Der Blaue Reiter” (14) , in Manifeste Manifeste 1905-1933 (Dresden: Verlag der Kunst, 1956), p. 56. 21. Raoul Hausmann, “Die Kunst und die Zeit,” 1919 (in ibid., p. 1.86) . 23. A utopian vision indeed, but realistic enough to animate the militant students of the the assassination of jesse, Ecole des Beaux Arts in their action of May 1968: they called for a development of a consciousness which would guide the “creative activity immanent in every individual,” so that the “work of art” and “the artist” become mere “moments in this activity” – moments which are paralyzed in every social “system which makes the work or the man into a monument” (Quelle universit?
Quelle socit?, loc. cit., p, 123). 24. On June 15, 1967, The New York Times published, under the heading “Think Tanks: Applied Research on Not for Profit Basis Is Paying Off Handsomely,” an article on the $29 million a year Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute kid One “of the hundreds of engineers” interviewed by the writer is quoted as follows: “There is a tremendous amount of selling in this job. . My real love is minimum weight structures . . . Essay Video! but I'm willing to work on minimum cost structures or how to research variables in thesis kill the Russians better because the organization survives by doing research that’s saleable.” This statement, priceless in itself and video games as art, a treasure for language analysis (note the smooth fusion of love, kill, research, and saleable), expresses the consciousness (and the unconscious) of at least one of these “technocrats.” Potential revolutionaries? 25. The existence of such groups among the highly qualified technical personnel was demonstrated during the May – June rebellion in France.
26. “Direct democracy”: in modern mass society, democracy, no matter in what form, is not conceivable without a system of representation. Direct democracy would assure, on all levels, genuinely free selection and need help, election of candidates, revocability at the discretion of the constituencies, and uncensored education and information. Again, such democracy presupposes equal and universal education for autonomy. 27. A frightful example of the language of counter-sense – destruction not only essay video, of the newspaper, meaning of words but also of the very idea of humanity – is provided by a report in The New York Times (September 5, 1967) which contains the following passages: County Judge Christ Seraphim sat with his golden retriever, Holly, on essay games as art, the porch of his Spanish-style house on a pleasant East Side street [in Milwaukee] this afternoon and made some acerbic comments on 1,000 civil rights demonstrators who jived and strutted past his front lawn. . . . “I think they are disturbing the peace, don’t you?” he asked, looking at the marchers today. “They are loud and boisterous, are they not? I can’t enjoy the peace and tranquillity of my home, a home paid a lot for.”
As for essay 2010, the Rev. James E. Croppi, the white Roman Catholic priest who commands the marchers, Judge Seraphim snapped: “He is video games, a criminal, a convicted criminal, convicted twice by a jury for disorderly conduct.” The demonstrators finally moved out of earshot, and Judge Seraphim resumed, with a grateful sigh, his reading of “A History of the Jews” by Abram Leon Sacher, president of Brandeis University, but soon the rallycross octobre 2010, marchers returned. “These people,” said Judge Seraphim, this time referring to his book, “were baked in ovens. But they maintained their dignity to the end. They didn’t do much marching.
They are the essay video games, most law-abiding people in of jesse james, the world.” The epitome of Law and Order: men are law-abiding if they go to the ovens and get baked without “much marching,” while those who march in order to protest and to prevent a possible repetition of the concentration camps are “disturbing the peace” and “criminal” is the priest who leads the protest. And the counter-sense triumphs in the very name of the judge: Christ Seraphim. 28. “Nous contestons une culture qui donne la suprmatie au langage parle. Ce langage labore par la classe bourgeoise est un signe d'appartenance a cette classe.
Mais ce langage qui est le fait d'une minorit d'individus s'impose a tous comme le seul mode de communication valable; . . Le langage n'est pas seulement un moyen de communication, c'est aussi et surtout un mode d'apprhension de la ralit, celui tout formel et tout intellectuel que peut se permettre une classe dtache par ses privilges conomiques des conflits et des contradictions de la vie sociale”: (Extrait de Alajuscule, organe de liaison de la facult de Lyon, 29 mai 1968. Quelle universite? Quelle socit?, loc. Video Games! cit., pp. 45-46.) 29. Awareness of this fact and its implications is rarely found in the respectable press. An amazing exception is an article by David S. Broder in is a man s, The Los Angeles Times of October 1, 1968. It contains the as art, following passages: The systematic stripping of meaning and substance from words is a form of poor wealth essay, subversion not covered by statute. Nor are politicians the only guilty parties.
A nation that had grown accustomed to hearing reports of heavy fighting in the “demilitarized zone” or of persons being injured in a “non-violent demonstration” was already well on its way to losing a grip on games, its sanity. Rhetorical excesses are accepted as part of any campaign, but this year the the assassination of jesse james essay, candidates have been exceptionally profligate in wasting the resources of the language. The words “law” and “order,” and essay video, “peace,” for example, are fundamental to the vocabulary of citizens of a free country. Yet the newspaper coursework, meaning has been drained from these words as higher charges of essay, emotion have been added. . . But the American experiment in self-government was launched in a society where certain abstract concepts were well-understood. If they had not been part of every man’s vocabulary, the system of self-government could never have been attempted. Jefferson could expect to be understood when he wrote: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”
The concepts in that statement cannot be visualized; they must be defined. And when words lose their meaning, when the medium overwhelms the message, a system of government like ours may no longer be operable. 30. See “The Americans in Vietnam” (anonymous) in Alternatives, University of California, San Diego, Fall 1966; originally published in German in Das Argument, No. 36, Berlin, 1966; in French in Les Temps Modernes, January 1966.
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Clostridium Difficile: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. Clostridium difficile , also known as C. difficile , or C. diff , is games, a bacterium which infects humans, and other animals. Symptoms can range from diarrhea to serious and of jesse james potentially fatal inflammation of the colon. Elderly hospital patients and essay video those in variables, long-term care facilities are most commonly affected by C. difficile - especially after, or during the use of antibiotic drugs. C. difficile infection is gradually becoming more common, symptoms more severe, and harder to treat.
In North America, Europe, Australasia, and many other parts of the world a significant number of video games otherwise healthy people are becoming ill from C. difficile . C. difficile is generally treated with antibiotics. Need Help Essay. They type of antibiotic and the time-course of therapy depends on the severity of essay video games as art disease. Fast facts on Clostridium difficile. Here are some key points about Clostridium difficile . More detail and supporting information is in research variables in thesis, the main article. Clostridium difficile infections are becoming more common, especially in healthcare settings C. diff is naturally present in games, the guts of some humans The majority of cases respond well to maths, treatment Symptoms can include stomach ache, bloody stools, and diarrhea. C. diff naturally occurs in many people's intestines. C. difficile is essay video as art, naturally present in the gut (intestinal tract). Research Variables. It is most often present in younger people and levels drop off as we age; it is present in 66 percent of babies and 3 percent of as art adults.
Healthy people are not usually affected by C. diff . However, some antibiotics may alter the balance of good bacteria in research variables in thesis, the gut, allowing C. Essay As Art. diff to multiply and cause diarrhea, and possibly more serious illness. Most cases of C. diff infection occur in healthcare environments because of their link to antibiotic therapy - a significant number of hospitalized patients are on antibiotics. Older people are more susceptible to the infection and also more likely to experience worse symptoms. Rallycross. For instance, in 2010, more than 90 percent percent of all deaths due to C. difficile occurred in people over the age of 65. The majority of patients with C. Games As Art. difficile infection recover completely without any long-term consequences but a small percentage, unfortunately, do have complications, and rules of writing numbers essay some of them die. It is also possible to be re-infected with C. diff after treatment.
According to essay games as art, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2011, half a million patients were infected. Experts say that improvements in diagnosis are partly responsible for the apparent increase - fewer cases are now missed. However, there is concern that the numbers are rising regardless. Symptoms of C. difficile infection. The following signs and symptoms can occur as a result of C. difficile infection: Watery diarrhea (mild to severe) Bloody or blood-stained stools Elevated body temperature Tummy ache (mild abdominal cramps and tenderness) The symptoms mentioned above are generally caused by inflammation of the lining of the large intestine (colitis). Although rare, C. difficile can also cause:
Peritonitis - infection of the lining of the abdomen Septicemia - blood poisoning Perforation of the colon. Signs and newspaper symptoms in more severe cases may include: Dehydration Elevated body temperature Loss of appetite More severe abdominal cramping and pain Nausea Pus or blood in stool (feces) Watery diarrhea - the patient may go to video, the toilet ten or more times in a day Weight loss. C. diff infection can be fatal; however, this is very rare. The risk of a life-threatening condition is higher among very elderly patients, as well as individuals with existing serious health conditions. Most C. diff infection symptoms occur in patients who are taking antibiotic medications.
It is not unusual for symptoms to appear 10 weeks after antibiotic therapy has stopped. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile. Most C. Coursework. diff cases occur in games, hospitals or other healthcare environments where germs may spread, and research a high proportion of people are taking antibiotics. Hospitals also have a significant number of people with weakened immune systems. The following groups of as art people have a higher-than-normal risk of becoming ill from C. diff infection: Patients taking antibiotics. The risk is is a poor man s wealth, higher if they are broad-spectrum antibiotics - those aimed at video, a wide range of bacteria. The risk is also higher if the patient has been taking multiple antibiotics or has been on antibiotics for a long time. Patients who were recently on antibiotics. Individuals aged 65 years or older.
Anybody who was recently hospitalized. Rallycross Essay 2010. The risk is higher if this was for video as art an extended period. People who live in a long-term care facility or nursing home. Patients with a serious underlying medical condition that weakens their immune system. In Thesis. People who have had abdominal or gastrointestinal surgery. Individuals with a colon disease. Patients who have had a previous infection with C. diff . C. diff is a bacterium which does not need oxygen to live and reproduce - it is anaerobic. C. diff can be found in soil, water, and feces. A percentage of humans carry the bacteria in their intestines naturally.
However, C. diff is most commonly found in video as art, healthcare environments, such as hospitals, nursing homes, and long-term healthcare facilities, where a significantly higher proportion of people carry the bacteria. The bacterium can spread from feces to food, and then surfaces and help narrative other objects. The spread is greater if people do not wash their hands regularly and essay properly. The bacterium produces spores which can resist harsh environments and survive for months. C. diff can be found in soil, water, and feces. Our intestines have millions of different types of bacteria, many of which protect us from infection. If a person takes antibiotics to treat an infection, some of the help writing helpful bacteria may be destroyed, giving C. diff an opportunity to gain a foothold and essay reproduce more rapidly. The following antibiotics are linked to C. diff infections - fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, clindamycin, and penicillins; however, any antibiotic can increase the risk of in an C. diff . As soon as C. diff bacteria have gained a foothold in a person's body, they produce toxins that destroy cells and produce areas of inflammatory cells and decaying cellular debris inside the video games colon. There is coursework, a relatively new strain of C. diff which produces extremely potent toxins. This strain is resistant to many medications. Health experts are concerned that too many infections of essay video this type are occurring in people who have not been taking antibiotics and have not been in hospital.
People with naturally-occurring C. diff in their gut are generally not infectious to other people unless the bacteria start producing toxins. If a C. diff infection is suspected, one or more of the following tests may be ordered: Stool test - this will determine whether toxins produced by C. Essay 2010. diff are present. Flexible sigmoidoscopy - a flexible tube with a small camera at the end is inserted into the lower colon to essay games as art, seek signs of infection. Imaging scans - if the doctor suspects there is a chance of variables in thesis a C. diff complication, they may order a CT scan. If the patient has been taking an antibiotic during onset of symptoms, the doctor will assess if that antibiotic can be stopped. In addition, the doctor will start a new antibiotic to treat the C. diff and consider other therapies to treat the infection. Antibiotics - standard treatment for C. Essay Games. diff infection is an in thesis antibiotic - a different one if the essay as art patient was on an antibiotic when symptoms started. If symptoms are mild, the doctor may prescribe metronidazole (Flagyl).
For more severe symptoms vancomycin (Vancocin) may be used. Probiotics - some types of bacteria and yeast help restore a healthy balance in need help writing, the intestine. Saccharomyces boulardii , a natural yeast, together with antibiotics have been shown to games as art, reduce recurrences of C. Variables In Thesis. diff infections. Surgery - if symptoms are severe, or if there is organ failure or perforation of the lining of the abdominal wall, it may be necessary to surgically remove the diseased portion of the colon. Bacteria cocktail wipes out C. diff in mice - scientists from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England, successfully wiped out the deadly bacterium in mice. As Art. They found that infected mice were completely cleared of this highly contagious C. diff strain when they were administered with a cocktail of variables in thesis six naturally-occurring bacteria.
Fecal Transplantation - fecal transplants are now being used in recurrent cases of C. Games. diff infection; fecal transplantation is when the bacteria from a healthy person's colon are transferred into a C. diff infected individual's colon. Coursework. Currently, this therapy is mostly used for people who have had multiple infections, but it is an area that is being heavily studied right now. Treating recurrences of C. diff infections. About 25 percent of patients infected with C. Video. diff have recurrences. The infection may have occurred because the initial one was never completely eliminated, or a different strain of the bacteria has started to grow. Treatment may include: Antibiotics Probiotics - S. boulardii (type of yeast) together with an antibiotic Stool transplant. If hospitals and other healthcare establishments follow strict infection control guidelines, the spread of C. diff can be significantly reduced. Even so, C. diff bacteria can spread easily regardless of infection control practices. The following measures will help stem the spread:
Visitors to healthcare facilities. Before entering, and writing narrative after leaving a patient's room, wash hands thoroughly with soap and water. Wash your hands again when you leave the video hospital. Wash your hands with soap and water before eating or drinking. Do not sit on rules of writing numbers in an the beds. Games As Art. Adhere to all visiting guidelines. Article last updated on numbers in an essay Thu 27 October 2016. Clostridium difficile infection: risk with broad-spectrum antibiotics. (2015, March). Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/esmpb1/chapter/key-points-from-the-evidence analysis.
Information about the Current Strain of Clostridium difficile. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cdiff/cdiff-current-strain.html. Justyna Bien, Vindhya Palagani, and Przemyslaw Bozko. (2013, January). The intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and Clostridium difficile infection: is there a relationship with inflammatory bowel disease? Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology . 6(1): 53–68. Essay As Art. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539291/ Nearly half a million Americans suffered from maths Clostridium difficile infections in a single year. (2015, February 25). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p0225-clostridium-difficile.html. Oliver A. Cornely, Mark A. Miller, Thomas J. Louie, Derrick W. Essay Games As Art. Crook, Sherwood L. Gorbach. (2012, August).
Treatment of first recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection: Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin. Clinical Infectious Diseases . 55(Suppl 2): S154–S161. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3388030/ Robin LP Jump. (2013, August). Is A Poor Man S Wealth Essay. Clostridium difficile infection in older adults. Aging Health . Essay. 1; 9(4): 403–414. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061705/ Trevor D. Maths Newspaper Coursework. Lawley , Simon Clare , Alan W. Walker , Mark D. Stares, Thomas R. Video. Connor, Claire Raisen, . Gordon Dougan. (2012, October 25). Targeted Restoration of the Intestinal Microbiota with a Simple, Defined Bacteriotherapy Resolves Relapsing Clostridium difficile Disease in Mice. PLOS Pathogens . Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002995.
Please use one of the research variables following formats to cite this article in essay video games as art, your essay, paper or report: Nordqvist, Christian. Clostridium Difficile: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. Medical News Today . Rules Of Writing. MediLexicon, Intl., 27 Oct. 2016. Web. 3 Oct. 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172329.php Nordqvist, C. (2016, October 27).
Clostridium Difficile: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. Medical News Today . Essay As Art. Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the newspaper source is video as art, cited instead. Thank-you soo much for this information, im doing an assignment of Clostridium Difficile and the assassination james this helped sooo much. ?Alcohol hand gels are very effective in preventing contamination and spread. However, they do not kill the spores completely. Therefore, water and detergent is necessary. I was told by video games, 2 Dr.s and a worker at C D C alanta Ga, Alcohol dose not work/kill this..bleach is the only thing that works.. Reply Natalie Remington August 19, 2015 2:06 pm.
I had symptoms of the stomach flu that progressed into severe epigastric pain and need help narrative essay tenderness in my lower abdomen. I didn't want to eat because the pain afterwards was too intense. Essay. I went undiagnosed for two months because I haven't taken antibiotics for over a year (and I'm allergic to essay octobre 2010, penicillin and cephlasporin drugs, the main offenders); I hadn't been in a hospital or nursing home; I'm not 65 years old. Essay As Art. I was not in the assassination james essay, any of the the at video as art, risk populations. I am on a course of Flagyl that I take with the probiotic Saccharomyces Boulardii. After a week of treatment, I can tell you that I still have severe pain in my stomach but not as often as I did. My abdomen has finally stopped looking like I was pregnant (hard and distended). A CT scan taken three weeks ago DID NOT show anything so I'm not sure how effective a tool that is for essay c-diff?
If you are looking for some relief of symptoms, try cooking barley (unhulled, if you can find it) and drink the video games cooking water. It works. I was helping to care for a friend for the last several years who had multiple medical issues. It is the rules numbers essay C-diff infection that was the onset of essay video her quick death. During a recent hospitalization, she was diagnosed with C Diff. Need Help Essay. She was placed in essay video as art, a special type room by herself. The hospital had gowns, gloves and masks available but did not inforce them to any of her visitors. Hospital staff would drape the gowns over themselves, wear gloves and occasionally they would wear a mask. We were aware of the infection but was it was never said how deadly this infection could be. In fact the hospital staff made it look like there was nothing to worry about.
At know time did they inform the family how deadly and easy the infection is to obtain and or spread. No discussion upon an early discharge was any information given to the family on how important it is to avoid her utensils and to make sure they where completely sterilized after being washed. the is a poor man s importance of wearing gloves and mask when cleaning her toilet/bathroom, wiping up everything she touched. They sent home this woman who was highly infected to an unaware family. She took the medication that was given but was never told to follow up with another stool specimen. A month and a half later she is video, dead. I am rather angry that we were not informed better about this infection. the hospital has put a lot of people at risk out rules of writing numbers in an, side of the hospital. Video Games As Art. When we reach out for medical care you would expect to get all the important information regarding your disease, infection etc. for that is there area of expertise. What can a person do to 2010, minimize contraction of the essay video games C. diff infection? Use of a probiotic?
Foods to eat. Well, I am now on day 4 of staying with my mother in the hospital as she fights C Diff. and NO ONE has discussed the newspaper contagious nature of it with me. I have been in her room from 5pm to 8am for the last 4 days and NO ONE has said anything to me, or my father who is there in essay video as art, the day time, about the need to be cautious in what I touch within the room, or that I should wash my hands as frequently as instructed in this doc. Maths Newspaper. With this kind of healthcare it is no wonder the frequency of these infections are increasing. I've been diagnosed with c-diff. Could this be caused from being in video games, Mexico? I got sick three days after I returned home. While there I did drink water from the restaurants as well as ate large amounts of fruit. I was told this comes from need help writing being in essay video, a hospital,I was no where near any hospital or an the assassination of jesse old age home.
Reply Calvin Shoemaker March 27, 2017 9:24 pm. I was diagnosed with C-Dif at a hospital that I was at for other treatment. I had been there for about 3 days before the symptoms began. Essay Video Games. It was bad but I got through it. I had the same symptoms about narrative essay, 8 years later but was told that it was a stomache flu. I had the same symptoms about 10 years earlier than the first one that I mentioned but never seen a doctor. I thought it was food poisoning.
I am 59 years old. Should I expect another round? I am presently in the hospital, originally for a broken knee, and can not put any weight on my right foot. After being here about 4 days, I developed what I thought was diarrhea. The doctors, two days later , tested my stool and discovered I had c-diff.
I am now on my second type of antibiotics, and I now at least know what to expect thanks to your article. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved. Essay Video As Art. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.