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Avoid These 10 Phrases for his biography, a Better Resume. Essay Homes! Everyone knows that a resume is his biography, one of the too dependent essay most important components of a job application. What many people may not realize is his biography, that it#39;s not just your past positions and accomplishments, but also the words you use to games as art, describe those achievements, that can make a difference in how the hiring manager or recruiter views you. In an his biography attempt to make their resumes more appealing, job candidates may include extra information or use words they think sound impressive. But sometimes, those words will not have the desired effect and, in fact, may turn off hiring managers. Experts agree that these 10 phrases should be removed from essay your resume because they are overused, meaningless or outdated. His Biography! If you have a higher degree, remove your GPA, especially if it is considered average or low, said Tim Davis, resource manager at staffing agency Kavaliro. For the most part, employers won#39;t even notice if it is construction dissertation, not included on a resume. Only include GPA if a company specifically requests it on the application. Instead, summarize your academic statuses or awards, Davis said. Keep any special academic statuses or awards you may have achieved during your time in school, he added.

Recognitions such as these show ambition and initiative. His Biography! Rather than saying you#39;re driven by results, you should give examples of actual results, said Matt Doucette, director of global talent acquisition at Monster. List the management dissertation results achieved, and outline how you accomplished them, he said. Work is all about solving problems, said Mikaela Kiner, founder and CEO of his biography, HR consulting firm uniquelyHR.The more important question is, what kind of problems, how complex are they and how do you solve them? Opt for words that describe your approach to problem solving, such as creative or analytical, Kiner added. Essay! Years ago, an objective was considered a primary component of a resume. Today, however, objectives have lost their punch, said Janine Truitt, chief innovations officer at consulting firm Talent Think Innovations. Instead, candidates should summarize their skills based on the advertised job description, she said.

This phrase is meaningless because it doesn#39;t say what you actually accomplished, experts say. #39;I was responsible for maintaining company X#39;s servers,#39; doesn#39;t give enough insight into what the candidate did, said Neil Napier, CEO of job search company jobrack. Quantifying what you did and being clear would be better. For example, it would be better to write something like, Managed Company X#39;s servers for six months with Y technology . Napier also suggested alternative words, such as implemented or grew. His Biography! This word is drastically overplayed, said Adam Hatch, career adviser and essay hiring manager at ResumeGenius.com. If someone is a #39;dynamic#39; accountant, what does that mean? Flashy number crunching? Instead, Hatch suggested using words such as energetic, diligent and creative, which are more descriptive and meaningful. His Biography! Kimberly Bishop, founder and CEO of Kimberly Bishop Executive Recruiting, said many resumes she has read include the phrase transformational leader, with no explanation of how the candidate was transformational.

That phrase is overused and doesn#39;t specifically mean anything that translates to a specific experience, Bishop said. My recommendation is to more specifically describe the skill set. Essay Video Games! 8. Microsoft Office (and other outdated tech terms) Technology is changing constantly, and you want to prove that you#39;re up-to-date on the latest business software. Joey Price, CEO of Jumpstart:HR, said job seekers who include experience with Microsoft Office on his biography their resumes set the bar pretty low for themselves. Instead, be more specific about your skills, he said. Most HR managers expect you to already have familiarity with a software suite that has been around since [the beginning of] the video internet, Price said. Dig deeper and share that you have experience with Visio, Project and his biography Access more specialized software programs that can really pay off for phd tqm construction dissertation, an employer. Like the his biography once-ubiquitous objective, this formerly popular resume phrase has become outdated. Dawn Rasmussen, founder of Pathfinder Writing and on computers essay Career Services, said hiring managers hate seeing resumes that say References available upon his biography, request. An employer already knows that most candidates will present their references without question when asked for them, she said.

Heather Huhman, founder and president of is good, HR tech public relations firm Come Recommended, agreed. You#39;re wasting precious resume space by including a phrase that is his biography, clearly understood and implied, she said. If a hiring manager is resume, interested in contacting your references, he or she will request the information from you, Huhman said. This phrase is clichéd and his biography doesn#39;t really say anything, experts agree. It sounds like a candidate who has been cooked, said Roy Cohen, a career counselor and executive coach. It also gives the impression that the person it is describing has been around for a while. Too Dependent Essay! Additional reporting by Nicole Taylor. His Biography! Some source interviews were conducted for resume, a previous version of this article. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from his biography Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at essay, a newspaper and in his biography the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.

Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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School of History, Art History and Philosophy. These notes are written in a fairly forthright style, peppered liberally with injunctions and prohibitions, but I suppose I should say by his biography, way of disclaimer that I do not necessarily think that there is essay only one correct way of going about writing a philosophy essay, either under examination or under non-examination conditions. So treat these notes as guidelines which you may find of assistance (though, on many points, I don't myself see that there is a realistic alternative). As far as preparing to write a philosophy essay goes, the most important single piece of advice that can be given (obvious, but still worth stating clearly) is: read . Unless you are a genius, you will not be able to excogitate from nothing what the interesting philosophical questions in any given area are, and how one should go about addressing them. You have some idea of the terrain, and his biography some interest in exploring it further (that's why you're doing philosophy), but you (like the rest of samples us) need help, and his biography that help is essay readily available in the form of the writings of the great classic philosophers, and his biography the commentaries on them and continuing discussions of their problems provided by on american, modern philosophers. Reading these writings will put you in his biography touch with the resume, issues, and his biography it will also (as I stress in my notes on Grammar and Style) acquaint you with the formal aspects of writing philosophy: it will supply you with stylish and grammatically accomplished models of philosophical writing. Active reading of philosophical texts is itself a skill which you should seek to acquire, and one that you will find has wide application beyond the dissection of purely philosophical texts. How does one read philosophy actively ? Well, people differ here. Some are able to read philosophical texts as if they were novels, perhaps without even taking notes, but most of us need to essay video as art, approach these difficult texts more circumspectly.

One well-tried technique is to begin by reading through a text (a difficult article, say) fairly quickly, to his biography, get the general idea, and without taking notes. That can be useful if it helps to know where the author is going and what the conclusion being aimed at essay on american is; and his biography it very often does help to know that. Resume? Of course much philosophy tries to be strictly consequential, like a mathematical proof, so that in theory one ought to be able to take it in step by step until one reaches the conclusion, without knowing in his biography advance what the conclusion is going to be until one actually gets there. Is Good Essay? But we all know that when it comes to understanding an argument (and the his biography, point also applies to mathematical proofs, incidentally), it is often very hard to see why earlier steps in a piece of argumentation and included unless one is privy to the intended outcome. When you have finished a cursory reading of the text, you should re-read the same text carefully, taking notes, and resume trying to understand as much as you can, before moving on to other relevant texts. Alternatively, you might prefer to continue applying the technique of his biography rapid, fairly superficial reading to other texts in the same area, to homes, get an even more general (though still superficial) grasp of the terrain, before returning (as you should) to all these texts (or as many of his biography them as you can manage) and resume cendrillon subjecting them to thorough re-reading. It is good to read philosophy (and especially to his biography, re-read ) with specific questions in mind: how does the author address such-and-such a problem, or how does he/she resolve the apparent contradiction between the view stated on p.5 and that stated in essay video games as art the conclusion? If the subject matter you are investigating is a modern topic with no significant distinction between primary and secondary literature, the above guidelines will, I think, serve you well just as they stand. But it will often be the case that you are working on a topic where you expected to his biography, be familiar with two kinds of material: primary texts (classic statements of a position by one of the great figures in the history of the subject), and secondary texts (modern commentaries on or discussions of these classic positions). In these cases I recommend that you read the classic texts first, so that you approach them with an unprejudiced eye (or at resume cendrillon least an eye unprejudiced by his biography, modern commentary), perhaps in the rapid, surveying manner suggested above, before looking at why democracy secondary material. When you have looked at a reasonable amount of secondary material you should then - if your reading of that material has not already forced you to do so - go back to the primary texts and read them carefully.

If you are working with a textbook such as Cottingham's Western Philosophy , which provides only extracts from the great philosophers of the past (and present), it may be necessary to go beyond what the textbook provides and read whole texts or at least larger extracts than your textbook provides. A word about textbooks. In the past at Sussex, none of our courses made use of his biography textbooks: students were required to phd tqm management dissertation thesis, find the sources themselves in the library, and were often asked to read whole texts (treatises, dialogues etc.) even though the seminar discussion might focus on only part of the set texts. We have moved over to using textbooks in our first-year provision on an experimental basis, and we are including them elsewhere in our array, because we want to ensure (as was not the case in his biography the past) that all students have access to the relevant primary sources, and can bring them to seminars. But clearly the why democracy is good, drawback of moving to textbook-based courses is that a gap potentially opens between the student experience of doing philosophy and the professional experience - because of course professional philosophers cannot rely on textbooks, but must examine relevant texts in their entirety and his biography must obtain these texts even if it is difficult to do so (even if it involves, for example, travelling to a copyright library, something I personally have to is good, do regularly).

In the past there was no such gap: students and professionals read exactly the same texts and were thus in a sense equals. His Biography? I do not think the gap need be harmful so long as you are aware that it exists and, where possible, try to overcome it by going direct to publications of why democracy complete texts. When you are writing an essay, for his biography, instance, you should certainly try to read more widely in relevant primary sources than just the on computers essay, extracts which Cottingham (or similar) provides. Writing a philosophy essay to his biography, be handed in. Use the essay question as your guide in deciding what to read. Why Democracy Essay? If the reading includes both primary and secondary literature, it is a good idea to follow the advice above: read the primary material first, perhaps fairly quickly, then the his biography, secondary material, and video games then go back and read the primary material again thoroughly. On secondary material: try to develop a street-sense of his biography what's worth reading. Is it written (or revised) relatively recently?

Is it by a philosopher? (Writings by historians of too dependent philosophy who are not themselves philosophers can - though this is by his biography, no means always so - be of samples a philosophically inferior quality.) Is it regularly referred to his biography, by other writers? Relevant articles you should read in why democracy is good their entirety, but if you've got hold of a book don't automatically assume that you should read it all: in fact you will very often do better to use the index and chapter headings to his biography, focus in on just part of the on american, work - the his biography, bits most relevant to groom samples, you. On the other hand, beware of always trying to focus very narrowly on his biography what's 'relevant': often one doesn't know when one starts a topic what exactly is relevant, and it is often very rewarding to read material which at first sight seems to essay on american, be tangential to one's concerns (as one reads the apparently tangential material, one finds that it is not so tangential after all, or that one's interests change to take in his biography the new material). (ii) Thinking about the essay question. Make sure you meditate on the precise meaning of the essay question you select: for this should be the is good essay, focus of your essay throughout. His Biography? Can the question be interpreted in more than one way? (If so, maybe you should fix on just one interpretation.) Does it break down into several questions? (If so, maybe you should focus on the most important one.) If the question invites you to consider and criticise the view presented in a primary text, establish as accurately as you can what view that is, and how it is argued. Think about essay video games counter-arguments, and his biography be mature about this, i.e., don't spend time on trivial or merely terminological points (unless a terminological point leads to something bigger). Spend some time addressing how the author of a text you are criticising would respond to your points if they are not already ones he/she has raised.

The advice given in the previous two sentences is really mandatory, for it is phd tqm construction management vital in his biography philosophy not to too dependent on computers, score cheap victories (they will be unstable), but to attack the his biography, best and most sophisticated version of phd tqm construction dissertation any position you wish to disagree with. That may not be the version which any given source material presents (because the philosopher in question may not have seen what his/her best point is); so be charitable and try to think things through from the point of his biography view of your opponent (if there is one: but there usually will be). Many of the great philosophical texts you will encounter in your studies make quite elementary mistakes: the reason why they are great and cendrillon why they are in the canon is not that they are error-free - it is not even that they are at least free of obvious error - but that they tackle issues of his biography fundamental importance in on computers an exciting and illuminating way. Few people nowadays would subscribe to Leibniz's metaphysical views, for his biography, example, and many would say that he makes some quite simple mistakes (such as his theory of predication, on which so much of his system is management dissertation thesis built), but for his biography, all that he is a truly great philosopher (some would say: the greatest), just because the power and sophistication of his metaphysical views continue to exert fascination on us and to influence our thinking about phd tqm thesis many quite fundamental issues. I mention this point not in his biography order to embark on resume an encomium of Leibniz, but to encourage you to think for yourselves in your reading, and pinpoint mistakes and confusions wherever you think they occur. Do not be shy, and accept no argument merely on his biography authority: the history of philosophy is on computers essay littered with arguments from authority, but that way of proceeding carries no weight today. Of course you must also avoid the opposite mistake of challenging authorities without good grounds: the authorities are there to help you see your way through the his biography, thickets of arguments and issues, and they can indeed be of considerable help (that is why they are authorities). But ultimately you must find the truth for yourself. Note, in this connection, that plagiarism is a serious offence: see your 'Handbook for Candidates' on that.

So far as possible you should try to state a thesis in your own words; but it is sometimes more convenient to quote: see my notes on Citation and Bibliography for guidance on phd tqm management that. Make sure you have all the essential materials to his biography, hand when you write your essay. First make a skeletal outline of what you want to say: don't just plunge in. Essay Games? You may already have an idea how you want to begin, but you will find as you work on the skeletal plan that you modify your conception of the his biography, best way to as art, proceed. On the his biography, other hand, if you have no idea how to begin (a very common experience), drafting a skeleton argument is absolutely essential to producing a clearly structured essay.

Decide how much material you want to include: this will depend on the word length of the essay, and cendrillon you may have to modify your plans as you proceed. Don't try to cram in too much: often one has to his biography, make the painful but necessary decision to omit something that one very much wanted to include, simply because it is (when one is honest with oneself) of resume secondary importance and there just isn't room. The First Paragraph. If your skeletal framework is sufficiently full and you're happy with it, you may be able to his biography, write out a first draft of the essay from it, starting at the beginning and groom samples moving through to a conclusion. But it is very common (and this especially applies to unseens: see below) to find it difficult to write the introduction: writing the very first sentence is often the hardest part. In this situation, don't agonise. Begin your essay not at the beginning, but somewhere in the middle: in these days of word-processing there is really no difficulty in writing the parts of your essay in any order that comes naturally. His Biography? When you have written the middle and the conclusion you will generally know how to why democracy, frame an introduction, and it will present no problem: simply outline the his biography, problem and how you're going to tackle it. On Computers Essay? Of course, in his biography doing that (and, if you go on to write papers which require abstracts you will find that the same often applies to the abstract) you may find that there is a mismatch between what you say in your introduction you're going to do, and what you actually go on to do.

So you need to engage in a process of 'negotiation' between different parts of your essay. This is cendrillon entirely normal, nothing to his biography, worry about, and can be (usually is) a fruitful source of philosophical insight. Whether you write your introduction before you write the rest of your essay or afterwards, it should conform to the following general pattern: it should state the problem to be addressed, and the line you are going to take, unless, for stylistic reasons, you want that to be a surprise (but be careful deploying this tactic: remember that the overriding consideration is that your essay should be maximally comprehensible to your reader). You also want to interest your reader: so make your introduction snappy and business-like. Leave the background shading and necessary qualifications for later (though you should not of course misrepresent your thesis): a few deft strokes are what are required at this stage. If the result of your reading and thinking is that you do not want to argue for a thesis as such, then be open about that.

There's no objection to resume, an essay which simply knocks the ball around the court (you will be judged on the quality of your strokes), so long as you don't mislead your reader into expecting something else. The Main Body of the Essay. Make sure that, throughout your essay, you keep the question to be addressed firmly in view: digressions are only permissible if they really subserve the ultimate goal. You should be able to say what any sentence in your essay is doing and his biography how it contributes to the overall project. In working on too dependent essay your skeletal framework and/or in moving from that framework to the essay, you may have to discard points. His Biography? You will find that in an essay of around 2,000 words you do not have space to argue for a large number of claims: making a coherent case for two or three related points will usually be as much as can be managed. As Art? Make sure that your essay reads smoothly, and that transitions from one point to his biography, the next are clearly marked and motivated.

Your skeletal framework should help you here. Groom Resume? As you work from that framework, you may detect gaps in its logic, or see how a position you've marked as one you want to defend may be better defended than you realised, or can be omitted altogether, or in fact is more problematic than you appreciated, etc. The fact that, as you work on an essay, new points and alternative strategies will occur to you illustrates another important ideal in writing philosophy essay not under unseen-examination conditions: give yourself plenty of time. If you leave the essay to the last minute, you risk coming up with something half-baked and incoherent. If you start on it a few days ahead of the deadline, you will have time to reflect on it and re-read it (a crucial process) before producing and final version.

Re-reading is vital, since it enables you to isolate and his biography discard anything that is not strictly relevant to the argument of the essay, to detect and iron out inconsistencies, to spot non-sequiturs, ambiguities and unclear passages, and to cendrillon, find grammatical and other presentational errors. Philosophy essay questions normally require you to argue a case. Sometimes you will be asked to assess another philosopher's views; sometimes you will be asked simply to address an issue in abstraction from his biography, any particular person's views. Occasionally a question will invite an expository answer, if, for example, the text you are required to discuss is particularly difficult, so that even to expound it demands a comparable level of acumen to writing a systematic answer. But such questions will be very much the exception, and you should normally expect to argue for or against a position, with or without reference (that will depend on the question and why democracy is good also on the subject matter) to his biography, views adopted by video games as art, previous writers.

In expounding a philosopher's views (whether that is your main purpose or a subsidiary one), do not waste time and space giving historical information that plays no role in the argumentation (of course if it does or can play a role, that is a different matter). Most of the his biography, essays you write at University, whether in unseen-examination conditions or otherwise, do not give you time or space to beat about the bush: get to the point; you will find that you have your work cut out simply stating key positions clearly and on american addressing their pros and cons. If you are writing a relatively short essay, you may not need to add a conclusion. A conclusion is his biography really only too dependent on computers, called for his biography, if the argument has been complicated and/or quite lengthy. Again, the cendrillon, overriding consideration is the his biography, comprehensibility of your essay: if your treatment of the subject matter demands it, then certainly you should append a short conclusion, stating briefly what you have been arguing and why; but do not put in a conclusion merely for why democracy, the sake of it, and do not simply repeat what you have already clearly said. Always keep a copy of any essay you hand in. (c) Writing a philosophy essay under unseen-examination conditions.

Much of what has been said already also applies to the case where you are writing an essay as part of an unseen examination, and I'm sure I can leave it to you to sort out, from what I've said so far, what's relevant and what's irrelevant to this case. Obviously you should aim, here too, to his biography, present a clearly structured argument, uncluttered by unnecessary historical or other material. Again, you may need to argue for or against essay a thesis; but here too you do not need to feel obliged to come down finally on one side or the his biography, other. But there are several important points which need to be made relating exclusively to unseen examination conditions. Read the thesis, paper carefully, not hurriedly. Make a provisional decision on the questions you are interested in tackling, and mark them on the question paper (it is all too easy in the excitement of the moment to forget what one had intended to do).

Note that the number of his biography questions you mark need not be the same as the number you are required to answer: you can leave it till later to make any necessary final decision between equally attractive (or unattractive) rivals: one reason for leaving these final decisions is phd tqm management dissertation that you may simply waste time agonising about that at this early stage, whereas if you postpone the decision you may well find that when you get to the point where you have to make it it has already made itself. His Biography? All you need to do at this stage is samples hit on your best or two best questions. But you may of course know straight away which three (or four, as the his biography, case may be) questions you want to construction dissertation, tackle. At this point a very important principle of exam technique kicks in: do your best question first, your second-best question second, and his biography so on. Occasionally candidates reason as follows: I'll leave my best question till last, so that I've got the nasty ones out of the way and why democracy essay can have a pleasant landing. This is his biography a very big mistake. What inevitably happens, if you tackle your worst question first, is that you get bogged down, you run over time, and you work yourself into a state, so that by essay games, the time you come to tackle what you thought was your best question you are all set to make a right mess of his biography it. So: take your best question first. Essay Homes? That will give you confidence and his biography get you into the right psychological position for tackling that nasty final question which you were unsure about when you read through the paper first. If one's feeling confident and in control one often finds that that awful last question turns out to be not so awful after all: your confidence gives you ideas and emboldens you to grasp the bull by the horns.

As a candidate one is resume often very bad at estimating which question one has answered best: it not infrequently happens that a question you think you answered best was not in fact your best (because you were coasting), whereas one which you answered last and in a state of semi-desperation attracts your highest mark (because having your back to the wall brings out the his biography, best in you). Do not run over time on cendrillon a question. Sometimes candidates take extra time on what they reckon is their best question, but this is a mistake. Each question is worth the same: taking an extra 15 minutes on your best question may earn you a few extra points on that question, but (a) it may not: you may start to waffle, in which case you'll lose points, and (b) the few extra points it gains you are likely to be more than cancelled out by the thoroughly bad job you do in consequence of having inadequate time on his biography that difficult final question. Before you write each essay, make sure (it's so important that I repeat it) that you write a skeletal plan.

Take a good 5-10 minutes to do this: you'll find that it pays dividends. If you just start straight in is good essay you risk getting into a muddle and his biography producing an incoherent essay; if you write to a plan, on the other hand, your essay will show just that measure of coherence and essay video games intelligibility evinced by your plan - hence the his biography, value of not skimping on the plan but giving it careful thought. Again (another point I repeat, which is resume samples even more important in this context than in the previous one), don't agonise over your first paragraph. His Biography? If your skeletal plan does not suggest to you how to begin (though it may well), never mind: just start in the middle. Leave a side of the essay, answer book blank so that you can come back at the end and write an introduction, take up the argument at the point where you feel you can confidently develop it, and then leave five minutes at the end to go back and draft a suitable introduction: once you have written the essay you won't find that a problem. Write neatly: you may be penalised by your examiner if your writing is hard to read.

Writing neatly entails not writing too fast and not trying to write too much. The time you are allowed in an unseen examination to answer a question is perfectly adequate to enable you to address it at his biography any level of competence. If you find that you don't have enough time, what that means is that you are misjudging exactly what should be included and what omitted, or you are taking too long to thesis, say something that could be put much more concisely. Remember - this is a mundane point but still worth stressing - that writing an unseen examination is a physical as well as an his biography, intellectual challenge. Groom Resume Samples? If you own a computer and are accustomed to type notes directly into his biography, it, make sure that you give your writing hand plenty of practice at manual writing for some time before any unseen examination: otherwise you are likely to suffer from cramp or some other form of writing exhaustion in groom samples the examination itself. We are all getting out of the habit of his biography using pen and resume samples paper: don't forget that unseen examinations have not yet caught up with this development. If you change your mind about a passage you have written and want to delete it, just score it through once. Some candidates spend a long time thoroughly deleting a passage, so that no part of his biography it remains legible, but this is a waste of resume samples time: a single score is quite enough to his biography, signal to your examiner that it is not to be read, and I can assure you that examiners do not strain to read scored-out material. Do not communicate directly with your examiner: do not add instructions to is good essay, a scored-out piece of text that the examiner is not to read it; if you run out of time don't write 'Sorry, no time' (it's your fault if you've run out of time, and his biography you don't get any credit for recognising it). Leave enough time to write a conclusion, if your essay demands one.

But again, do not, under the mistaken apprehension that a conclusion is cendrillon mandatory, simply repeat what you have already said perfectly clearly.

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THE WAY WE LIVE NOW: 11-17-02: ESSAY; This Is a Headline For an Essay About Meta. The best jokes in his biography, the most recent ''Austin Powers'' sequel -- the ones that aren't about flatulence or Fat Bastard or both -- are the jokes about movies, especially about spy movies and most especially about ''Austin Powers'' movies themselves. There's a scene in which Michael Caine, playing Austin's superspy dad, Nigel, effortlessly fights off a clutch of Dr. Evil's henchmen, the resume last of whom he persuades to fall over without even being punched: since the henchman is nameless (to the extent of not even possessing a name tag, as Nigel points out) and since the his biography entire purpose of nameless henchmen is to topple at the slightest feint from a man like Nigel, why doesn't he just lie down immediately and resume save them both the trouble? Later, Austin and his comrade Foxxy Cleopatra meet with a Japanese businessman who makes what seems to them a series of naughty remarks; like the audience, they're following the English subtitles, portions of which are washed out because they're printed over his biography a white background. Not quite parody but possibly ironic and probably postmodern -- what these jokes are, as the former English majors out resume, there will no doubt recognize, is meta. ''Meta'' is a liminal term these days; it's creeping more and more into everyday conversations, even if it's not nearly as widespread as, say, ''irony.'' Some people talk about meta all the time. His Biography. Recently a friend and I were e-mailing back and forth, trying to sort out construction management thesis, our plans to his biography catch an thesis, evening movie, when we started to discuss how we were going to make the decision itself -- should we stick to e-mail or switch to instant messaging or the his biography phone? ''This is getting too meta,'' he wrote. ''Just call me.'' Other people, including another movie-steeped friend, may not recognize the why democracy essay term ''meta,'' but they know exactly what it is all the same; on the basis of a quick definition, my friend could instantly list a half-dozen good examples: ''Oh, I get it. 'Beavis and Butthead' was a music-video show about watching music videos, and his biography that teen film 'Not Another Teen Movie' had a character whose only name was the Token Black Guy.'' It's easy to come up with examples in other media, too. At the hit Broadway musical ''Urinetown,'' you can hear two characters -- a little girl and cendrillon a policeman -- say things like ''Of course she loves him, Little Sally.

He's the hero of the show. She has to love him'' and ''When a little girl has been given as many lines as I have, there's still hope for dreams.'' If, looking for a cheaper thrill, you rent the horror film ''Scream,'' a feast of meta devices, you'll see a scene in which a teenage B-movie buff explains to fellow partygoers that ''there are certain rules one must abide by in order to successfully survive a horror movie. For instance, No. 1: You can never have sex,'' just before the camera cuts to the film's heroine losing her virginity upstairs. Flipping through TV channels, you might stumble across a rerun of ''The Drew Carey Show'' in his biography, which the sitcom's star tells the camera that the cast is miffed about not receiving any Emmy nominations and has put together the following episode in order to fish for some. What follows is a sendup of the construction dissertation thesis kind of ''serious'' TV revered by awards judges -- hospital-bed death scenes, brooding soliloquies and simple-minded efforts to ''address'' such social issues as gun control and illiteracy -- with the actors zestily hamming it up. His Biography. An entire season of ''Seinfeld'' concerns Jerry's development of a sitcom ''about nothing,'' a sitcom that's clearly ''Seinfeld'' itself. During commercial breaks, you might catch an ad in groom resume, which one man sings the praises of an automobile to another. ''You sound like a car commercial,'' his friend jokes. His Biography. ''Didn't they tell you?'' the first man says significantly. Once an arty experimental theater technique used by essay people who wrote plays with titles like ''Six Characters in Search of an Author,'' meta is now being used to tout antilock brakes. In an increasingly self-conscious culture, the most self-conscious of literary tricks is everywhere. Defining meta, though, can be tricky.

A prefix, it comes from the his biography Greek for ''beside,'' ''after'' or ''change.'' The critic Herbert Kohl, in his 1992 book ''From Archetype to Zeitgeist,'' takes a pretty good shot at explaining it. Meta, he writes, ''when used with the name of a discipline, designates a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the original one.'' Metamathematics, for example, is ''the critical study of the nature of mathematical systems,'' and metapsychology is ''the critical study of is good, psychology as a discipline.'' ''Metaphysics,'' one of the most familiar derivations, is the title of the his biography work by Aristotle that follows his ''Physics'' and that deals with the ultimate nature of the universe. How did meta get from statements like ''2+2=4 is valid within Frege's formal system'' and speculation about the first principles governing causality to a dapper Japanese gentleman inadvertently making potty jokes to a kitschy secret agent? It traveled by way of metafiction, a literary school of the 1960's and why democracy is good 70's. Metafiction is fiction that openly admits it's an his biography, artificial creation -- as opposed to naturalism, in is good essay, which art strives to represent real life. (The same idea got tried out even earlier in the theater. The critic Kenneth Tynan summed up the his biography two camps when he wrote: ''You are in a drawing room,' says Stanislavsky to his audience, 'witnessing life.' 'You are in a theater,' says Brecht, 'witnessing actors.''') John Barth, one of resume, metafiction's stars (others include John Hawkes, Donald Barthelme and Robert Coover), wrote a story called ''Lost in the Funhouse'' in which he refers to a character as ''Magda G------'' and then goes on to explain: ''Initials, blanks, or both were often substituted for proper names in his biography, 19th-century fiction to enhance the illusion of reality. Resume. It is his biography as if the samples author felt it necessary to his biography delete the names for reasons of tact or legal liability.

Interestingly, as with other aspects of realism, it is an cendrillon, illusion that is being enhanced, by his biography purely artificial means.'' The metafictionists liked to point out that people are always telling stories and essay as art that stories have their own laws, utterly different from the laws that govern real life. You can see those rules played out in more than just novels; they prevail in his biography, everything from fairy tales and gossip to comic strips, movies and pornography. But whatever mojo makes meta so popular now wasn't working for the metafictionists back then. With the on american exception of Barth at the beginning of his career, they never found a large audience outside of his biography, academics and critics; readers complained that the whole enterprise came across as mandarin, aloof and theoretical. Perhaps that's because a lot of metafiction has a whiff of the schoolmaster about resume samples it.

The novelist David Foster Wallace captured the queasy subtext of literary metafiction in a short story, ''Octet,'' that is a satirical metafiction about metafiction itself. The story's ''author,'' voicing his distress through footnotes, frets about his inability to his biography pull off the intended ''cycle of very short belletristic pieces'' in the form of groom samples, pop quizzes. What he wants to avoid, he says, is the ''now tired'' meta device of ''the dramatist himself coming onstage from the wings and his biography reminding you that what's going on construction dissertation thesis is artificial and that the artificer is him (the dramatist) and but that he's at least respectful enough of you as reader/audience to be honest about the fact that he's back there pulling the strings, an 'honesty' which personally you've always had the his biography feeling is resume actually a highly rhetorical sham-honesty that's designed to get you to like him and approve of him (i.e., of the 'meta'-type writer) and feel flattered that he apparently thinks you're enough of a grown-up to his biography handle being reminded that what you're in the middle of is artificial (like you didn't know that already, like you needed to be reminded of it over and over again as if you were a myopic child who couldn't see what was right in front of you).'' In other words, metafiction could be pretty patronizing and, what's more, puritanical in phd tqm, the particular, medicinal fashion of the his biography American avant-garde, which is so often eager to relieve its audience of the oppression of a good time. By comparison, Wallace's own vamp on cendrillon the endlessly receding hall of mirrors in which his overly cerebral and self-conscious storyteller has trapped himself is much nimbler. Contemporary writers give ordinary people more credit for knowing the difference between real life and playacting. Zadie Smith, describing the frankly bogus good-versus-evil theatrics of a professional wrestling match in her new novel ''The Autograph Man,'' explains that the his biography fans know the too dependent essay wrestlers ''are not here to express genuine feelings, or to fake them and dress them up natural like on TV. . . . This afternoon, these two hulking men are here to demonstrate Justice. The kind Mr. Gerry Bowen (Block M, Seat 117) can't get from the courts in compensation for his son's accident; the kind Jake (Block T, Seat 59) won't get from school whether he chooses to squeal on those bastards or not; the kind Finn (Block B, Seat 10) can't seem to get from girls no matter what changes he makes to his wardrobe or record collection or personal hygiene.''

In other words, we all know it's just a novel, just a movie, just a play, but we want to throw ourselves into it anyway. We know this isn't like real life -- that's why we're here, and his biography we'd rather not be lectured on the difference. Nobody actually believes in, say, the ludicrously glass-jawed henchmen that cinematic spies mow down by the dozens, but we find them delightful, as the creators of ''Austin Powers'' well know. Meta works best as a joke, not a lesson, when it asks us to laugh in recognition of the discrepancies between fantasy entertainment and the usually banal, frustrating facts of life. Too Dependent On Computers. One episode of ''The Simpsons'' makes a meta nod in this direction, opening with Homer and Marge sitting on the family couch, looking bored. His Biography. ''I guess we're not having an adventure this week,'' Marge says. Even cartoon characters can't expect to essay on american have lives as exciting as . . . cartoon characters. Lowbrow entertainment best lends itself to meta; it has the most deeply rooted conventions, reaching back to comedia dell'arte, medieval mystery plays, Punch and Judy shows and folk tales, all forms that were popular long before naturalism came along. We tend to forget that the notion that art should be made to resemble real life isn't traditional at all. It's pitifully arriviste, like the thin crust representing the Age of his biography, Man in those timelines showing the geological epochs in Earth's history. Indeed, when the artists of groom resume samples, modernism and postmodernism decided to his biography play up the too dependent on computers essay artificiality of their work, they weren't doing something new; they were reviving something very, very old.

When Zadie Smith, describing two wrestlers going at it, writes, ''All of his biography, a sudden they run at essay, each other once more and if you have a better phrase than like thundering elephants insert it here [ ],'' she's tipping her hat to Laurence Sterne's ''Tristram Shandy,'' a book written in 1759, before the novel was properly born. In one way, though, Wallace's imaginary metafictional ''dramatist'' misses a point. Meta touches on the stories we, like children, demand to his biography hear over and over again, albeit with artful variations. They offer us the satisfactions of ritual rather than the boredom of repetition, and essay on american homes however familiar their devices, they still work. ''Urinetown'' is an extended joke about the preposterousness of musicals: Officer Lockstock and Little Sally discuss the importance of avoiding ''too much exposition,'' note the discrepancy between the show's ''happy'' music and its grim plot and lament its ''terrible'' title. His Biography. The musical numbers themselves fall into phd tqm construction dissertation the usual categories -- love song, anthem, faux gospel -- and though they're hung on his biography a storyline that refuses to plausibly support them, they're a blast nonetheless. The teenagers in essay homes, ''Scream'' know the conventions of his biography, slasher movies so well, they provide a running commentary on them as they unfold. Resume. In the film's final sequence, the supposedly dead killer returns to announce: ''This is the moment when the supposedly dead killer comes back to life for one last scare.'' And here's the his biography rub: it's still frightening. Wes Craven, the director of ''Scream,'' even made an installment of his ''Nightmare on Elm Street'' series in which the too dependent on computers essay characters use a screenplay of the movie they're in to his biography outwit the series' monster -- and that's scary, too.

Everyone knows that pop genres like horror, mystery, musical comedy and adventure, use formulas, of course -- that's what ''genre'' means. The highbrow ideal says that art should be original and (usually) true to video life; those are supposedly the hallmarks of his biography, quality. But we now live in essay, a society more steeped in stories than any that has gone before. His Biography. In a given week, we may see a movie or two, rent a couple of videos, catch a half-dozen (or more) television programs, listen to the radio, play CD's and on american homes read newspapers, magazines or a book. The more of this we absorb, the more clearly we see that every good story uses some kind of formula. After only a couple of seasons of MTV's ''Real World,'' the show's participants could talk authoritatively about which standardized role -- the naive virgin, the bitch, the his biography gay housemate emerging from the closet -- each person would assume. Suddenly, everything starts to look like a genre. In his book ''American Scenarios: The Uses of essay homes, Film Genre,'' Joseph W. Reed sorts the movies of Hollywood's classic era into several genres that may not exist as official categories but are still as easy to recognize as old friends. In addition to War, Women's and Westerns, there are Inventor, High School, Jungle, Psychiatrist, Escape and Southern pictures, too. The same can be done with modern movies, where some of the same genres live on, with variations. We could add to Reed's list such genres as the Incurably Ill Child movie, the his biography Ghetto Kid Makes Good movie, the Girlhood Friends Working Out Their Issues movie and the European Food movie, flooding at us in such volume that they can hardly pretend to be unique.

Perhaps that's why teen comedies now mock their own conventions and road movies pay overt homage to old road movies. Then there are artier efforts that get labeled meta even when they don't really hit the mark, like Steven Soderbergh's ''Full Frontal,'' in which scenes of a bunch of loosely connected characters in Los Angeles shot on digital video alternate with scenes from a film that some of those characters will go on essay homes to make. Film-within-a-film isn't meta and neither are films about filmmakers -- otherwise ''Singin' in the Rain'' would be meta and it's not. However, the film-within-the-film in ''Full Frontal'' is a little bit meta; in his biography, it, a black actor tells a white journalist that black male movie stars never get to do real love scenes with white actresses, and when the characters fall in love at groom, the end, they move in to kiss each other and then turn away at the last minute. His Biography. But ''Full Frontal'' itself never jokes about the genre it belongs to, the Indie Ensemble picture; after all, the whole point of successful Hollywood filmmakers doing movies about middle-class New Yorkers and Angelenos with career troubles is to cendrillon feel that at last they are getting to demonstrate their artistic chops by depicting real life. A better portrait of the flickering interaction between culture and his biography reality in the belly of the video beast is ''Adaptation,'' the his biography most recent film by phd tqm thesis Spike Jonze and his biography Charlie Kaufman. (Making a movie about the movie's own screenwriter recalls the now common postmodern literary stunt of including in a novel a character with the phd tqm construction thesis novelist's name -- Kaufman's following in the footsteps of Philip Roth and his biography Martin Amis.) It details Kaufman's tortuous efforts to adapt Susan Orlean's nonfiction book ''The Orchid Thief'' for the screen. ''I don't want to groom samples ruin it by making it a Hollywood thing, like an orchid-heist movie or something . . . His Biography. I don't want to cram in sex or guns or car chases,'' he rants early on, but the ordeal of wresting a movie out of a book that has ''no story'' drives him almost mad.

Eventually, mystery and phd tqm construction management dissertation thesis intrigue creep into his biography the plot of ''Adaptation,'' and by the time the film veers into a ludicrous string of groom resume, Hollywood ''action thriller'' cliches -- a chase through an alligator-infested swamp and a bogus yet strangely affecting moment of insight -- we realize that Kaufman has succumbed to his biography Hollywood's imperatives. ''Adaptation'' curses the contrivances of blockbuster filmmaking so thoroughly that by the time it resorts to them, the results are amusing, clever, even wise. Groom Samples. The ingenuity of ''Adaptation'' is that Kaufman manages to mock his cake and eat it, too, but the his biography fact that he doesn't take himself too seriously is essay as art key. The more high-minded it is, apparently, the easier it is for his biography, meta to annoy. Ian McEwan's novel ''Atonement'' became a best-seller earlier this year, but I keep discovering people who were irritated, as I was, by the ending (which I'm about to cendrillon discuss -- so jump ahead if you don't want it spoiled). In the book's final pages, it is revealed that the preceding narrative has been one character's fictionalized account of events, which in ''real life'' didn't end quite so satisfyingly.

The novel is an exquisite technical achievement, but the apparent message of that ending -- that actual experience rarely offers closure or redemption and his biography that we should always be aware that novels aren't like life (going on about how fiction is a ''lie'' is one of the essay more irritatingly arch affectations novelists are prone to) -- is exasperating. His Biography. Anyone smart enough to read an Ian McEwan novel already knows this, and it's hard not to feel, like the writer in essay video as art, Wallace's ''Octet,'' that you're being talked down to. This is meta of the old school, solemn and scolding. By contrast, Michael Winterbottom's supple ''24-Hour Party People,'' a biopic about Tony Wilson, an his biography, impresario of the Manchester music scene during the 1980's, is meta at its best. The British comedian Steve Coogan, who plays Wilson, breaks character, addresses the camera, tells you that the anecdotes he's just related aren't true (or have been denied by the alleged participants), tips us off on what will happen later in the film, introduces various extras as the real people that the other actors are playing and at one point even announces that the man playing Wilson's television producer in the previous scene was ''the real Tony Wilson.'' All this serves to undermine Wilson's version of events and at resume cendrillon, the same time to his biography demonstrate that what actually happened doesn't really matter that much. Wilson's gift for resume, enthusiasm, for embellishing the his biography truth, is video games as art his great talent, his very life a testimony to the power of meta as the falsehood you believe in anyway. His tireless mythologizing of the his biography scene is cendrillon what made living in his Manchester (whether or not it was truly like ''Renaissance Florence,'' as he insisted) so much fun.

When meta intends to teach us a lesson -- that is, when it's a drag -- it's usually instructing us that we shouldn't confuse fiction with real life. But as Wilson's own experience shows, sometimes the his biography right story, well used and passionately espoused however false it at resume cendrillon, first seems to be, is exactly what real life needs. At its most anarchic and least instructive -- that is, as it flourishes today -- meta suggests that distinguishing between truth and fiction counts for his biography, less than knowing a terrific story when you have seen one and relishing it regardless of its authenticity. If to essay be human is his biography partly a matter of believing, as Lewis Carroll's White Queen did, in ''as many as six impossible things before breakfast,'' better that we understand what we're doing when we select those impossible things, knowing not only resume how much we may suffer from his biography, choosing the construction wrong ones but also how much joy can be found in embracing the right lie. Manchester may not ever be Florence in his biography, the Renaissance (if even Florence in resume cendrillon, the Renaissance was), but why should that keep us from his biography, dancing all night?

The actor has built a career, and a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at 60, she has become an unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and questions of the on american homes self gave way to an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of his biography, insanity? Often the essay games as art answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital with no end in sight.

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Charles Manson Biography -

alan willner resume National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583. Tel: 65-6515-3590 Fax: 65-6779-1103. ? 14 years of research on photonics, including: diffractive optical devices, integrated micro/nano optical devices, optical interconnects, fiber-optical devices and subsystems, optical sensors, and high-speed WDM optical communication systems and networks. ? Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Southern California, USA, 2005. Dissertation: #8220;Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects in High-Speed Reconfigurable WDM Optical Fiber Communication Systems#8221; (Advisor: Dr. His Biography? Alan E. Video? Willner) ? Master of Science in Electrical Computer Engineering, Univ. of Miami, USA, 1999. Thesis: #8220;Flat-Top and Non-Diffracting Beam Shaping Using Phase-Only Diffractive Optical Elements#8221; ? Bachelor of Science in Applied Physics and Bachelor of Economics in Enterprise Management, Tsinghua Univ., China, 1997. Thesis: #8220;Excitons in Quantum Dot of his biography, II-VI Semiconductor#8221; ? Dept. of groom, Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore ( Assistant professor , 12/2005-present) ? A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research ( 25% Joint Staff , 12/2005-present) ? NEC Labs America ( Visiting researcher , 9/2005-12/2005) ? Optical Communications Lab, Dept. of his biography, Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California ( Research and resume, teaching assistant , 8/2000-8/2005) ? Electro-Optics Micro-Devices Lab, Dept. of Electrical Computer Engineering, University of Miami ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/1997-5/2000) RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (2006-present, with supporting fund over 2 million Singapore dollars; 1 Singapore dollar=0.8 US dollar)

? Application of photonic integrated circuits in optical communication networks (PI, NUS Research Institute at Suzhou, 2011. ? OPM for his biography, Smart Optical Networks based on RF Analysis with Optical Filtering (PI, MOE AcRF, 2011. ? The applications of phd tqm management, digital signal processing in 100-Gbit/s coherent optical communication systems (PI, A*STAR SERC PSF, 2009. ? General research on fiber optics and optical communications (PI, Gift Donation from NEC Labs America, 2009) ? Autocorrelator for his biography, optical pulses based on measurement of polarization effects (PI, MOE AcRF, 2007. ? Multi-channel wavelength-tunable short pulses generation in resume cendrillon, ultra high-speed optical systems (PI, MOE AcRF, 2006. ? Visible light communications (Co-PI, A*STAR HOME2015, 2010. ? Small-footprint semiconductor optical transmitter for RZ transmission systems (Co-PI, MOE AcRF, 2008. ? Fabrication and his biography, testing of fiber optic hydrophones and arrays (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2007. ? Distributed temperature and strain sensor (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2006. Phd Tqm Construction Management Dissertation Thesis? PREVIOUS RESEARCH PROJECTS (1997-2005): ? High-special-efficiency DWDM optical fiber transmission systems (2005) ? Tunable delay line based on slow light in fiber (2004. ? Realization and application of high speed all-optical logic gates, all-optical wavelength conversion and optical parametric amplification by fiber nonlinear effects (2002. ? High speed short pulse train generation using phase modulator and PM fiber (2004. His Biography? ? Supercontinuum generation and multicasting in optical WDM networks (2004) ? Extending the transmission distance of resume, directly modulated DFB laser system (2004) ? Monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion and his biography, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in high speed WDM optical fiber transmission systems (2000. ? Development of Labview-based beam profiler (1999. ? Fabrication of holographic devices on ion-exchanged photo-chromic glass for optical interconnects and as art, optical storage (1999. ? High density nondiffracting beam array for optical interconnection (1997. ? Fabrication of his biography, waveguide on HEBS glass by laser-writing assisted etching technique for essay, chip-to-chip optical interconnects (1997. ? Flat-top beam shaper fabricated by a non-lithographic technique (1997. ? EE4114 #8220;Optical Communications#8221; (2010. His Biography? ? EE3407 #8220;Analog Electronics#8221; (2007. Homes? ? ESP1104 #8220;Introduction to Electronic Systems#8221; (2007. ? EE3208 #8220;Embedded Computer Systems Design#8221; (2006) ? Research students supervised: ? Currently supervising 5 Ph.D. students (HU Junhao, ZHANG Hongyu, CAO Shengjiao, XU Zhuoran, YU Yi), and 1 M.Sc. student (Prasanna Caliaperoumal) ? Graduated Ph.D. His Biography? students: ZHANG Shaoliang, #8220;Coherent phase-modulated optical fiber communications with linear and nonlinear phase noise,#8221; 01/2011. Why Democracy? YANG Jing, #8220;Fiber physical efforts in his biography, high-speed optical communication networks and fiber sensor systems,#8221; 08/2010. ? Graduated M.Sc. students: Raju Gottumukkala, #8220;Dispersion monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering in high-speed optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2010. YU Yi, #8220;Filtering effects in high-speed differential phase-shift keying optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2009. HAN Xue, #8220;Comparison of modulation formats in 42.8-Gbit/s WDM fiber-optic communication systems,#8221; 05/2009. LI Xiaojing, #8220;Pilot-aided maximum likehood phase estimation in optical M -ary phase-shift keying system,#8221; 12/2008.

? Graduated FYP students: REN Shirui, #8220;Receiver design of white LED wireless communication system,#8221; 05/2011. TAN Hou Hock, #8220;White LED lighting and phd tqm construction, visible light communication transmitter,#8221; 05/2011. LIM Yu Ting, #8220;A visible light communication system enabled by power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. His Biography? LI Yuanfeng, #8220;Visible light communication transmitter based on white LED,#8221; 05/2011. LU Huan Xun, #8220;A visible light communication system using LED with power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. XU Fang, #8220;Optical performance monitoring in essay games as art, high-speed fiber communication systems,#8221; 05/2011. YANG Kai, #8220;Investigation of transmission distance improvement over his biography standard single-mode fiber for construction thesis, 10-Gb/s chirped directly-modulated system,#8221; 05/2010. CHEE Kang Wei, #8220;PMD monitoring for high-speed optical communication systems based on power measurement of his biography, RF tone,#8221; 05/2009.

V. Essay? M. Ramkumar, #8220;Investigation of polymer optical fiber for high data rate and short range communication,#8221; 05/2008. His Biography? XING Rui, #8220;Quantum-dots based biosensor project development of a graphic interface as part of the software package for the urine analysis device,#8221; 05/2008. Cendrillon? ? Member, Optical Society of America (OSA) ? Member, IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE/PS) ? Founding secretary and committee member, OSA Singapore Chapter (2010. ? Student activity chair and committee member, IEEE Singapore Section (2011. ? Committee member, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2007. ? Supervisor, the Student Branch of his biography, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2009. ? Chair, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2010, won Best Chapter Award from IEEE Singapore Session, and Largest Membership Increase Chapter Award from IEEE/PS) ? Co-chair, Working Group 1 (WG1) of Telecommunications Standards Technical Committee (TSTC) for Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore: to define the standards of the physical layer for the next generation broadband network in Singapore (2009. ? Technical program committee member, 10th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, IEEE SENSORS Conference 2011. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Instrument and Technology (OIT) 2011. ? Technical program co-chair, International Conference on Information Photonics Optical Communications (IPOC) 2011. ? Publicity chair and technical program member, IEEE Topical Meeting on essay games as art, Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2011. ? Invited speaker on #8220;High Speed Optical Fiber Communications#8221;, Discover Optics 2011, an educational event for his biography, students from junior colleges, jointly organized by OSA Singapore Chapter and IEEE/PS Chapter. Essay? ? Local arrangement chair and symposium co-chair on his biography, optical communication and networks, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010. Groom Resume? ? Honorary conference chair, 1st Postgraduate Student Conference (PGSC) 2010. ? Technical program co-chair, 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010. ? Conference co-chair on optical transmission, 9th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010. ? Judge, Junior Talent Development Program, Singapore, 2010. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Communication Systems (OPTICS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, 7th IEEE VTS Asia Pacific Wireless Communications Symposium (APWCS) 2010. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st IEEE/PS Singapore chapter Best Student Paper Award Competition (BSPA) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2009. ? Co-chair of Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 11th IEEE International Conference on his biography, Communication Systems (ICCS) 2008. Samples? ? Organizing committee member and technical program committee member, 7th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2008. ? Organizing committee member and technical program committee member, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008. His Biography? ? Section chair, 6th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, 10th IEEE International Conference on groom, Communication Systems (ICCS) 2006. ? Vice president, Friendship Club of China in University of Miami, 1997-1999.

? Reviewer for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, IEEE Transaction on Communications, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Optics Letters, Optics Express, Optics Communications, Optics Engineering, IEE Electronics Letters, Journal of his biography, Computer Communications, and a few international conferences. ? Shaoliang Zhang (Ph.D. Thesis? student), IEEE Photonics Society Graduate Student Fellowship Award 2010 (10 winners from all over his biography the world), which is a top honor for the graduate students in IEEE Photonics Society, reported in the IEEE Photonics Society website and essay, also the IEEE Photonics Society newsletters. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. student), Best Student Paper Award (for the paper #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for different modulation formats based on RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter#8221; co-authored by J. His Biography? Yang, K.W.L. Resume? Chee, and C. Yu), 7th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Macau, December 8-10, 2009. His Biography? ? Junhao Hu (Ph.D. student), Best Student Presentation Award Honorable Mention (for the paper #8220;Long distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on essay on american, Erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification#8221; co-authored by J. Hu, Z. His Biography? Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu), Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009, Shanghai, November 2-6, 2009. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. Thesis? student), Certificate of Merits (for the his biography paper #8220;Multi-channel 80-GHz pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber#8221; co-authored by J. Essay Homes? Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu, Y.K. Yeo, and his biography, Y. Wang), OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. ? Best Paper Award (for the paper #8220;Polarization Insensitivity Optic Distributed Strain Sensing System Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang), Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), the 5th International Conference on groom samples, Materials for his biography, Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. ? Marquis #8220;Who#8217;s Who in the world#8221;, 2009. ? Academic Achievement Award, Univ. of Southern California, 2005. ? IEEE/LEOS (now IEEE Photonics Society) Graduate Student Fellowship Award, 2004 (12 winners from all over the world) ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of samples, Southern California, 2000- 2005. ? Award of Academic Merit, Graduate School of his biography, Univ. of Miami, 1999. ? #8220;Who#8217;s Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges#8221;, 1999. ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of Miami, 1997- 2000. ? Outstanding Student Scholarship, Tsinghua Univ., 1992-1996. ? U.S. Pat. # 6,646,774 (Co-inventors: Z. Pan, Y. Wang, T. Luo, A.B. Too Dependent? Sahin, Q. Yu, and his biography, A.E. Willner), #8220;Intra-bit polarization diversity modulation for resume cendrillon, PMD mitigation,#8221; Issued on November 11, 2003. PUBLICATIONS (with over 400 citations, h-index=11): 1. C. Yu , #8220;Polarization mode dispersion monitoring,#8221; Optical Performance Monitoring: Advanced Techniques for Next-Generation Photonic Networks , Calvin C. K. Chan, editor, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2010, ISBN: 978-0123749505.

2. A.E. Willner, C. His Biography? Yu , Z. Pan, and cendrillon, Y. Xie, #8220;WDM fiber optic communication networks,#8221; Handbook of his biography, Optics , 3 rd Edition, Vol. V, M. Bass, C.M. Essay? DeCusatis, J.M. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V.N. Mahajan, E. Van Stryland, editors, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2009, ISBN: 978-0071633130.

3. A.E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu , #8220;Optical performance monitoring,#8221; Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB , Ivan P. Kaminow, Tingye Li, and Alan E. Willner, editors, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2008, ISBN: 978-0123741721. 4. C. Yu , #8220;Comparison of advanced modulation formats for 40-Gbit/s DWDM optical fiber transmission systems with 50-GHz channel spacing,#8221; Advanced Technologies for High-Speed Optical Communications , Lei Xu, editor, Research Signpost, 2007, ISBN: 813080171X. 5. J. Yang, C. Yu , Y. Yang, L. Cheng, Z. His Biography? Li, C. Resume? Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y.

Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;PMD-insensitive CD monitoring based on RF clock power ratio measurement with optical notch filter,#8221; accepted by IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 6. Z. Wang, C. Yu , W. Zhong, and J. Chen, #8220;Performance Improvement by Tilting Receiver Plane in M-QAM OFDM Visible Light Communications,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1341813427, July 2011. 7. His Biography? S. On Computers Essay? Zhang, L. His Biography? Xu, P.Y. Too Dependent On Computers Essay? Kam, C. Yu , J. Chen, and T. His Biography? Wang, #8220;A performance investigation of essay on american homes, adaptive phase estimations in coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. His Biography? 23, no.

8, pp. 462 - 464, April 2011. 8. B. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Essay? Hao, and C. Yu , #8220;Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,#8221; Applied Optics , vol. His Biography? 50, no. 10, pp. 1442-1445, March 2011. 9. J. Yang, C. Yu , L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Samples? Lu, A.P.T.

Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD-insensitive PMD monitoring based on RF power measurement,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1354-1359, January 2011. 10. J. Hu, and C. Yu , #8220;Low power autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 283, no. 24, pp. 4928-4932, December 2010.

11. T.S.R. Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Simultaneous and his biography, independent multi-parameter monitoring with fault localization for DSP-based coherent communication systems,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 23, pp. 23608-23619, November 2010.

12. J. On Computers? Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. His Biography? Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km Long Distance Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System Based on Erbium Doped Fiber and Raman Amplification,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 1422 - 1424, October 2010. 13. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for on american, coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

28, no. 11, pp. His Biography? 1597 1607, June 2010. 14. Z. Li, C. Yu , Y. Dong, L. Cheng, L.F.K. Lui, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Linear photonic radio frequency phase shifter using a differential-group-delay element and an optical phase modulator,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 35, pp.

1881-1883, May 2010. 15. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Bit-error rate performance of coherent optical M -ary PSK and 16-QAM using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 12088 12103, May 2010.

16. Is Good? S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. His Biography? Huang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Dual-stage cascaded frequency offset estimation for digital coherent receivers,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 401-403, March 2010. Phd Tqm Construction Management Dissertation? 17. S. His Biography? Zhang, X. Why Democracy Is Good Essay? Li, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Pilot-assisted, decision-aided, maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical phase-modulated systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no.

6, pp. 380-382, March 2010. His Biography? 19. Resume? Z. Li, Z. His Biography? Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, C. Yu , H.-Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, pp. Resume Samples? 3149-3157, February 2010.

20. His Biography? Z. Pan, C. Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,#8221; Optical Fiber Technology , vol. Too Dependent? 16, pp. 20-45, January 2010.

21. S. Zhang, C. His Biography? Yu , P.Y. Kam, and J. Resume? Chen, #8220;Parallel implementation of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent M-ary phase-shift keying systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. His Biography? 1471-1473, October 2009. 22. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. 1075-1077, August 2009. 23.

C. Yu , Y. Wang, Z. Pan, T. Luo, S. Kumar, B. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Carrier-suppressed 160-GHz pulse-train generation using a 40-GHz phase modulator with polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 34, pp. Too Dependent Essay? 1657-1659, June 2009. 24. His Biography? J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Too Dependent Essay? Ng and X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; Electronics Letters , vol. 45, pp. 154-156, January 2009.

25. His Biography? S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Phd Tqm Construction Management Thesis? Chen, and C. His Biography? Yu , #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood detection in samples, coherent optical phase-shift-keying system,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 17, pp. His Biography? 703-715, January 2009. 26.

G.J. Pendock, X. Yi, C. Why Democracy Is Good? Yu , and W. Shieh, #8220;Dispersion-monitoring in WDM systems by injecting modulated ASE,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 20, pp. 821 - 823, May 2008. 27. L. His Biography? Zhang, T. Luo Y. Yue, C. Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Photosensitivity-enabled dispersion controllability for quasi-phase-matching in photonic crystal fibers,#8221; Optics Letters , vol.

32, pp. 3498-3500, December 2007. 28. L. Zhang, T. Luo, C. Yu , W. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Pattern dependence of data distortion in slow-light elements,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 25, pp. Homes? 1754-1760, July 2007. 29.

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. His Biography? Yu , #8220;Ultrahigh-speed optical pulse generation using a phase modulator and construction dissertation, two stages of delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 46, Paper 075001, pp. 1-3, July 2007. 30. Y. Wang, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, Y. Okawachi, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. His Biography? Gaeta, #8220;44-ns continuously-tunable dispersionless optical delay element using a PPLN waveguide with a two pump configuration, DCF, and a dispersion compensator,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

19, pp. 861-863, June 2007. 31. C. Yu , Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Beyond 40-GHz return-to-zero optical pulse train generation using a phase modulator and polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 19, pp.

42-44, January 2007. 32. C. Yu , T. Luo, L. Why Democracy? Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Data pulse distortion induced by a slow light tunable delay line in optical fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 32, pp.

20-22, January 2007. 33. C. Yu , T. His Biography? Luo, B. Zhang, Z. Pan, M. Adler, Y. Wang, J.E. McGeehan, and A.E. On American? Willner, #8220;Wavelength-shift-free 3R regenerator for 40-Gbit/s RZ system by his biography optical parametric amplification in fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 2569-2571, December 2006. Video Games As Art? 34. T. Luo, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, S. His Biography? Kumar, Z. Pan, and A.E. Essay? Willner, #8220;Simple autocorrelation technique based on degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. 1606 - 1608, August 2006. 35. L.-S.

Yan, X.S. Yao, C. Yu , Y. Wang, L. Lin, Z. His Biography? Chen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;High-speed and cendrillon, highly repeatable polarization-state analyzer for 40-Gb/s system performance monitoring,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. His Biography? 643 - 645, February 2006. 36. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Too Dependent? Pan, Y. Wang, J.E. His Biography? McGeehan, M. Adler, and A.E. Willner , #8220;All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring of essay on american homes, a 40-Gb/s RZ signal by measuring the XPM-generated optical tone power in a highly nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 430 - 432, January 2006. 37. L. Zhang, C. His Biography? Yang, C. Yu , T. Luo, and A.E. Willner, #8220;PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp. 3558 - 3565, November 2005. Too Dependent On Computers Essay? 38. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Arieli, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Dispersive effects monitoring for RZ data by adding a frequency-shifted carrier along the orthogonal polarization state,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp.

3295 - 3301, October 2005. 39. Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A.E. His Biography? Willner, #8220;Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

23, pp. 3331 - 3338, October 2005. 40. L.-S. Yan, Y. Resume? Wang, B. Zhang, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, L. His Biography? Paraschis, and why democracy is good essay, A.E. Willner, #8220;Reach extension in 10-Gb/s directly modulated transmission systems using asymmetric and narrowband optical filtering,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 13, pp. 5106-5115, June 2005. 41. L.-S.

Yan, C. Yu , Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, and A.E. Willner, #8220;40-Gbit/s transmission over 25-km of negative-dispersion fiber using narrowband filtering of his biography, a commercial directly modulated DFB laser,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 1322-1324, June 2005. 42. C. Yu , L. Christen, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;All-optical XOR gate using polarization rotation in single highlynonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 1232-1234, June 2005. 43.

C. Essay? Yu , L.-S. His Biography? Yan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Width-tunable optical RZ pulse train generation based on why democracy, four-wave mixing in highly-nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 636-638, March 2005. 44. Z. His Biography? Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , Y. Resume? Wang, and A.E.

Willner, #8220;Using sampled nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg gratings to achieve 40-Gbit/s tunable multi-channel dispersion compensation,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 241, pp. His Biography? 371-375, November 2004. Essay Video As Art? 45. C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y.W.

Song, D. Gurkan, M.C. Hauer, D. Starodubov and A.E. Willner, #8220;Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using dispersion-shifted fiber with a fiber Bragg grating and his biography, a Faraday rotator mirror,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 16, pp. 1906 - 1908, August 2004. Too Dependent? 46. S.M.R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , J. His Biography? McGeehan, A.B.

Sahin, and A.E. Willner, #8220;First order PMD monitoring for too dependent, NRZ data using optical clock regeneration techniques,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 22, pp. 1086 - 1093, April 2004. 47. His Biography? C. Yu , Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A.B. Sahin, and A.E. Cendrillon? Willner, #8220;Optically compensating the PMD-induced RF power fading for his biography, single-sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. Groom Resume? 16, pp. 341 343, January 2004.

48. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , Y. Wang, Q. Yu, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, and his biography, A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in 40-Gb/s systems using nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of video, Lightwave Technology , vol. 20, pp. His Biography? 2239 2246, December 2002. 49.

Y.W. Song, Z. Video As Art? Pan, S.M.R. His Biography? Motaghian Nezam, C. Yu , Y. Wang, D. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J.E. Rothenberg, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, R. Caldwell, R. Wilcox, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable dispersion slope compensation for 40-Gb/s WDM systems using broadband nonchannelized third-order chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

20, pp. 2259 2266, December 2002. 50. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Groom? Yu , T. His Biography? Luo, A.B. Essay Homes? Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. His Biography? Willner, #8220;Intrabit polarization diversity modulation for the mitigation of management dissertation, PMD effects,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 14, pp. His Biography? 1466 1468, October 2002. 51.

M.R. Wang, C. Yu , and A.J. Varela, #8220;Efficient pseudo-non-diffracting beam shaping using a quasi-continuous phase diffractive element,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 40, pp. 517-524, April 2001. 52. Why Democracy Essay? C. Yu , M.R. His Biography? Wang, A.J. Varela, and B. Chen, #8220;High-density non-diffracting beam array for optical interconnection,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 177, pp.

369-376, April 2000. 53. X.H. Guang, M.R. Wang, and C. Phd Tqm Management? Yu , #8220;High-efficiency flat-top beam shaper fabricated by a nonlithographic technique,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 38, pp. 208-213, February 1999. 54. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Phase and frequency offset estimation in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_1, pp.

1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011 (Invited) 55. S. His Biography? Cao, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_3, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011. 56. Z. Xu, S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, and C. Yu , #8220;On the why democracy is good performance of decision-aided maximum likelihood and its adaptive phase estimation with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; OptoElectronics and his biography, Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 6B3_3, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011.

57. H. Cendrillon? Zhang, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Optimal ring ratio of 16-Star quadrature amplitude modulation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7P3_030, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011. 58. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Carrier recovery based on his biography, digital signal processing in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; International Symposium on Photonics Optical Communications (SPOC) 2011 , Paper 6.3, pp. 1, Chengdu, China, July 1-3, 2011 (Invited) 59. J. Hu, J. Yang, F. Xu, and C. Yu , #8220;Chromatic dispersion monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signal with low bandwidth detector by essay on american homes evaluating the amplitude ratio of delay tap sampling,#8221; 3 rd International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC) 2011 , Paper 14, pp. 1, Hong Kong, May 30-31, 2011.

60. J. Hu, Z. Chen, J.T. Teo, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor based on matching filter demodulation,#8221; 21 st International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2011 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7753, 77538N, pp. 1-4, Ottawa, Canada, May 15-19, 2011. 61. S. Zhang, L. His Biography? Xu, P. Y. Why Democracy Is Good? Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Study on the performance of his biography, decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation with a forgetting factor,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2011 , Paper JWA022, pp. 1-3, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 6-10, 2011. 62. J. Too Dependent Essay? Yang, C. Yu , and his biography, Z. Li, #8220;PMD insensitive CD monitoring based on RF power ratio measurement utilizing FBG filter,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010 , Paper 2-2F-5, pp.

1-5, Singapore, December 14-16, 2010. 63. Essay Video? Z. Wang, W. Zhong, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and Y. Ding, #8220;Performance evaluation of OOK free-space optical transmission system with dynamic decision threshold and coherent detection,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010 , Paper 3-1F-4, pp. 1-5, Singapore, December 14-16, 2010. 64. C. Yu and J. Yang, #8220;CD and PMD monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering,#8221; Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010 , Paper FN1, pp. 1-8, Shanghai, China, December 8-12, 2010 (Invited) 65. J. His Biography? Yang, M. He, H. Lu, Z. Too Dependent? Li, and C. Yu , #8220;Chromatic dispersion monitoring of DQPSK and D8PSK signals based on delay-tap sampling technique,#8221; International Conference on Communications Systems (ICCS) 2010 , paper PM1-2-1-4, pp.

1-5, Singapore, November 17-19, 2010. 66. Z. Li, L. His Biography? Cheng, C. Lu, and groom resume, C. Yu , #8220;A novel dispersion monitoring scheme by his biography evaluating eye diagram for 100Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK systems,#8221; International Conference on Communications Systems (ICCS) 2010 , paper PM1-2-1-2, pp. 1-5, Singapore, November 17-19, 2010. 67. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Resume Cendrillon? Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Phase estimation in coherent communication systems with semiconductor laser noises,#8221; Photonics Asia 2010 , Paper 7844-19, pp.

1-10, Beijing, China, October 18-20, 2010 (Invited) 68. H. Lu, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Impact of amplifier beat and his biography, nonlinear phase noises on coherent optical communication system,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010 , pp. 294-298, Nanjing, China, October 24-27, 2010. 69. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y. Essay Homes? Kam, and J. Chen, #8220;Performance comparison between decision-aided maximum likelihood and his biography, adaptive decision-aided phase estimation,#8221; 9 th International Conference on resume, Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010 , pp. 253-257, Nanjing, China, October 24-27, 2010. 70. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P. His Biography? Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Performance investigation of the joint SPM compensation in a long-haul coherent dual-polarization QPSK system,#8221; Europe Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 , Paper P3.15, pp.

1-3 , Torino, Italy, September 19-23, 2010. Essay On American? 71. C. His Biography? Yu , J. Yang and J. Hu, #8220; Nonlinear fiber based processing for high speed optical communication and sensor systems ,#8221; IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings (SUM) 2010 , Paper TuC2-3, pp. 1-2, Playa del Carmen, Riviera Maya, Mexico, July 19-21, 2010 (Invited) 72. Cendrillon? J. His Biography? Yang, C. Construction Management Dissertation Thesis? Yu , L. His Biography? Cheng, Z. Li, and C. Lu , #8220;PMD insensitive CD monitoring based on RF power ratio in D8PSK and DQPSK systems,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Internet (COIN) 2010 , Paper TuC3-3, pp. 1-4, Jeju, Korea, July 11-14, 2010. 73. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 9B3-1, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010 (Invited) 74. Z. Li, C. Yu , L. Cheng, L.F.K.

Lui, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Video Games As Art? Wai, #8220;Stable photonic RF phase shifter based on his biography, a polarization sensitive optical phase modulator,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 6D2-6, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 75. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y.

Kam, and J. Essay? Chen, #8220;Optimizing the performance of normalized least-mean square phase estimation for digital coherent receivers,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-16, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 76. H. His Biography? Zhang, S. Essay On American? Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. His Biography? Chen, #8220;Optimized phase error tolerance of 16-star quadrature amplitude modulation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 8P-15, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 77. Y. Yu, H. Zhang, and C. Yu , #8220;107-Gb/s WDM DQPSK Systems with 50 GHz Channel Spacing by Low-Crosstalk Demodulators,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-23, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 78.

S. Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Joint nonlinear parameters and OSNR monitoring for DSP-based coherent systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-20, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 79. J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor,#8221; 2 nd Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference (APOS) 2010 , Paper P0093, pp.

1-2, Guangzhou, China, June 28-30, 2010. Phd Tqm Construction Dissertation Thesis? 80. His Biography? C. Yu , #8220;High speed optical pulse train generation and measurement in optical fiber communication systems,#8221; International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC) 2010 , Paper TR74.6, pp. 1-2, Singapore, May 13-14, 2010 (Invited) 81. J. Yang, and C. Yu , #8220;Broadband multi-wavelength light source generation using a single phase modulator in a loop,#8221; Conference on samples, Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper JThE56, pp.

1-2, San Jose, CA, USA. May 16-21, 2010. 82. His Biography? J. Yang, C. Why Democracy Essay? Yu , L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring by using FBG notch filter in his biography, 57-Gbit/s D8PSK and 38-Gbit/s DQPSK systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper CThDD4, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA.

May 16-21, 2010. Too Dependent? 83. S. Zhang, P. Y. His Biography? Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Frequency offset estimation using a Kalman filter in coherent optical phase-shift keying systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper CFC1, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA. May 16-21, 2010. Video? 84. His Biography? S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Novel ultra wide-range frequency offset estimation for digital coherent optical receiver,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010 , Paper OMK1, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, March 21-25, 2010. 85.

S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Experimental demonstration of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in 8-channel 42.8-Gbit/s DWDM coherent PolMux-QPSK system,#8221; Conference on dissertation thesis, Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010 , Paper OWV3, pp. His Biography? 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, March 21-25, 2010. 86. J. Yang, K.W.L. Chee, and C. Yu , #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for different modulation formats based on RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter,#8221; 7 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Paper P0727, pp.

1-5, Macau, December 8-10, 2009. 87. S. Zhang, J. Chen, C. Yu , W. Rong, and P. Phd Tqm Construction? Y. Kam, #8220;ADC bandwidth optimization for coherent optical detection in phase-modulated systems,#8221; Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009 , Paper FC3, pp. 1-6, Shanghai, China, November 2-6, 2009. His Biography? 88. J. Groom? Hu, Z. Chen, X. His Biography? Yang, J. Ng, C. Too Dependent On Computers Essay? Yu , #8220;Long distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on Erbium-doped fiber and his biography, Raman amplification,#8221; Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and samples, Exhibition (ACP) 2009 , Paper TuC5, pp. 1-6, Shanghai, China, November 2-6, 2009. 89. J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu , Y.K. His Biography? Yeo, and Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel 80-GHz pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009 , Paper TuA5, pp. 1-2, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009.

90. J. Hu, C. Yu , #8220;An improved autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009 , Paper ThM4, pp. 1-2, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. 91. J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu , Y.K. Yeo, and Y. Wang, #8220;80-GHz multi-channel RZ pulse train generation based on XPM and FWM in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , Paper P-S5.03, pp. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. 92. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang, #8220;Polarization insensitivity optic distributed strain sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , P-S10.12, pp. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009.

93. X. Li, S. Homes? Zhang, C. Yu , and P. Y. His Biography? Kam, #8220;Pilot decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical QPSK and 8PSK systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and management thesis, Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , Paper CMZ4, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 31-June 5, 2009. 94. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, and C. Yu , #8220;Block length effect of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and his biography, Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , Paper CMZ3, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 31-June 5, 2009. 95. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and essay on american, C. Yu , #8220;A comparison of phase estimation in coherent optical PSK system,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008 , Paper C3-4A-03, Singapore, December 8-11, 2008. 96. G.J.

Pendock, W. Shieh, X. Yi, and C. Yu , #8220;Measuring dispersion in WDM links with modulated background ASE,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper WeK-2, pp. 1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 97. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Adaptive decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper TuA-4, pp.

1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 98. S. Zhang, P.Y. His Biography? Kam, J. Chen, and C. Construction Dissertation Thesis? Yu , #8220;Receiver sensitivity improvement using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2008 , Paper CthJJ2, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA, May 4-9, 2008. 99. C. Yu , #8220;Optical short pulse generation and measurement based on fiber polarization effects,#8221; 16 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2008 , Paper Optical-11, pp. 66, Taichung, Taiwan, April 23-24, 2008 (Invited) 100. J. Yang, C. His Biography? Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Too Dependent On Computers? Yang, #8220;Suppression of polarization sensitivity in BOTDA fiber distributed sensing system,#8221; 19 th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2008 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. His Biography? 7004, Paper 700421, pp.

1-4, Perth, Australia, April 14-18, 2008. 101. C. Yu , G.J. Pendock, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, #8220;Dispersion measurement through WDM systems with modulated background ASE,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2008 , Paper JWA29, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, February 24-28, 2008. 102.

C. Yu , J. Yang, Z. Li, and Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel 160-GHz pulse generator using a 40-GHz phase modulator and two stages of PM fiber,#8221; 6 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007, Paper P0848, pp. 1-4, Singapore, December 10-13, 2007. 103. C. Resume Cendrillon? Yu , Z. His Biography? Li, J. Yang and Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel high-speed optical pulse train generation based on phase modulation at half frequency,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper CMJJ7, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 104. Z. Li, Y.J.

Wen, C. Yu , W. Rong, Y. Wang, and T.H. Cheng, #8220;Optimizing Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on essay homes, dual-order stimulated Raman scattering of a single pump,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper JTuA63, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 105. Y. Dong, Z. Li, C. Yu , Y.J. Wen, Y. Wang, C. Lu, W. Hu and T.H. Cheng, #8220;Generation of multi-channel short-pulse sources using nonlinear optical loop mirror based on photonic crystal fiber,#8221; Conference on his biography, Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2007 , Paper JWA9, pp. 1-3, Anaheim, CA, USA, March 25-29, 2007. 106. Essay Video? C. His Biography? Yu , #8220;Applications of fiber nonlinearities in high-speed WDM optical communication systems,#8221; 15 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2006 , Paper PS-4-2, pp.

1, Hangzhou, China, October 12-13, 2006 (Invited) 107. Z. Zhu, A.M.C. Dawes, D. Gauthier, M.D. Stenner, M.A. Neifeld, T. Luo, C. Too Dependent On Computers Essay? Yu , L. His Biography? Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Recent advances in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light,#8221; OSA Topical Meeting on Slow and Fast Light , Paper TuB1, pp. Cendrillon? 1, Washington D.C., USA, July 23-26, 2006 (Invited) 108. Z. Pan, S. His Biography? Chandel, and C. Essay Homes? Yu , #8220;160 GHz optical pulse generation using a 40 GHz phase modulator and two stages of delayed MZ interferometers,#8221; Conference on Lasers and his biography, Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CFP2, pp. 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006. 109.

C. Yu , L. Xu, and T. Wang, #8220;Six-times the transmission distance over standard single-mode fiber for 10-Gb/s directly-modulated system by off-center filtering and electronic equalization,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CMNN4, pp. 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006.

Write my essay -
Charles Manson Biography -

essay with examples Read the topic and his biography, sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for essay homes comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for his biography commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence.

Countries in groom resume samples the developed world have seen a big shift in his biography attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to essay blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to his biography hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful.

The best explanation, I believe , is to essay be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in his biography many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is resume cendrillon, not replaced, and thus there is his biography, a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to phd tqm management create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in his biography the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and games as art, economic decline in his biography the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and on computers, their supposedly self-centred values.

It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at his biography the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in essay Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to his biography refer to homes grown children in their 20s and his biography, 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at why democracy is good home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is his biography, it reasonable to attribute the essay on american baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the his biography young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for essay on american family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime.

Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the his biography idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and samples, thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the his biography main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Resume! Norton, 2003). According to his biography this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. Dissertation! It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability.

But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and his biography, Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the construction thesis rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to his biography this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to essay this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. His Biography! The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the why democracy is good essay number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.

Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his biography his article #039;Low fertility in why democracy Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the his biography relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the phd tqm construction management dissertation thesis status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is his biography, that for many couples nowadays the phd tqm management dissertation thesis economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to his biography the birth rate. Why Democracy Is Good Essay! According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of his biography young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.

Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to phd tqm construction management form families in his biography terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Why Democracy Essay! Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of his biography young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the why democracy is good essay young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the his biography world seem to essay have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and his biography, contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime.

According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for resume governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. His Biography! Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of too dependent on computers essay making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000).

Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. His Biography! (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).

A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a).

Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the dissertation thesis European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003).

Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. His Biography! What do you think?

Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Essay On American Homes! Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an his biography, alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to phd tqm dissertation thesis state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.

This is presented as background information. His Biography! Notice how the management thesis student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from his biography Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the groom need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the his biography reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the resume cendrillon student has seen the his biography issue as a #039;problem#039; - and groom resume, asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the his biography ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in construction thesis a general way. In the second part, the his biography student focuses on groom resume the ideas of his biography a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view.

Hint: always try to find opportunities in resume your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. His Biography! Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for management thesis this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to his biography criticise the ideas of other writers - in groom fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.

But if you are going to his biography be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the construction management dissertation student seeks to his biography dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the too dependent on computers providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in his biography your work. Recall the essay second part of the his biography student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write.

In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to groom support this argument with various forms of evidence. His Biography! The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by essay video games as art, McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of his biography a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an resume, argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for his biography what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on groom your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to his biography deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument.

Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to homes consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for his biography this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus:

Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out resume cendrillon, a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is his biography, free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on as art the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the his biography texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Groom Resume Samples! Notice that the his biography sample essay refers to a total of resume nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references.

Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his biography his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to resume samples use these words in their written work. But in his biography fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Video As Art! Remember though, that the really important issue is not the his biography words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. Construction Management! (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)

Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the his biography footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. Phd Tqm! (Always check which system is required in his biography each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the why democracy is good citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg:

Japan now has a birthrate of only his biography, about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about essay as art, them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in his biography their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the why democracy is good #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:

He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to his biography distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in resume cendrillon the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is his biography, a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into on computers essay your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to his biography emphasise a word. Essay! (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.

Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the his biography things etc. This is known as an as art, #039;author-prominent#039; citation and his biography, is very common in academic writing. Notice the why democracy essay use of reporting verbs in his biography this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls.

. McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to cendrillon make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. His Biography! Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and essay video games as art, format: Author family name, Initial. (date).

Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to his biography refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of too dependent on computers essay site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to his biography exercise some caution - there is a lot of cendrillon junk around.

Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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Will H Bradley: His Biography

Custom Individual Privacy vs. National Security essay paper. Balancing American interests between national security and his biography, individual privacy is a daunting task that does not promise an agreeable solution in the near future. There are so many controversies surrounding this issue in essay on american homes which people with opposing opinions are striving to ensure that their voices are heard. The question of which of the two should be prioritized is not important compared to the effect that pursuing either of the strategies will have in the lives of citizens. His Biography? The issue is complicated further by the sensitive nature of both national security and individual privacy. There is video games a close association between the two, thus making it hard for policy makers to alter either of them without touching the other. However, it is his biography a fact that as much as many people want to have full rights to individual privacy, they also expect to have their security guaranteed. In other words, the two must be provided without necessarily causing one side to gain too much of an upper hand.

Yet it seems increasingly obvious in the wake of 9/11 and too dependent essay, the War on Terror that national security has been prioritized to his biography some extent compared to individual privacy, and that the erosion of civil liberties that has occurred has gained some measure of acceptance by the majority of the resume cendrillon population. Controversies surrounding national security and individual privacy came into his biography, the limelight after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. However, this issue has been in phd tqm thesis existence for a much longer time, though mostly has had minimal effects on his biography, individual privacy, with some exceptions such as the suspension of habeas corpus in on american the Civil War, and the rise of McCarthyism in the 1950’s. The 9/11 attacks are responsible for today’s ongoing debate regarding what security measures should be implemented to ensure that another disaster doesn’t occur. The period of inflamed passion and rhetoric immediately following 9/11 led the U.S.

Congress to his biography pass the United States of America Patriot Act (The Data Base Book, 2010). The act gave security personnel the construction management legal footing to search for and apprehend terrorist suspects. Pointed arguments occurred when the Patriot Act was introduced, with proponents arguing that it was indispensable to protect citizens first and his biography, foremost following such a major event, and that individual privacy concerns were a secondary issue. On the other hand, opponents were equally vocal, asserting that the act’s passage would violate civil rights that are protected by the Constitution. In other words, they claimed that the Patriot Act and similar laws were illegal. Individual privacy is a constitutional right, especially in American society (Mitrano, 2003). However, while this is true, other views have recently ascertained that individual privacy cannot be enjoyed without security. This view holds that national security carries more weight compared to individual privacy despite the legal assertions that are more traditional interpretations of the on american homes Constitution. Although proponents of individual privacy cite the constitutional provision that recognizes civil rights, they may be mistaken. The United States Constitution does not identify privacy as a civil right.

This is because the word privacy is his biography not even in the Constitution (The Data Base Book, 2010). Therefore, it seems incorrect to claim that the why democracy Constitution guarantees individual privacy. It also gives the government a legal avenue to introduce laws such as the Patriot Act. From this point of view, security becomes a common need that everyone is entitled to. His Biography? Therefore, national security outweighs personal goals and deserves to be the top priority.

In research study conducted among information technology experts in 2008, it was evident that national security received strong backing compared to cendrillon individual privacy. In this study, 53% of 474 IT experts were of the opinion that national security was paramount in the states. This view was bolstered further by the fact that 69% of federal, state, and local IT security agencies cited that identity management was critical (Jones, 2008). They indicated that management of his biography, individual identity is particularly valuable as far as the life of the why democracy is good entire population is concerned. The loosening of his biography, previous protocols preventing such measures from being enacted would ensure that security organs would be able to track suspects and possibly prevent a significant security threat.

Management of this information does not involve any sharing at resume cendrillon a public level, implying that the information obtained by his biography any agencies conducting such cyber sorties is is good essay confidential. This is, perhaps, why 45% of the experts believed that funding for this security measure would increase compared to his biography a paltry 5% who believed otherwise. Effects on International Relations. Preference to national security over individual privacy is also illustrated by the strong views expressed by the United States government. The United States and the European Union have engaged each other in formal negotiations exonerating visiting European Union tourists from the anti-terror measures passed by the United States (Homeland Security, 2011). The EU seeks to secure an umbrella agreement that will ensure that its citizens are not subjected to critical surveillance.

Counteracting this compromise with the is good European Union, the United States is in the process of making it mandatory that all foreign airlines submit personal information on its passengers. His Biography? This is aimed at preventing terrorists from entering the country. The United States continues to show that it is not willing to make any compromises in regards to national security, and this position shows that the Department of Homeland Security is as insistent on this position today as the previous administration was. This is because U.S. policy continues to hold that when national security is guaranteed, individual security is guaranteed too. National security is not only valued in the United States. Trends in other parts of the world also tend to why democracy is good show that it is given priority in comparison to individual privacy, with many countries enacting laws that seek to his biography put national security first in recent years. However, in Canada, there is essay homes some opposition to the idea of allowing access to personal information for security purposes. Bill C-36 changed data retention schemes in the national data bank (Macklem, 2001). His Biography? The bill also gave judges the power to prohibit access to or withhold disclosure of personal information, whether in favor of essay, national security, national defense, or any foreign relations issue. His Biography? The fundamentals of this bill are meant to games as art ensure that there is his biography accountability in security agencies and that protection of civil rights is guaranteed. Cendrillon? Therefore, the his biography case is a little bit different in why democracy is good essay Canada when it comes to government accountability measures.

However, personal information is still subject to access by security personnel in his biography certain instances where there is an overriding national interest. Although the two provisions are conflicting, preference for national security is evident, because a major security threat will automatically allow for the probing of potential suspects. This scenario can be summarized by acknowledging that while Canada has adopted a more pro-privacy stance than the too dependent on computers United States, its citizens have still shown more concern when it comes to national security interest in recent years. Additional Security and Privacy Implications. In addition to previously raised concerns, there are many other issues on the table that continue to rile those on both sides of the privacy vs. security debate. The rights of those classified as “enemy combatants,” meaning those in opposition to the United States fighting under an organizational, rather than national banner, remain in his biography limbo following a 2004 Supreme Court decision that muddied rather than clarified the issue (Massimino Cover, 2006).

While the Bush administration pledged that only resume cendrillon, foreign citizens could be classified in such a manner, the his biography most recent defense appropriations budget gives the president the right to hold U.S. citizens indefinitely if they are suspected of essay, being “enemy combatants.” While President Obama has pledged vigorously that he would never personally use the provision, there isn’t absolute certainty that he or a future chief executive wouldn’t find the impotence to his biography do so in a potentially risky situation. In addition to the Patriot Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) gives the U.S. Government broad new powers when it comes to overseeing the actions of too dependent, its own citizens. The act establishes a “secret court” that allows for the tapping of phone lines without a regular warrant, in instances where there is a potential threat to national security (Massimino Cover, 2006). Contrary to what the act’s name would imply, Americans aren’t necessarily excluded from warrantless wiretapping. It claims that in times of war, the president has the his biography authority to authorize surveillance of even American citizens, and is allowed to bypass the groom usual constitutional requirements in order to do so.

As time has passed, support for the Patriot Act and his biography, FISA has slightly waned, yet Congress still hasn’t taken action to why democracy is good essay repeal or scale back the measures. Perhaps most significant in his biography the recent preference for privacy over individual privacy is the power that the legislative branch ceded to the executive branch in groom the wake of 9/11. Many of the provisions of the Patriot Act, including the potential opening of citizens’ mail and monitoring of library records are left entirely to the executive to authorize, while the government has claimed that the Congressional passage of FISA allows the president and executive branch to obtain warrantless wiretaps. Furthermore, Congressional approval of the Iraq War has arguably been used as a carte blanche excuse for his biography the executive branch to pursue foreign actions that would have previously been deemed illegal, such as the recent air war against Libya, and strikes in the western tribal areas of Pakistan. Indiscriminate and Intrusive Nature of Preference to National Security.

As common as the resume national security vs. individual privacy argument has become in his biography recent years, technological advancements may just dictate the direction we continue to groom samples head in. It is his biography now possible for essay video games various security agents to access private information online without the consent of the information’s owners. His Biography? This means that the observance of private data or even individual surveillance is possible with the involved people remaining oblivious of what is happening to them. According to Dr. Clarke of the Australian National University, the groom resume samples 9/11 assault on the United States is what has made this possible (Quiddington, 2001). Further emphasis on this is made by the fact that information technology can be used to his biography survey people effectively for security reasons. However, Dr. Clarke is pessimistic that technology and is good essay, the attacks on his biography, the United States should be used as a scapegoat to advocate extremely intrusive techniques. This can be rationalized by the fact the there are centralized information systems that can analyze information and lead to security actions if necessary. According to essay Clarke, security agents may lose focus and start monitoring all of us, contrary to what current policies say. This would lead to a future in his biography which everybody would be virtually monitored.

Such a potential situation would be even be worse for foreigners visiting the United States, implying that every tourist will be treated as a potential suspect. This would be likely to cause confusion in the name of fighting terrorism. Furthermore, privacy may be compromised very much this way; however, it could be argued that the overall effect is the nation will be safer. Citizens would then be able to exercise their right to privacy if security threats are eliminated, although they may be inconvenienced in the interim. Another notable weakness with compromising individual security for national security is that personal information may get into the wrong hands (Quiddington, 2001). It is evident that not all security agencies are state-owned. Some are private, and thus their abilities to handle intelligence information are questionable. Therefore, caution should be taken when giving licenses for such operations in order to essay games ensure that safety is his biography maintained.

Otherwise, the resume whole issue of favoring national security over individual privacy may go belly up if stringent precautionary structures are not put in place. In conclusion, individual privacy is fundamental, and everyone deserves this right. Despite that, it seems that the security regulations put in place over ten years ago are here to stay. Those who were hopeful that a new Democratic administration would overturn many of the provisions that arguably violate civil liberties have been disappointed by the president’s continued commitment to keeping Guantanamo Bay open, the extension of the Patriot Act and FISA, and executive authorized actions in Libya and other areas. Yet the population at large has made it unclear whether it is his biography ready for a whole cloth return to the pre-9/11 security apparatus, despite the resume fact that numerous studies have revealed that national security is his biography now given a major preference compared to individual privacy. This continues to be the reason why the United States government continues to games allow intelligence access to private information for security reasons. It is also correct to conclude that national security is critical, and his biography, that we will remain in on computers a time of heightened security for the foreseeable future. There will be individual privacy if national security is assured, whereas national security is not guaranteed if individual privacy is his biography granted. Luckily, there is still no indication that information has been made public as far as surveillance is concerned.

Therefore, it is worth concluding that national security is prioritized compared to homes individual privacy given the fact that people still universally value national security.