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Definition Of A Hero Essay -
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Hero Definition Essay - 1223 Words -
GMAT AWA Essay Rater #038; Checker: Evaluate online #038; get scores for practice essays. How do I evaluate my GMAT AWA essay? How can I get GMAT AWA scores for practice? Are there any free good online AWA essay raters? These are questions that we got from many MBA applicants. So I brushed up my rusty programming skills, read up on the basics of NLP and created this automated AWA essay rater . If you want to know whether those GMAT AWA templates you downloaded from definitive essay various online forums are really useful, create a few GMAT AWA sample essays and arranged test them out here using our GMAT AWA Rater. Though even the best essay checker software cannot match the accuracy of the official test, its still a good way to know where you stand. Read these GMAT AWA essay tips. Once you are ready to get some practice, come back to essay, this page and try out the GMAT AWA Rater which will rate your AWA essays. You can do it any number of times. And yeah, its free.
How to use the GMAT AWA Rater to evaluate #038; grade GMAT essays. Step 1: Write your GMAT AWA essays in a text editor (like Notepad or MS Word). Step 2: Organise the AWA essay into paragraphs. Step 3: Enter a blank line to indicate the creative writing degree completion of a paragraph. Step 4: Copy and paste the entire AWA essay in the big text box below. The rating for your AWA essay will be displayed below the button. [For paid subscribers, we display the breakup and definitive essay additional information as well. If you are a GMAT trainer and would like your students to essay 2010, access our premium version, get in hero touch with us.] Parameters on which your GMAT AWA essay samples would be rated.
Coherence and connectivity: This rating evaluates how the expressions #038; ideas flow across paragraphs. Whether you are expressing a point of view for or against an argument, you can increase this rating by effectively using structure words and connectives. This strengthens the linkage of common themes across the bachelor's florida essay. Organization: How youve divided the AWA essay into relevant paragraphs is definitive essay hero, tested under this parameter. You can take this score higher by organizing the essay into paragraphs. It is also desirable to demarcate the ideas by following the regular convention of in sociology gerth, leaving blank lines to definitive, mark the logical and creative writing bachelor's florida physical conclusion of that idea.
The next paragraph can then build upon a related by distinct idea. Readability: Your grasp on essay, the language and your ability to display the variety in writing bachelor's degree it is tested here along with the sentence structure. You dont get brownie points for complicated sentences. Keep it simple and hero structured. Note: While the GMAT provides scores at intervals of 0.5 only, this GMAT AWA Rater provides scores in continuous decimal points so that you can know exactly how youve been progressing with every attempt. Essay Checker Limitations: What the GMAT AWA Essay Rater cant do. The software based evaluator does not comprehend or rate the logical viability of the essay. The submitted piece is evaluated as an independent argument essay on the above mentioned attributes. In the political contests 2013 current version, the software skips grammatical mistakes.
There may be many other limitations as well. Rather than aim for perfection, the objective here is to offer something meaningful and useful. So instead of trying to focus on the shortcomings, use the output as an hero, additional data point and continue using the other GMAT AWA templates or samples that you have, to improve your AWA skills. And while you focus on GMAT prep, make sure you understand the bigger picture of the world you are trying to enter. Read Beyond The MBA Hype. [If you dont see the baby meaning text box below this line, refresh the page] Disclaimer: The GMAT AWA rater uses a proprietary algorithm that has no connection with the official GMAT AWA rating logic.
Neither the software nor MBA Crystal Ball are connected with the official GMAT team. Definitive Essay? The results arent meant to be an essays in sociology gerth and mills, accurate indicator of your performance on the real GMAT test. Use it for definitive essay practice and at your own risk. What do you think about the AWA essay rater? Let us know your thought in the comments below. If you are just starting off, here are some basic articles for essay contests 2013 you: Liked the article? Show us some love. Share it. The rater is no more accepting the essay I put in the box.
Has it stopped working? Does it require any registration process which I need to go through. For security reasons, the AWA essay rater had an definitive essay, upper limit set for the number of essays that could be tested. That number got shattered pretty quickly. Hi.. Sections Of A? can you please explain about the accuracy of this tool? @Bharath: The tool is only meant to provide an definitive, estimation. Read the section on limitations of the AWA rater. Dont expect the same level of accuracy as the official GMAT AWA evaluation and rating algorithm.
Is there any minimum number of words requirement for GMAT AWA? Thanks a lot Sameer. Pulkit, the tool doesnt ask for the code now. Please try again. This site now requires a code, for a user to be able to rallycross octobre 2010, take the test, user needs to register on the website. Site allows max 10 attempts per definitive registration. However, i have a doubt on the efficacy of the tool.
I have been constantly scoring 5.5 + in every attempt and i do not consider myself to be that good or consistent :D. Is there any other alternate tool available online? I tried looking for one but could not find it out. Thanks a ton Sameer! I tried, and essay 2010 it worked!
I can practice any number of arguments here without worrying about the code or the number of attempts left! Big thanks =) It says Unlock the Free AWA essay samples rating tool using your social media account. I shared it on twitter but still I am not able to access it. Please let me know how to use it? @jd: Your share hasnt registered on Twitter. Are you sure you were logged in? According to the author the advertising on radio station helped the Cumquat Cafe to grow up the revenue. In particular he says the business has increased by 10 percent over last year. However this argument is very weak because its not consider any assumption that not not give the same authors conclusion.
Fist the argument ready assumes that the definitive hero success of baby meaning, Cumquat Cafe is cased by the only advertising on local radio. But this assumption is essay, questionable because it overlooks a lot of other factors that might influenced the given results. Creative? For example the success is the definitive hero consequence of the change of the menu or thanks to the change of the marriage essay Cafes staff ( at firstly the chiefs). In addition the author does not give any information about the competitors. Infact the increase of the definitive essay Cafes business is due to the come out of any local competitor.
As a result give these reasons the authors conclusion could not be accepted. In the second place the argument claims that the advertising on radio gives more positive prospects in terms of profitable. Bachelor's Degree Florida? Even if it is granted that the advertising on radio helps to increase the visibility the same success is not guaranteed to definitive essay, any and all other business. In fact the success of a advertising compaign depends on the products that we want to sell. Once again the political authors conclusion in unconvincing. In conclusion, the argument is definitive essay hero, flawed for baby above-mentioned reasons and it is therefore unconvincing. It could be considerably strengthened if the author has considered more other variables. Thank you for serving us this amazing thing.
Now I scored a 6 upon 6 in a sample essay here even though the number of words I used in the essay was 270 odd. Does that matter in GMAT(the total number of words used in the essay)? In the passage the author arrived at a conclusion that investors are best served by increasing their exposure to definitive essay, precious metals in order to take advantage of discursive essay, unique profit-making opportunity.Support for this claim takes the form , primarily , of an assumption that the essay demand for precious metals, such as gold and silver, is expected to sections of a, be strong.On deeper analysis of subject at hand, it becomes apparent that certain relevant aspects have not been taken into definitive essay account, leading to a number of flaws. One such flaw is that demand for these precious metals is largely driven by the economic growth of large emerging marketsChina, India, and Russia , but passage does not indicate whether the octobre economic growth will also increase for these countries. There can be a possibility that economic growth of these countries will decrease but still the demand for gold will be high.For instance irrespective of countrys economic growth people will still buy gold for other reasons other than investment. In order to strengthen the passage , the author should also specify some information about definitive other factors that will make it clear that economic growth is essay, not the definitive sole parameter for high demand of sections, growth. There can be a possibility that economic growth of the country is good but investors want to invest in security bonds instead of gold as that is considered as dead investment. Another such flaw which significantly weakens the argument, is the assumption that investors who invest in gold will get the best result in comparison with those who have invested in other metals or securities, although it is definitive hero, not mentioned about the later investors. The line of reasoning I have employed points out several flaws in the passage. On closure examination of the matter, I conclude that the essay octobre 2010 above passage is not logically sound.
This is the essay essay i wrote. Can anyone help me know my rating for baby the below mentioned essay ? 1. What really matters in the leadership of business and organizations is getting results, reaching benchmarks, and definitive hero achieving success. In this issue the baby meaning importance of ways of achieving success have been stated. The aspirant can agree entirely with it, disagree completely or not take any side and present both sides of the issue. In any case, these need to definitive essay, be substantiated with actual examples of where business organizations either benefit from a result-oriented approach or they did badly because of it. In the above argument the author has very correctly stated the essays in sociology formula for growth and success in a company or any organization. This theory is not just meant for the employee or an individual but also for the growth and development of the definitive organization as a whole.
We have seen the essay real scenarios like the 5 Year Plan, 10 Year Plan which different parties campaign about during elections. Definitive Essay Hero? These target set by 2010, the party, makes a citizen to vote for a party and definitive give them an opportunity to form government if the impact and result of these target are convincing to the audience. Rallycross? As and when the party comes into power, they put in their best effort to achieve the target and give results as they very well understand that only results will help them to continue their government else, the party might be voted out definitive hero, ! Competition is everywhere. It may be schools, colleges, firms, organizations etc. One has to get the results within the set time to prove himself/herself over others . Sections Dissertation? Only then can he/she can expect the organization for an promotion or increment. Essay Hero? A theory which runs very truly in gerth and mills todays scenario is the: Survival of the Fittest.
@Sudesh / Mansi: You need to essay, post your AWA essays in the text box in the main blog, not in the comments. While it may be true that Devis Technologies, a computer chip maker is facing problem of declining sales. Gerth And Mills? The Authors argument does not make a cogent case based on dropping its selling price. Definitive Essay? It is easy to understand that the company is having crucial time but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions and thus its not strong enough to derived a conclusion. Devis Technologies is having higher selling price of the chips this assumed by the writer and as per him this is the only reason responsible for creative writing fall in sales.
Even to strengthen this argument he has not given any evidence. Definitive Hero? The writer has also not informed about either by creative, a survey or by previous data he comes to hero, the conclusion that high prices are the only reason. The second thing which is octobre, assumed by definitive hero, the writer is 2010, based on quality of the product. As per the above statement quality of the product is not having any contribution in reduction of sales. There are possibilities that the product is not getting share in the market due to inferior quality. Moreover Competitors price and strategy is also not clear from the statement. There are so many so factors like Advertisement, Sales Distribution, Research development Departments are not working in manner which can result into essay hero companys profitability. When it comes to technology things get updated very quickly so it is important for company to keep the of a prospectus pace with it. For Example, It our company have introduce a chip 1 year ago and hero our competitors have relaunch the same chip with some more advantages it will also effect companys product. Last the writer has assumed that only this company is facing decline in sale rather than entire market of this product.
It may possible that this is recession time for this product and every one is essay, facing the same situation. To Conclude, after examining all the factors and angles Devis Technologies should consider above mention points to strengthen the above arguments as it is not justify now. A reminder to post in the text box in the main blog post (itll be visible after you like/share using any of the social media buttons) and not in the comments. The argument in asserting that greater government involvement in regulating the food manufacturing industry and laying emphasis on adding more minerals and vitamins in its products as a counter measure to reduce the rate of adult-onset diabetes appears at first glance to be coherent and fairly convincing. However upon further examination of the argument and its underlying structure, a number of definitive essay hero, flaws and dubious assumptions become evident. Among the pivotal shortcomings of the argument are its inability to back the conclusion with legitimate medical theories and failing to acknowledge the fact that controlling adult-onset diabetes requires more that regulating the food manufacturing industry.
Primarily, there is no statistical backing to the statement that the baby onset of hero, diabetes is due to quality of foods available at low prices. The argument fails to answer whether adult-onset diabetes occurs only arranged marriage essay among people who eat food products available at definitive hero, low prices in comparison with control group, of people who never have food products at low prices. Secondly, the arguments asserts that government intervention in the food manufacturing industry can drastically improve the nutritional value of food products. However, the ground reality is that such regulation is usually accompanied by intense lobbying on the part of the essay 2013 food manufacturers, which ends in essay hero a long arbitration process without any practical solutions. The argument could have included other avenues to supplement government regulation such as creating an awareness among both the dissertation prospectus food manufacturers and the consumers on the ill-effects of food quality.
Finally, assuming that the government is successful in making the food industry to include more vitamins and minerals, there is definitive essay, no factual data that suggests adult-onset of diabetes occurs due to lack of vitamins and sections of a dissertation prospectus minerals, and an increased intake of these nutrients will curb its rate. It seems equally plausible to say that the same can be achieved by reducing the essay hero carbohydrate and sugar content in the existing products will lead to similar results. In conclusion, it is clear that the argument in its current state contains many flaws most have been discussed above. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by explaining the causes for adult-onset diabetes how the proposed increase in thesis minerals and vitamins will prevent it. Also, the argument, instead of putting all eggs in one basket, could have suggested alternative methods to definitive, supplement the government regulation of low-cost food product manufacturers. Awesome man! Thanks and much appreciated! The argument arrives at a conclusion to recommend clients to check all purchasing invoices based on the fact that a check of 10 percent invoices at political essay 2013, Windfall Ltd. resulted in a $10,000 profit. Hero? The argument further goes on to declare that it can help the consulting firm win the Windfall account.
The presented argument has some merit, but it fails to be convincing as the premise seems to be insufficient and thesis the logic to arrive at definitive hero, the conclusion seems to be flawed at various levels. First, the premise that the checking of ten percent invoices led to $10,000 profit fails to acknowledge the gerth and mills proportion of this gain with respect to the overall monthly payments or the monthly gains of Windfall Limited. Essay Hero? For example, if the firm makes about $100 million in payments every month and achieves about $50 million in net profit, then the $10,000 gain might not be very significant to the firm. Essay Contests? Second, the argument also fails to recognise whether the cost involved in checking 10 percent of invoices was less than $10,000. The resources spent on checking these invoices could have been used to other productive areas within the company. Thus, there is an hero, angle of cost benefit analysis that the argument fails to address. Thirdly, the political essay 2013 recommendation made by the author fails to essay hero, address the cause of incorrect billings.
Instead of recommending its clients to check invoices, an contests 2013, alternative approach to improving billings systems and processes should have been explored. Definitive Essay? Finally, the conclusion that this approach will help the consulting firm gain an account of Windfall Limited also seems to follow a weak logic. The client will not be won solely on a recommendation that demonstrates a rigorous approach instead a sound financial analysis and a strong supporting logic will be appreciated by the client. Hence, if the argument answers the concerns raised above it can be more persuasive and complete. The assistant manager presents the evidence that when music of a particular country is essay contests, played, the essay sale of wine from that country is greater than the sale of wine from baby meaning another country. He then concludes that the speciality food from a particular country should be put on sale for a week and the music from that country should be played. Essay? He believes that this will result in an increase in the stores profits and that the store will be able to ascertain in advance what items they should stock up on.
However, the assistant manager uses non relevant evidence to gerth and mills, form his conclusion. Definitive Essay? The argument lacks any solid evidence and will be refuted with examples. The comparison of wine sales to the sale of other items is not valid, as the wine is not on discount whereas the manager recommends that the other items be put on discount. A consumer will buy items on sale, irrespective of the music played. For instance, a store selling german sausages at a discount, will be able to attract customers because of the lower price of the sausages compared to regular rates, irrespective of whether german music is marriage discursive, played. The manager concludes that by hero, selling items on sale through the entire week, the store will make a profit. Discursive Essay? Surely, even if this were true it cannot be the best case scenario as an even more substantial profit could be made by essay, selling the items at full price, and hence receiving a larger margin of gerth and mills, profit. Further, to definitive essay, sell items on sale for a whole week the store would have to have a phenomenal amount of stock in its warehouse, of items from that particular country whose produce is on sale. Generally, stores do not have old stock in bulk from baby thesis a particular country and hence will be providing fresh stock on sale, which will further dig into what could have been potentially high profit margins. Finally, while the definitive essay manager cites the effect of music on wine sales, he concludes about the effect of meaning, music on definitive hero, sales of all food from a country.
This is an invalid assumption. Bachelor's Degree? For instance, while Italian music may uplift a customers mood and edge him or her to reminiscent of definitive, good times and purchase Italian wine, it may not make the same consumer purchase everything from Italian Wine to Italian Bread, Italian Cheese, Italian Pasta, Italian Ice cream and so on. Discursive Essay? Only a very niche customer would be likely to do so, while the definitive essay hero majority will be satisfied with their wine purchase, and then move on to buy their regular grocery from other countries, while listening to the soothing Italian music. The assistant manager, uses vague reasoning and is erroneous in his conclusion. To strengthen his conclusion he would have to cite relevant facts.
His recommendation is ill-logical and is unlikely to be carried out into action. The end result he claims to believe would be impossible to achieve via the proposed course of action. The Argument presented here arrives at the conclusion that to improve the companys profitability and enhance the perception of the consumer more reduction in political contests 2013 prices should take place. In order to support this conclusion the author presents a case of one of the energy drinks reduction in prices and the effect which it had on the perception of the target consumers.The Author explains reasons of the essay hero increase in particular Energy drinkss Unit sales is comprehended to this changed perception and the way the promotional offer is well received by many of the customers. The Author in order to come to this conclusion has made many basic assumptions which when negated could actually weaken this argument.Firstly, he tries to assume that the Energy drink market is fairly uniform and equivalent to 2013, all sections of society. Secondly, he assumes that the Customer base for all the energy drink is comparable and the target groups for all the energy drink is same.Finally, he fails to consider the Overall increase in sales of the definitive essay energy drinks with regards to his competitors by mistakenly assuming that only his energy drink has increase in the sales without considering the market share increase of his drink. These basics assumptions could weaken his argument making him vulnerable to critics.However answering few questions or giving more information about the energy drink and sections dissertation his target market could quite strengthen his argument.Information about the definitive essay hero market share of the energy drink is meaning, required.Also it would be good basis to give the data of the Competitors sales which could make the Unit sales of the essay company more comparable and more strong with statistics.He could define the thesis meaning word Perception and how the customer sees his energy drink and what are the different Perceptions about the essay other energy drinks in market.He could also target and list down what are the other perceptions which could enhance these perceptions about his energy drinks. Thus the argument by the author is quite on a week platform which has many assumptions and is very vulnerable to critics.
Its lacking many data point and creative writing florida information which could have strengthened the case of the argument.However with some more study of the argument and inclusion of some more viewpoints and definitive essay hero data this argument can be made more solid and debatable. Q. The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee Company: When the Apogee Company had all its operations in one location, it was more profitable than it is today. Therefore, the Apogee Company should close down its field offices and conduct all its operations from a single location. Such centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and essay 2010 helping the company maintain better supervision of all employees. Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyse the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion.
You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion. In the passage, the business department of the Apogee Company argues that the company should have centralised operations from a single location to improve profits and to maintain a better supervision of all employees. This argument is based on the premises that centralisation will reduce cost, and that the reason for the erstwhile profitability of the company has a direct co-relation with its central operations. The argument also seems to rest on the premise that supervision of the employees is hero, always done by thesis meaning, central agencies, thus rendering it easier and better when the operations are concentrated in one central location. However, on closer examination, it becomes apparent that certain relevant aspects have not been taken into account, leading to definitive, a number of mistaken assumptions and logical flaws.
One such flaw is the questionable assumption that the company was earlier more profitable because all its operations were in one location. However, no data has been given in political 2013 support of definitive, this assumption. Rallycross Octobre? It is possible that earlier the cost of its raw material was less due to more availability or that the Apogee Company could command higher prices in the market due to less fierce competition. There could be several other reasons as well. In order to strengthen this assumption, the definitive company should analyse the relevant data to find out exactly what the reason for higher profitability was and whether it had anything to do with centralised operations or some other factors (such as demand, cost of the input material, change in rallycross essay 2010 taxation, etc.) Moreover, the company argues that centralisation will bring down the cost. This may not be true as the companys logistics and travel cost may go up due to having just one central location. A comparative analysis of relevant data points such as reduction in the cost of real estate and maintenance of various operations vis-a-vis increased travel cost and freight cost would help better understand whether the aforementioned assumption is a sound one.
The company also argues that supervision of employees will be easier and more effective in a central location. This assumption is flawed as many employees, especially those involved in sales and market development may need to be travelling to far off areas and if the company has all its supervisors centrally located, it may lead to poorer rather than better supervision. The company should analyse similar situations in other organisations and the effectiveness of essay hero, centralised supervision to determine the nature of impact of the centralisation on employee supervision before concluding. After close examination of the passage presented, it is apparent that there are many logical flaws. The recommendations in the essay show how the argument could be strengthened and made more logically sound. It says failed to load :( Can you copy paste it for me and tell me my result? While the passage provides a valid fact that the Apogee Company was doing well before decentralization, it fails to make a cogent case.
There are various compelling evidence that should have been evaluated before reaching the conclusion. Firstly, the argument fails to consider various other factors that could have been the reason behind the company being less profitable. Perhaps the macro-economic factors such as the economy facing a decline in marriage essay the previous year affected profitability. The department might not have accounted for the costs of relocation and essay the costs to develop the field offices. The argument would be severely weakened if we remove the fixed cost expenses and then compared the profitability as there is a significant chance that profits were hurt by opening the satellite offices. Also, if the thesis company closes the field offices and moves back to a single location, it would incur further relocation costs that would continue to affect profitability. It discounts the essay fact that field offices in multiple location has its merits; diversification lowers risks and would increase the reach of the company. The argument would be weakened if there are figures that reveal how their competitors improved communication with customers and increased brand recall by marriage discursive, opening multiple offices. Furthermore, the essay hero argument assumes a few factors that might not necessarily be true. One assumption is rallycross essay octobre, that the company would be profitable if it moves to one spot; there is a significant chance that external factors continue to drain profits.
It also assumes that better supervision of the employees would improve profitability; it is certainly plausible that the employees are diligent workers and supervision would not have a profound effect. The argument would hold more water if the writer had given figures pertaining to the exact costs that would be cut; also, it would have helped if he had given specific examples of effective supervision. The metric behind judging profitability is essay hero, unclear, and the writer would be able to bolster his claim if the exact metrics are made clear and relevant examples are given to demonstrate how operations from a single location improved profitability. This memorandum is from the business department and a more holistic approach to the issue with input from multiple departments would make the argument more valid. It would have been helpful if the author had mentioned reasons why the company opened multiple locations in the first place; perhaps it was forced by pressing concerns that would render this particular centralization argument void. Thus it can be agreed upon that asserting that centralization is the sole factor behind profitability as the ultimate truth is fallacious. Education comes not from books but from 2010 practical experience.
The author says that Education comes not from books but from practical experience. First, the argument readily assumes that the education does not comes from books but from practical experience.This statement is essay, a stretch and not substantiated in any way. There are numerous examples in 2010 other areas of education that proves learning is done via books and is rather successful. Definitive Hero? For instance, mathematics is the subject which can be taught from practical knowledge and learning through books is the best bet. Essay Octobre 2010? Another example is the hero subject History. One cannot travel back in time or to sections of a, those places to teach through practical knowledge. Books are the definitive hero most standard and reliable way to study history and its importance. Clearly with above examples, one can definitely say that it is wrong to essays gerth, assume that education is best fed though practical knowledge.The argument could have been much more clearer if it would have talked about specific field of education where practical experience is more important that bookish knowledge.
Second, there are examples where practical knowledge is important to have better understanding of a subject. But this in no way allows to scrape out the learning from books. For example take MBBS, where practical sessions are key to master that field but for that also, one needs to have thorough theory knowledge that comes from essay books. In addition , from above example it is clear that practical experience is important but it cannot stand strong alone. It has to be combined with good theory lessons. Essay? In fact there is no direct correlation evidence given to prove that practical knowledge is directly proportional to better education. If any such cases would have been given or demonstrated, the author would have sounded bit more convincing.
Finally , what I personally feel that any education without theoretical knowledge is incomplete. Practical experience can polish your skills and make you more professional and expert in any field. For that to definitive, happen, ones theory base has to be really strong to excel. Is it possible to make primary school pass out , a manager of a company ? Or why do every school or education system is designed to have a theory classes in 2010 the beginning of the course followed by definitive, a practical sessions? Without having convincing answers to these questions, one is left with the baby thesis meaning impression that the claim is more of a wishful thinking rather than substantive evidence. What really matters in the leadership of business and organizations is definitive hero, getting results, reaching benchmarks, and achieving success. The argument claims that the What really matters in the leadership of business and organizations is getting results, reaching benchmarks, and achieving success. Stated in this way the argument fails to mention several key factors, on the basis of which it could be evaluated. The conclusion of the argument relies on the assumptions for which there is no clear evidence.Hence argument is weak and has several flaws. First, the argument readily assumes that getting results , reaching benchmarks and achieving success are the prime most important factors to define success in business.This statement is the stretch and is not substantiated in any way.
There are numerous examples in other areas of business and commerce where these factors vary from person to person and one cannot define the benchmark for success. For instance, take an example of a small cafe or restaurant which provides good food, elegant ambiance and great customer satisfaction. There may not be many people knowing about this place or it may not be that famous but still,it might have got loyal regular and happy customers and makes enough profit margin. The restaurateur can say that his business is running successfully as hes happy with the customers comments and decent profit his cafe is in sociology, making.On the other hand, take an example of McDonalds, we all know how much popular it is across the globe and thousands of definitive essay, customers visit it daily , making the profits in millions. Essays Gerth And Mills? So if that small restaurateur looks at this success, he may get intimidated and must not have achieved the benchmarks as compared to McDonalds. Definitive? Thus the argument would have been much more clearer if it explicitly gave examples of rallycross, a particular company and its benchmark considerations. Second,there are many organizations who do not even consider monetary gain to define their success. The happiness or the pleasure of definitive essay hero, giving back to essay contests, society defines their success. Their benchmark and success would be summed by the no of people who have gained from it . One such example is Teach for India. This organization was not established to make profits like most of the essay other organizations.
They help children from all parts of political essay contests, India getting basic education with the essay aim of making everyone educated and baby thesis meaning make them stand on their own legs. This may be success for them and definitive essay this would be the case of many other similar organization. So every person and organization may have different parameters to measure their success and results. Gerth? For some, it may be money, for some it may be eternal happiness of helping others. Definitive? If any such particular case would have been given or demonstrated, the in sociology gerth and mills author would have sounded bit more convincing.
Finally, one cannot simply define the parameters of essay, getting success or achieving results. This may vary from individual thinking and cannot be declared as the arranged standard thumb rule. So author should have specified it more clearly with examples. Making money may be success for one but not for other. Definitive Hero? Having satisfied feeling of helping and doing for essay people even at your own cost can be blissful for essay hero one but may be bitter for other. so what is the parameter , that author has assumed to define success or meeting results should have been mentioned explicitly. In conclusion, the arranged discursive argument is flawed for the above-mentioned reasons and is therefore unconvincing. Definitive Hero? It could be considerably strengthened if the author clearly mentioned all the relevant facts supporting the various parameters he is considering to define success and meeting benchmarks .In order to assess the merits of a certain situation/decision, it is essential to sections of a prospectus, have full knowledge of all contributing factors. Without this information, the argument remains unsubstantiated and open to debate. Discoveries and inventions are not born from nothingness.
If necessity is the mother of definitive essay, invention, then an equally competent father would be a combination of curiosity, scientific temperament, and research skills. With the firm belief that I possess these skills, I aspire to fulfill my dream of pursuing advanced research in writing degree an application-oriented field, by obtaining my Masters degree in Electrical engineering. As a stepping-stone towards this dream, I am pursuing my Bachelor of Technology degree in Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering from definitive essay SRM University, ranked first among many private institutions in India. This has laid a strong foundation for my graduate studies. There are two reasons why I believe that a graduate study in an esteemed university, such as yours, is necessary for a person aspiring for a research career. Firstly, working under the guidance of experts whose work would inspire and mould a student effectively into rallycross essay 2010 a creative and definitive liberal thinker and researcher.
Secondly, the emphasis on independent learning is an ideal way of making students capable and knowledgeable in a specialization and keeping abreast of the latest technological developments. Keeping the aforementioned points in mind, I have chosen Signal Processing as my field of specialization. I believe that graduate studies in this area will help me achieve my career goals. I am fortunate to belong to a family that places my education as a top priority. I hail from an upper middle class Indian family of advanced degree holders.
My late mother was a gazetted officer (high-ranked executive in Indian government and a member of Chamber of Commerce). Political Essay? My father is an administrative official in definitive essay hero the Indian law ministry. My parents have been my role models in sections of a prospectus the way they have brought up my sister and me in a conservative Indian society, with modern thoughts and progressive ideas. They have managed to definitive, provide me with top quality education, rich cultural values and sowed the seeds of passion for higher education in me. My elder sister is essay octobre, pursuing her PhD in essay Bio-engineering at Chicago and I have always admired her dedication and perseverance in her area of essay contests 2013, interest. I also have many cousins in the USA pursuing graduate studies or working as engineers in exciting fields. Their guidance and definitive essay advice, along with constant motivation by the professor (Dr. Joselin Retna Kumar) who taught me Digital Signal Processing in college, strengthened my desire to pursue graduate studies. Dr.
Kumar described his graduate years as one of his most fulfilling times, his passion resonated with me and I knew that conducting research geared towards creating knowledge was the academic and professional path I sought. My enthusiasm to participate in research on Signal Processing, and mainly Image Processing stemmed from my love for event photography. My curiosity to understand the gestures, relationships and actions involved in social events spiked my interest. I believe images allow us to store, retrieve, communicate, and essays in sociology transmit data and definitive also serve as a medium to understand the world around us. Contests? In my opinion, one has to strike a balance between gaining technical knowledge and translating that into essay hero practical applications. Essay Contests? I am confident about my ability and scientific acumen to apply the knowledge I gain and improve myself on a daily basis. Signal processing is the tool that would help us tackle daily challenges and definitive hero simultaneously convey scientific solutions in sections of a dissertation prospectus universal jargon across varied sections of society.
It is said that a picture speaks a thousand words and essay an understanding and analysis of each of them is very important. I wish to study in detail about sections of a image processing and computer vision, along with machine learning methods to frame new algorithms. The mathematics and science involved in this aspect are great in essay hero scope, and comprises of abundant uncharted areas for research. I hope to integrate technologies from prospectus various fields, such as machine learning and algorithms, into image processing. Hero? With successful image processing, we can automate a lot of tasks such as medical surgeries and video surveillance using visuals this is the driving force of my research. My innate passion to learn new concepts and my enthusiasm to apply them motivated me to seek relevant opportunities and gain hands-on experience. My first practical encounter with Electronics was during my sophomore year, when I built a digital cymometer using a zero-crossing comparator. Arranged Marriage Discursive? I converted sine, square, sawtooth, and other cycle waveforms to definitive essay hero, Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) form followed by micro-controller-based frequency computing. I optimized the code and algorithm to guarantee accuracy.
This boosted my confidence to take up more challenging projects that included constructing a traffic light control system using 89S51 micro-controller and building an A/D and D/A converter using basic components such as ICs, diodes, transistors, and essays gerth resistors. Hero? Also, I successfully built an obstacle detector and a line-following robot using Arduino Uno as the essays in sociology gerth and mills micro-controller. Such projects along with courses like Digital Signal Processing, Robotics and Automation, Power Electronics, and Microprocessor and Micro-controller bolstered my idea of pursuing graduate studies in this specialization. My interest in the field of definitive hero, signal processing has been instrumental in conceptualizing two very crucial, interdisciplinary projects that would directly impact our lifestyle and well being. The first one was designing a cost-effective temperature-controlled baby incubator, and arranged incorporating an auditory system that would fill the incubator with maternal heart sounds, while reducing background noise by employing microphones and speakers to definitive essay, capture and send audio signals. The biggest challenge was to ensure that the in sociology and mills products efficacy and safety is obtained at an economical cost. Currently, we are in definitive talks with a hospital that would let us experiment with the prototype. The other significant project I undertook was to essays gerth, devise a stress meter using fuzzy logic and Case Based Reasoning (CBR). The concept involved developing a wearable galvanic skin response meter for sweat level monitoring in patients. This response meter will detect anxiety and stress levels.
I analyzed hundreds of definitive essay, patient records to understand the usage behavior based on age, sex, occupation, and other parameters. After successfully constructing the response meter, I wrote a paper describing my research, which I plan to submit to a relevant journal soon. Sections Of A Dissertation Prospectus? Presently, I am trying to integrate a control action such as playing soft music when the person is under stress. My undergraduate capstone project is focused on replacing the repetitive pick and definitive essay place motion performed by humans by an automatic material handling system. The proposed solution employs image-processing techniques along with a robotic arm using a universal gripper to classify and sort the objects on a running conveyor belt. The greatest supplement to my academic experience has been the opportunity to baby thesis meaning, be part of service-learning. Apart from maintaining my academic position within the top 5% students in my class, I have actively and zealously pursued my hobbies. One persons life can influence the lives of an definitive essay, unbelievable number of octobre 2010, people, this is one of the most important lessons I learnt, being a part of a non-profit organization Make A Difference (MAD). I held major positions such as Finance Controller for MAD Chennai, and a mentor for children at risk.
I was involved in tutoring underprivileged adolescents, managing finances, and counseling 11th and definitive essay 12th graders towards a chosen career goal. In addition to community service, extra-curricular activities and essays college clubs were a fundamental part of my education. Essay Hero? My extensive involvement in various quizzes, concerts, technical and essays in sociology gerth and mills non-technical fests illustrate this. Along with singing, I am also a keen basketball and essay hero a throw-ball player. I have led my team in numerous tournaments and competitions. My interpersonal skills and leadership qualities helped me sustain through the varied roles and emerge out as a team player, every time. Having grown up in a country with a rich potpourri of ethnicity, diverse beliefs and religious practices, I have learned to appreciate the meaning fact that racial harmony requires respect, tolerance and open-mindedness towards accepting cultural differences, rather than drawing comparisons or sensing disparities. Prevalence of a diverse and inclusive culture at SRM University has also improved my ability to definitive essay, work in diverse groups. Each student brought his or her own unique cultural background and experience.
Living and learning together instilled. self-confidence and a spirit of camaraderie within me. My undergraduate years have made me experience something similar to a Copernican inversion of my inner being. My quest for answers drove me towards reading and analyzing different scientific concepts, learn about the latest research in the field and think about the gaps in essay octobre knowledge. Seminars and definitive hero conferences pushed me in the best ways to broaden, question, and to evolve my ideas and approaches suitably. I have always striven hard to achieve deep understanding of concepts in all the courses I took and the research projects I pursued.
The research carried on signal processing under Dr. Essays And Mills? Charles Boncelet, Dr. Kenneth E. Barner and Dr. Definitive Essay Hero? Gonzalo R. Arce and in baby thesis meaning particular the techniques concocted by them in the field of image processing best suits my pursuits. I believe that I possess the desire, the intellectual ability, and the preparation to do justice to definitive essay, a demanding graduate program and to make significant contributions to the ongoing research at gerth and mills, your University as a student, as a researcher and essay as a teaching assistant. It is my belief that all success stories are built on essays gerth and mills, partnerships, symbiotic relationships between the subject and people or entities that come in definitive essay contact.
Similarly, the essence of university education lies in the success of the symbiotic relationship between the student, and his/her department. With your reputation in the field of my choice, I am sure working under you would be greatly beneficial to me. At the same time, I am confident of contributing meaningfully to the research endeavors at University of Delaware. Sections Dissertation Prospectus? It is with this in mind that I am looking forward to a long and rewarding relationship with you. The conclusion, recent surge in hero violence in the west of the city is because of shortage of police officers could be right, as a neighborhood prone to continuous violence requires an adequate number of police force to political essay contests 2013, keep a check on definitive, those, who indulge in fomenting tension. However, to conclude that the only way to end the problem of violence is, doubling the police force is a serious mistake. To affect permanent peace requires more than doubling the creative bachelor's degree florida police force, and here the passage-writer makes a series of faulty conclusions about the problems in the west side of the city, and therefore suggests flawed solutions. The first major flaw of the argument is comparing two sides of cities, without providing any clue if they are similar or different. If, the two sides of the city are similar, than a reduction in the budget and the police force in the north side, at least for a long time, is not advisable.
However, if the north side of the city is not witnessing any violence due to definitive essay hero, composition of the baby thesis society, than perhaps, its budget and the police force is just adequate to maintain the peace. Definitive Hero? Therefore, before making a suggestion to reduce the budget and the police force in of a dissertation prospectus the north side of the city, only because there is no violence, a proper assessment of the essay probable eruption of violence should be conducted. The argument points towards few characteristic features of the west side of the city: lack of political leadership, people of different culture and rallycross 2010 society are living there, and definitive essay hero mostly young population. Thus, creates a picture of a place with extremely high likelihood of violence. Further, to say that educational development and creating job opportunities are peripheral issues reinforces image of a place, where violence can be controlled by force only.
The problem with continuous low-intensity violence is that sometimes it surges to gerth, a threatening level in very short period of time. Essay Hero? In the case of sudden surge in violence in any place, increasing the essays in sociology number of the definitive essay hero police officer is only solution. But to marriage discursive, deal with a place, as defined by the passage-writer requires some creative thinking. The lack of political leadership can be substituted by increasing dialogue among communities. The argument, the violence is also due to the lack of essay hero, leadership is creative degree florida, right. Had there been communities leaders available at the time of definitive essay hero, need, violence might not have surged to a threatening level. Thus, the city mayor should take steps to baby meaning, encourage dialogue among people of different culture and different faith. The mostly young population- the word, young is misleading, as it hides the actual age composition the society. Essay Hero? However, if the word young refers to age group of 15 to 30, than the city mayor is right to focus on educational development and creating job opportunities- as idle youths often take to crime and violence. Sometimes, a problem requires multiple solutions; similar is the case of the violence. The argument errs to focus on only one aspect of the violence that is essay 2010, lack of enough police officers.
The city mayor has to look into various aspects of a problem. Thus, the city mayor is right to focus on educational development and essay hero creating job opportunities. However, the mayor should take steps to increase dialogues among different communities, as only trust among communities ensures lasting peace. Get the best-selling MBA Book that the Top B-School Admission Officers are praising. Join thousands who've shattered the hype. Read more. What happens when the Management Consulting world meets the Underworld? Read more. For Top B-schools.
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Definition Of A Hero Essay -
The Confident Man: Kriner Cash Says He Can Fix Buffalos Broken Schools. Definitive. Should We Believe Him? Buffalo hasn’t had a new teachers contract in 12 years. Its schools are segregated. Its board is fractured. Can a self-assured new leader with unprecedented authority actually turn things around? (Buffalo, New York) As the frustrated speakers lined up, Kriner Cash sat quietly in his chair, took a sip of water, and glanced down at the pin on his lapel a small silver emblem of five children linking hands. The school board meeting was about to get personal.
“Dr. Cash, you are the receiver in Buffalo,” a man said, his voice filling the school auditorium. “Get us the data and the research on essays in sociology receivership.” He was referring to a new law that made the dapper 61-year-old a “superintendent receiver” with unprecedented powers to definitive essay, fix five “persistently failing” schools in Buffalo, among 20 such schools across the state of New York. The law allowed Cash to baby, bypass the definitive essay hero, teachers contract which expired 12 years ago and is famous for benefits like free cosmetic surgery to extend the school day, require teacher training on weekends, and remove seniority from hiring decisions. “Do we have a concrete example of where this works?” “There is sections dissertation, no evidence to essay, say receivership will help anything.” One woman’s plea seemed to rallycross essay octobre 2010, underlie the distrust: “Would you people please, please fight for definitive, our schools and our kids?”
While some speakers were furious that yet another set of writing bachelor's reforms was being imposed on essay hero their schools, or about contract proposals the local teachers union president called an insult to educators, Cash’s responses were poised, direct, un-defensive. Tasked with fixing a district where more than one-third of schools were considered failing and just 12 percent of students read at bachelor's degree grade level, he kept his cool. The board of definitive hero education’s unanimous vote to hire Cash last August seemed to signal better times. For a moment, consensus prevailed among a group so divided along racial and ideological lines that they disagree about writing, whether one attorney alone can fairly mediate their disputes. The city was less physically distressed than Cash had envisioned, as well. He expected block after block of abandoned buildings, relics of the rust belt city’s decline when its economy went bust decades ago.
But Cash saw Buffalo on the rebound, with tens of thousands of new jobs expected to appear over the next 10 years at essay a massive solar panel plant and other new high-tech manufacturing facilities products of baby thesis a ballyhooed $1 billion state revitalization project. One expectation turned out to definitive, be very much as Cash imagined: the Buffalo teachers union and rallycross essay, its supporters were not pleased with his aggressive agenda or the law that elevated his authority. Shortly before the heated school board meeting, in fact, more than 100 teachers marched in an icy wind outside Buffalo’s towering, art-deco city hall in protest. “RECEIVERSHIP NO!,” one sign said. “WE DECIDE!” Cash tried to allay fears that an outsider couldn’t be successful or that he had parachuted in definitive essay, with a prefabricated, one-size-fits-all solution. “I’m trying to build it from the inside out,” he told The 74. “I want the participants the baby, teachers, the students, the definitive hero, families to say ‘this is what we need to be successful here.’ And then I use the enhanced authority to in sociology and mills, say ‘you can do it. Do it.’” Cash would need to navigate deep-rooted skepticism as well as the high expectations of business leaders and elected officials locally and in Albany. He had to definitive, manage the noise generated by school board conflicts and the long fight for a teachers contract to rallycross octobre 2010, have any hope of turning around a “persistently failing” school like West Hertel Academy where only five percent of students in third through eighth grades were proficient at reading or to begin healing the shattering effects of segregation. He had to find his place, too, in the shifting education policy conversation in New York.
The governor and a new, moderate commissioner, MaryEllen Elia, had just begun finding common ground when the state board of essay hero regents elected Betty Rosa to be chair. Rosa opposed Cuomo’s measures and essay 2013, contradicted Elia on essay hero testing opt-out just minutes after taking office. Fortunately, Cash isn’t new to education politics. He was seen as an effective, yet controversial, change-maker in other cities, with a calm demeanor that belied his aggressive vision. And while a union lawsuit contesting receivership could shut him down and the results of a rancorous school board election could constrain his ability to make change he doesn’t plan to stop unless a judge says he must. “We will improve this district,” Cash told the crowd at essays the school board meeting, speaking in a slow, southern drawl that seems out of place in a city so far north the Canadian flag is often flown beside the definitive essay hero, stars and marriage discursive essay, stripes. James Sampson wasn’t sure what to do.
Buffalo’s superintendent position had been vacant for a year, and the school board president was running short on ideas. Then he talked to Elia, the new state education commissioner, who surfaced Cash’s name. In their previous positions, Elia and Cash had participated in definitive hero, a high-profile grant program to improve evaluation of teacher effectiveness. Elia pointed to Cash’s work as the superintendent in rallycross essay octobre 2010, Memphis, a challenging district similar in many respects to Buffalo, as the hero, reason she recommended him. Sampson said he was interested in hiring someone with national experience in education reform, “but then also creating education opportunities for kids, particularly kids of color, who seem to be left out of the equation.” He also saw Cash exuding command in splashy Italian suits as a leader who could calm tensions between the divided school board. “This is a very racially divided city and we’ve got a lot of wounds that need to be healed,” Sampson said. Baby Thesis Meaning. “I was very interested in having an African American come in and help not only with education but the essay, racial divide in the city.” Another board member, Carl Paladino, was out of town when the discursive essay, school board voted voted for the new superintendent. Hero. That didn’t stop the brash real estate tycoon and former gubernatorial candidate from weighing in. Shortly after the vote, Paladino shot off an rallycross essay 2010, email to a supporter that advised Cash not to mess with him or “be fitted for his career ending casket.” He described Cash as a “slick, fast talking medicine salesman” who was brought to Buffalo by “a rookie Commissioner of essay hero Education.” Paladino, who unsuccessfully challenged Gov. Cuomo in 2010 and essays gerth, says he plans to run again in 2018, acknowledged that he would have voted to hire Cash had he been in town although he said he would have preferred a local candidate with institutional knowledge about the essay hero, challenges in Buffalo.
Much of Cash's career has focused on the problems that make Buffalo an degree, inequitable home for hero, many residents, Cash said. A native of Cincinnati, Cash wrote his thesis as a Princeton undergraduate about growing up black in America. “Going through that process of essays in sociology and mills learning deeply about my own history and place,” Cash said from his office overlooking Lake Erie, a framed picture of Harriet Tubman greeting visitors as they enter. “I said, ‘I’ve got to help others, especially young people, to learn sooner rather than later who they were and why that’s so important from a historical context.” He still keeps the thesis nearby, along with a photo of the Princeton basketball team, a reminder that he used to pair an afro with his thin mustache. Cash’s subtle drawl comes from southern Ohio; his competitiveness took shape on the basketball court where he met his best friend, Wendell Burbridge, whom Cash later hired as an athletic department coordinator in Memphis. “He’s one of those guys that never settled for definitive, runner up or being in essay, second place,” Burbridge said. Definitive. “He always had that demeanor about him that he was going to of a prospectus, succeed no matter what.” After a stint in definitive hero, higher education, Cash accepted his first superintendent position with Martha’s Vineyard Public Schools in Massachusetts, where he oversaw the political 2013, expanding district for nine years. After a four-year stop in definitive essay, Florida as the chief of accountability and system-wide performance at thesis meaning Miami-Dade County Public Schools, he moved to Tennessee to lead Memphis City Schools, an urban school system whose challenges were similar to definitive essay hero, what he later found in Buffalo: overwhelming poverty, poor student performance, and persistent segregation.
At each stop he shook up district and labor bureaucracies, but not in a predictably ideological way. In Memphis, he honed in on teacher evaluation and school closure, (unsuccessfully trying to fire 150 low-performers in Memphis), but his agenda in Buffalo includes boosting early education and community schools. Policy aside, he has also been a magnet for controversy. In Miami, he was fined by the state after telling a Muslim colleague his beard made him look like a terrorist. In Memphis, Cash’s personal driver, who also was part of the superintendent’s security team, was removed following reports he sent sexually explicit text messages. That same year, Cash put a deputy superintendent on rallycross essay octobre 2010 paid leave for definitive essay, making inappropriate comments about the size of essay octobre a secretary’s breasts during a party at Cash’s house. These setbacks didn’t prevent him from definitive essay hero, becoming one of the sections prospectus, nation’s leaders in assessing teacher performance, thanks to a $90 million grant from the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation. Of the districts funded by Gates to build better evaluation systems, only Florida’s Hillsborough County, overseen then by hero, Elia, was awarded more $100 million.
With Memphis’s share, Cash developed an approach combining observations, student achievement, student surveys, and teacher knowledge. In 2013, the Memphis City Schools completed a merger with the Shelby County district to save money and improve the quality of the city schools, and Cash was out of a job. “The school system was going to be a new school system that would be run primarily by the county and so I saw the work as different than what I signed on baby thesis for,” Cash said. Definitive. “At the end of the day I just decided to resign and pursue other professional goals.” He spent two years looking and marriage discursive essay, interviewing before he landed in Buffalo. Definitive Hero. He also mourned the loss of his wife, who died suddenly from cancer. Every day, as he works to turn around Buffalo’s schools, he said he feels his wife’s presence.
Once, when they were living in Memphis, she gave him the silver lapel pin of five children. It wasn’t for a particular occasion, just a little gift. “She pinned it right here and sections of a, she said, ‘when you get in your day, and you’re feeling frustrated and definitive essay hero, the adults are making things more complicated than they should, let this be an anchor for you, let it recenter you on what’s most important,” Cash said, holding back tears. “The children. Baby. That’s why you do what you do.” West Hertel Academy looks quite a bit different today than it did when Monica Capozzi started teaching there in 2004. That was before elementary grades were added to the junior high. Hero. She saw four principals churn through before Cecelie Owens, the school’s current leader, arrived in meaning, 2014. Capozzi watched as the provenance of her students changed, too.
Today, about hero, 35 percent are English language learners. Systemwide, 16 percent began as English language learners a 60 percent increase from six years ago. For her part, Owens expects improvement. Bachelor's Degree Florida. Soon, she believes, it won’t be the same school that has failed state requirements for the last decade. “The transformation of our district is, I think, critical,” she said. “I think it’s necessary. We need a major overhaul in hero, this district.
We’re doing some great things in Buffalo and people really need to know.” That’s where New York’s new receivership law comes in, at least for West Hertel. The law emerged during state budget negotiations last year to promote rapid improvements at long-struggling schools. In July 2015, the state announced superintendents would be given one year to improve student performance at schools that had failed state accountability tests for sections dissertation, the last decade. One-quarter of the schools in the state, five of 20, were in Buffalo (another school elsewhere would be added). Additionally, a larger group of “failing schools” those deemed to have failed for the past three years, rather than 10 were given two years to make improvements. Twenty of essay 124 were in Buffalo. State officials later announced that three of the in sociology gerth, five Buffalo schools deemed “persistently failing” would be removed from the list because, prior to receivership, they improved on definitive essay hero accountability measures like test scores (schools in other districts have come off the list, also). The stakes are still high for baby, the remaining two schools, West Hertel and definitive essay, Marva J. Daniel Futures Preparatory School, which risk being taken over by an independent receiver, such as a charter operator, if they don’t show improvement this year.
In the fall, Cash proposed 10 changes to work rules he thought would help the struggling schools, such as allowing the district to deny teacher requests for transfers out of them. The union, Buffalo Teachers Federation, was not amenable; when talks went nowhere, Cash sought Elia for help. Essays In Sociology And Mills. She imposed a “ receivership collective bargaining agreement” that allowed him to move forward without union approval. Owens saw the enhanced authority as a lifeline. The West Hertel Academy principal remembers sensing a toxic environment when she first walked into West Hertel last year. Teachers didn’t trust the leadership, she said, and they were unwilling to definitive, take risks. Ultimately, a good chunk of baby thesis meaning her teaching staff left by the end of her first year. “Honestly, the people in my opinion that left, they weren’t on definitive essay board,” she said. “They were never going to rallycross essay, get on board, no matter what I said or did. That’s a battle I didn’t have to fight. They left, because of the accountability and the monitoring.”
In addition to essay hero, the powers granted to essay 2013, Cash through receivership, the essay, law also mandates regular meetings of a group of school shareholders to discuss how best to meet student needs; at West Hertel, the group boosted in-school teacher training, including on Saturdays; added an essay 2010, afterschool program; and signed up for a $1.75 million grant that gave students iPads. Owens was also given the ability to enter classrooms unannounced to observe classroom instruction something the contract would normally forbid. In the last year, Elia has visited West Hertel twice: once before Cash started as superintendent, and definitive, again in March. The commissioner said she was impressed by rallycross essay octobre 2010, the school’s increased attendance rates in that short time, but emphasized that the battle to turn around West Hertel and other struggling schools is far from definitive, over. “This is not something that happens overnight, and it takes patience and a focused approach to keep all of the things in place that are being successful” and to bachelor's degree, alter strategies that aren’t working as well, Elia said. “It’s certainly going to take multiple years, but I think they’re on essay the right path.” Capozzi said receivership could be good for the school, even though it has made some teachers nervous or angry. “You’ve got to rallycross essay, be willing to change, and roll with the punches,” the definitive hero, West Hertel teacher said, adding that although teachers may not agree with all of the changes that are being made, “I would say that 99.9 percent of the population would like to see student success.” Samuel Radford III, the president of the District Parent Coordinating Council of Buffalo, taught his kids at home for three years to escape a school system he calls “completely unfair” for the city’s black residents.
The schools Radford’s children attended, he said, were run like prisons. The inequality in Buffalo’s schools system was defined in part by Main Street, a long thoroughfare that for decades divided the city’s neighborhoods by race and class. To the east, residents were predominantly black, while white neighborhoods traditionally clustered to the west. The city became more diverse in contests, recent decades but not more integrated. Whites moved north or out definitive, of the city. Hispanic neighborhoods took root near the lake, along with the octobre 2010, city’s growing Burmese, Somali, and Nepali populations.
The greater Buffalo area was among the most segregated housing markets in the country, according to the 2010 Census. Definitive. The city is in sociology gerth, also among the nation’s poorest; about eight in 10 Buffalo school children are economically disadvantaged. Three decades ago, The New York Times described efforts to essay hero, desegregate Buffalo’s schools following a 1972 federal lawsuit that found city officials had intentionally segregated them as a model for the nation. Those efforts included the creation of magnet schools and an extensive busing system that created greater racial balance across the system. By the early 1980s, about 30 percent of degree Buffalo students were being bused to schools in definitive, neighborhoods where they didn’t live, according to a 2014 report by and mills, the Civil Rights Project at the University of hero California, Los Angeles. “The best thing that’s happened to baby, Buffalo is court-ordered desegregation,” then-superintendent Eugene Reville told the Times. “We’ve restored confidence in Buffalo public schools.”
But the high didn’t last. Amid “severe white flight” and essay, budget shortfalls, a federal judge terminated Buffalo’s segregation order in 1995, ruling the in sociology gerth and mills, city had satisfied its obligation. With the order lifted, the district’s desegregation goals were abandoned. By 2012, school segregation had climbed to levels comparable to the early 1970s, with lower-income students attending schools that had higher student mobility and less-experienced teachers. A Buffalo News analysis found that 70 percent of the city’s schools had minority enrollment of 80 percent or more, a disparity created by housing patterns and an underrepresentation of minority students at schools with academic admissions criteria. Cash’s theory of action which he calls his “ New Education Bargain” for revamping the definitive essay, entire system extends to baby thesis, the criteria-based schools as well.
Emerson School of Hospitality, on Chippewa Street in downtown Buffalo, for example, is definitive essay, rigged with a full-service restaurant and sections of a prospectus, a commercial bakery a model for career and technical education programs that Cash said will prepare students for new jobs in the city’s rebounding economy. The student bakers and aspiring chefs who arrive at definitive essay hero Chippewa every morning are probably unaware that their school is near the heart of what once was Buffalo’s red-light district. Writing Bachelor's. Nearby streets were lined with strip clubs and sketchy hotels, and parents were hesitant to send their kids there even during the day. The racial division in Buffalo’s classrooms is reflected on the school board. While the black members generally side with the teachers union, the white members across the definitive essay hero, table back reform. “What happens is that people are fighting for the interests of essays in sociology gerth and mills their constituencies, and our constituencies are broken down by essay hero, race,” Radford said. “There’s a lot of things that the good old boys club is writing bachelor's degree florida, perpetuating that is making it hard for minorities and essay, poor people to be part of the essay octobre, change.” During the 2014 school board elections, the board’s continual public bickering helped drive more than twice as many voters to the polls as in definitive, previous years, with (a still-modest) 13 percent of Buffalo’s electorate deciding who would lead its public schools. Voter frustration remains so strong that a high school student says he is essays and mills, compelled to challenge Paladino for his seat this year, arguing the board needs “some adult behavior.” But special interest groups may have more of an effect on this year’s results than voters. As the campaign headed into its final weeks, the petitions of 10 of the 12 candidates were challenged, several by hero, the state teachers union, and lawsuits alleging election fraud were filed against three pro-reform candidates including Sampson, the dissertation prospectus, board president according to essay hero, a report by the Buffalo News.
Sampson was subsequently dropped from the ballot when election officials, responding to a petition challenge from a colleague of his opponent, determined he failed to secure the necessary signatures. Sampson can ask a state court to essays gerth and mills, override the definitive hero, decision, but must do so by Monday. Crystal Peoples-Stokes, a Democratic New York State Assemblywoman from Buffalo, said the influence special interest groups have on school board elections led her to propose legislation last year to give Buffalo’s mayor power to appoint board members. “It’s kind of hard to hold a school board accountable for something when they get elected in May and very few people turn out for the elections,” she said. “If the mayor was able to appoint the school board members, then the mayor could be held accountable for what comes out baby, of the schools.” Her bill failed to gain traction in definitive essay hero, Albany. She continues to believes mayoral control is necessary, but is more optimistic about the future with Cash in the driver’s seat. “I think he could totally turn around the district in five years,” she said. “If people let him do what he has planned.”
Donning hats and essay 2010, gloves to keep out Buffalo’s frigid winter air, clusters of teachers with picket signs paced back and definitive essay, forth past the columns marking the creative florida, entrance to City Hall. “A NEW CONTRACT NOW,” one sign read. Essay Hero. “SMALLER CLASS SIZES = QUALITY.” Linda Mauras, a bilingual kindergarten teacher at prospectus Herman Badillo Bilingual Academy, was among the essay hero, crowd marching outside. “If we don’t stick together,” she said, “we fall apart.” Mauras said the rallycross, state receivership law is unfair because it allows administrators to “pretty much do whatever they want.” She said she was worried fewer teachers would be willing to work at Buffalo schools because of the chaos. “They can cut staff, they can add more faculty meetings,” she said. “We put in a lot more hours than we get paid for as it is.” The protesting educators marched across the definitive essay hero, street and gathered in Niagara Square to arranged discursive, hear teachers union president Philip Rumore speak.
Just days earlier, the union filed suit in essay, the state Supreme Court with their parent union, the in sociology gerth, New York State United Teachers, in an effort to stop Elia and Cash from using the state receivership law, arguing the new rule strips teachers of definitive their collective bargaining rights. “This has national implications, folks, national implications and we’re not going to discursive, stand by, we’re going to challenge this all the hero, way up to the Supreme Court if we have to because that means that contracts are meaningless,” Rumore told the crowd. “Go to some of the southern states where they have that so-called ‘right to work,’ I call them ‘right to be exploited’ states.” The lawsuit alleges that Elia didn’t consider whether Cash negotiated with the union in good faith before he asked for of a dissertation, the state to intervene, and that she refused to consider the union’s proposals to fix Buffalo’s struggling schools, such as smaller class sizes. Rumore also characterized using state tests to identify struggling schools and essay, students as “child abuse.” He said the test is so flawed a governor’s task force recommended teachers’ ratings based on student test scores be placed on hold until 2019. “Folks, they have offered us garbage,” Rumore told the teacher protesters. Sections Of A. “What they’ve offered us is an definitive hero, insult.” At the root of the struggling schools’ problems, the lawsuit argued, is poverty a notion Cash dismissed. “You can still be responsive when your child asks a question at two and marriage discursive, three years old,” Cash said. Definitive Essay. “Don’t say ‘shut up and go away, I’m watching my program.’ Say ‘OK honey, what is of a prospectus, it that you asked me?’ And then answer it.” As for the lawsuit, Cash said he sees it as a test. “I’ve been in this business 30 years, we’ve got to keep working, got to keep working,” he said. Definitive. “Let’s find out what the power and the extent of this law is, how serious New York is about changing chronically underperforming or failing schools.” Board member Paladino said that while he favors receivership, he believed the creative bachelor's, judge will overturn the law because it conflicts with provisions in definitive essay, the Taylor Law, which governs labor relations in New York. “The tail is marriage discursive, wagging the dog, the definitive essay, patients are running the asylum,” he said.
For years, the contract with Buffalo teachers has been criticized as an example of prospectus government excess. Included in its health insurance package is a plush perk: free cosmetic surgery. Plastic surgeons advertise In the definitive essay hero, Provocator, the thesis meaning, union’s official publication, offering everything from skin cancer treatment to body contouring, facial rejuvenation, and laser tattoo removal. In past years, the cosmetic surgery rider has cost Buffalo taxpayers more than $5 million. The teachers union did not respond to several calls for comment. “The contract is so good,” Radford said, “It wouldn’t be wise” for the union to negotiate a new one. “They’re never going to get a new contract with a cosmetic rider and 100 percent of health care.” The district’s contract proposal does call for definitive essay hero, the cosmetic surgery rider to be eliminated, and Rumore has suggested he might be willing to cut the benefit. The district’s proposal would also require active school employees to contribute a 10 percent health insurance premium, add a 10 percent increase to the salary schedule, modify the school year from 186 to 188 days, and add 40 minutes to the school day, among other changes.
While Cash said he and Rumore need to sit down one-on-one to hash out their differences, Radford said receivership is likely the writing bachelor's florida, only thing that could make the union budge. “It forces them to definitive essay, negotiate,” he said, “or lose schools and lose teachers.” Mark Keierleber is a senior writer-reporter at The 74.
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Mathematics#8212;Historic, Contemporary, and Its Relation to Physics. The title of this post does look very ambitious, but in fact the essay hero, post itself isn#8217;t. I mean, I am not going to even attempt to integrate these diverse threads at all. Instead, I am going to either just jot down a few links, or copy-paste my replies (with a bit editing) that I had made at some other blogs. 1. About (not so) ancient mathematics: 1.1 Concerning calculus: It was something of a goose-bumps moment for me to dissertation, realize that the historic Indians had very definitely gotten to that branch of mathematics which is known as calculus. Essay. You have to understand the context behind it. Creative Bachelor's Degree. Some three centuries ago, there were priority battles concerning invention of calculus (started by essay Newton, and joined by Liebniz and his supporters).
Echoes of these arguments could still be heard in popular science writings as recently as when I was a young man, about three decades ago. Against this backdrop, it was particularly wonderful that an Indian mathematician as early as some eight centuries ago had gotten to the basic idea of arranged marriage essay, calculus. The issue was highlighted by Prof. Abinandanan at the blog nanpolitan, here [^]. It was based on an article by Prof.
Biman Nath that had appeared in definitive the magazine Frontline [^]. My replies can be found at Abi#8217;s post. I am copy-pasting my replies here. I am also taking the opportunity to rectify a mistake#8212;somehow, I thought that Nath#8217;s article appeared in the Hindu newspaper, and not in the Frontline magazine. My comment (now edited just so slightly): 0. Based on my earlier readings of the subject matter (and I have never been too interested in creative bachelor's florida the topic, and so, it was generally pretty much a casual reading), I used to believe that the Indians had not reached that certain abstract point which would allow us to say that they had got to calculus. They had something of a pre-calculus, I thought. Essay. Based (purely) on writing, Prof. Nath#8217;s article, I have now changed my opinion. Here are a few points to note: 1. How #8220;jyaa#8221; turned to #8220;sine#8221; makes for essay, a fascinating story. Thanks for its inclusion, Prof.
Nath. 2. Aaryabhata didn#8217;t have calculus. Meaning. Neither did Bramhagupta [my spelling is correct]. But if you wonder why the latter might have laid such an emphasis on the zero about the hero, same time that he tried taking Aaryabhata#8217;s invention further, chances are, there might have been some churning in Bramhagupta#8217;s mind regarding the abstraction of the political, infinitesimal, though, with the evidence available, he didn#8217;t reach it. 3. Bhaaskara II, if the evidence in the article is correct, clearly did reach calculus. No doubt about it. He did not only reach a more abstract level, he even finished the concept by giving it a name: #8220;taatkaalik.#8221; Epistemologically speaking, the definitive essay hero, concept formation was complete. I wonder why Prof. Essay Contests. Nath, writing for the Frontline, didn#8217;t allocate a separate section to definitive, Bhaaskara II.
The #8220;giant leap#8221; richly deserved it. And, he even got to the max-min problem by setting the derivative to zero. IMO, this is a second giant leap. Conceptually, it is so distinctive to calculus that even just a fleeting mention of it would be enough to permanently settle the issue. You can say that Aaryabhata and Bramhagupta had some definite anticipation of calculus. And you can#8217;t possible much more further about Archimedes#8217; method of exhaustion either. But, as a sum total, I think, they still missed calculus per say. Meaning. But with this double whammy (or, more accurately, the one-two punch), Bhaaskara II clearly had got the calculus. Yes, it would have been nice if he could have left for the posterity a mention of the definitive essay hero, limit.
But writing down the process of reaching the invention has always been so unlike the ancient Indians. Arranged Discursive Essay. Philosophically, the atmosphere would generally be antithetical to such an idea; the definitive hero, scientist, esp. the mathematician, may then be excused. But then, if mathematicians had already been playing with infinite series with ease, and were already performing the calculus of finite differences in creative degree the context of these infinite series, even explicitly composing verses about their results, then they can be excused for definitive hero, not having conceptualized limits. After all, even Newton initially worked only with the fluxion and Leibniz with the infinitesimal. The modern epsilon-delta definition still was some onetwo centuries (in the sections of a dissertation prospectus, threefour centuries of modern science) in hero the coming.
But when you explicitly say #8220;instantaneous,#8221; (i.e. after spelling out the correct thought process leading to it), there is no way one can say that some distance had yet to essays in sociology, be travelled to definitive essay, reach calculus. The destination was already there. And as if to remove any doubt still lingering, when it comes to the min-max condition, no amount of baby, merely geometric thinking would get you there. Reaching of that conclusion means that the train had not already left the first station after entering the calculus territory, but also that it had in essay hero fact gone past the second or the third station as well. Complete with an application from astronomy#8212;the first branch of physics. Creative Bachelor's Degree Florida. I would like to definitive, know if there are any counter-arguments to of a, the new view I now take of this matter, as spelt out above. 4. Essay. Maadhava missed it.
The 1/4 vs. 1/6 is arranged marriage discursive not hair-splitting. It is a very direct indication of the definitive, fact that either Maadhava did a #8220;typo#8221; (not at all possible, considering that these were verses to be by-hearted by repetition by the student body), or, obviously, he missed the idea of the repeated integration (which in turn requires considering a progressively greater domain even if only infinitesimally). Now this latter idea is at the very basis of the modern Taylor series. If Maadhava were to perform that repeated integration (and he would be a capable mathematical technician to be able to do that should the idea have struck him), then he would surely get 1/6.
He would get that number, even if he were not to know anything about the factorial idea. Dissertation Prospectus. And, if he could not get to 1/6, it#8217;s impossible that he would get the idea of the entire infinite series i.e. the essay, Taylor series, right. Meaning. 5. Going by the content of the article, Prof. Definitive. Nath#8217;s conclusion in baby thesis the last paragraph is, as indicated above, in part, non-sequitur. 6. But yes, I, too, very eagerly look forward to definitive essay hero, what Prof. Nath has to say subsequently on this and related issues. But as far as the issues such as the writing bachelor's, existence of progress only in fits here and there, and indeed the absence of a generally monotonously increasing build-up of knowledge (observe the partial regression in definitive essay hero Bramhagupta from meaning, Aaryabhat, or in Maadhav from Bhaaskar II), I think that philosophy as the fundamental factor in human condition, is relevant.
7. And, oh, BTW, is #8220;Matteo Ricci#8221; a corrupt form of the original #8220;Mahadeva Rishi#8221; [or #8220;Maadhav Rishi#8221;] or some such a thing? #8230; May Internet battles ensue! 1.2 Concerning #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; and essay estimating : Once again, this was a comment that I made at bachelor's florida, Abi#8217;s blog, in response to his post on the claims concerning #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; and all, here[^]. Go through that post, to definitive, know the context in which I wrote the following comment (reproduced here with a bit of copy-editing): I tend not to out of political contests 2013, hand dismiss claims about the ancient Indian tradition. However, this one about the #8220;Vimaan#8221;s and all does seem to exceed even my limits. But, still, I do believe that it can also be very easy to hero, dismiss such claims without giving them due consideration. Marriage Discursive. Yes, so many of them are ridiculous.
But not all. Definitive Hero. Indeed, as a less noted fact, some of the defenders themselves do contradict each other, but never do notice this fact. Let me give you an example. I am unlike some who would accept a claim only if there is a direct archaeological evidence for it. IMO, theirs is a materialistic position, and thesis materialism is a false premise; it#8217;s the body of the definitive, mind-body dichotomy (in Ayn Rand#8217;s sense of the terms).
And, so, I am willing to consider the astronomical references contained in the ancient verses as an evidence. So, in discursive that sense, I don#8217;t dismiss a 10,000+ old history of India; I don#8217;t mindlessly accept 600 BC or so as the essay, starting point of civilization and culture, a date so convenient to the missionaries of the Abrahamic traditions. IMO, not every influential commentator to sections dissertation prospectus, come from the folds of the definitive essay, Western culture can be safely assumed to have attained the levels obtained by the best among the Greek or enlightenment thinkers. And, so, I am OK if someone shows, based on the astronomical methods, the existence of the Indian culture, say, 5000+ years ago. Yet, there are two notable facts here. (i) The findings of different proponents of this astronomical method of rallycross essay octobre 2010, dating of the past events (say the essay, dates of essays gerth, events mentioned in RaamaayaNa or Mahaabhaarata) don#8217;t always agree with each other. And, more worrisome is the fact that (ii) despite Internet, they never even notice each other, let alone debate the essay hero, soundness of their own approaches. All that they#8212;and their supporters#8212;do is to pick out Internet (or TED etc.) battles against the materialists. A far deeper thinking is required to even just approach these (and such) issues. But the proponents don#8217;t show the required maturity. It is rallycross 2010 far too easy to jump to conclusions and blindly assert that there were material #8220;Vimaana#8221;s; that #8220;puShpak#8221; etc. were neither a valid description of a spiritual/psychic phenomenon nor a result of a vivid poetic imagination.
It is much more difficult, comparatively speaking, to think of a later date insertion into a text. It is most difficult to be judicious in ascertaining which part of which verse of essay, which book, can be reliably taken as of ancient origin, which one is a later-date interpolation or commentary, and arranged essay which one is essay a mischievous recent insertion. Earlier (i.e. decades earlier, while a school-boy or an undergrad in college etc.), I tended to sections dissertation prospectus, think the very last possibility as not at all possible. Enough people couldn#8217;t possibly have had enough mastery of Sanskrit, practically speaking, to fool enough honest Sanskrit-knowing people, I thought. Definitive. Over the decades, guess, I have become wiser. Not only have I understood the possibilities of the human nature better on the up side, but also on the down side. For instance, one of my colleagues, an engineer, an IITian who lived abroad, could himself compose poetry in Sanskrit very easily, I learnt. Essay. No, he wouldn#8217;t do a forgery, sure.
But could one say the definitive essay hero, same for marriage discursive, every one who had a mastery of Sanskrit, without being too naive? And, while on this topic, if someone knows the exact reference from which this verse quoted on definitive hero, Ramesh Raskar#8217;s earlier page comes, and discursive essay drops a line to me, I would be grateful. http://www.cs.unc.edu/ raskar/ . As usual, when I first read it, I was impressed a great deal. Until, of course, other possibilities struck me later. (It took years for me to think of these other possibilities.) BTW, Abi also had a follow-up post containing further links about this issue of #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; [^]. Definitive Essay Hero. But, in case you missed it, I do want to highlight my question again: Do you know the reference from which this verse quoted by Ramesh Raskar (now a professor at MIT Media Lab) comes? If yes, please do drop me a line. 2. An inspiring tale of a contemporary mathematician: Here is an creative degree inspiring story of hero, a Chinese-born mathematician who beat all the political essay contests 2013, odds to achieve absolutely first-rank success. I can#8217;t resist the essay, temptation to insert my trailer: As a boy, Yitang Zhang could not even attend school because he was forced into manual labor on vegetable-growing farms#8212;he lived in the Communist China.
As a young PhD graduate, he could not get a proper academic job in the USA#8212;even if he got his PhD there. Thesis. He then worked as an accountant of sorts, and still went on to solve one of mathematics#8217; most difficult problems. Alec Wilkinson writes insightfully, beautifully, and with an authentic kind of admiration for man the heroic, for The New Yorker, here [^]. (H/T to Prof. Phanish Suryanarayana of GeorgiaTech, who highlighted this article at iMechanica [^].) (Hindi) #8220;Picture abhi baaki nahin hai, dost! Picture to khatam ho gai#8221; #8230; Or, welcome back to the #8220;everyday#8221; reality of the modern day#8212;modern day physics, modern day mathematics, and modern day questions concerning the essay, relation between the two. In other words, they still don#8217;t get it#8212;the relation between mathematics and physics. That#8217;s why FQXi [^] has got an essay contest about it. They even call it #8220;mysterious.#8221; More details here [^]. (H/T to Roger Schlafly [^].) Though this last link looks like a Web page of some government lab (American government, not Indian), do check out the second section on that same page: #8220;II Evaluation Criteria.#8221; The main problem description appears in this section.
Let me quote the main problem description right in this post: The theme for this Essay Contest is: #8220;Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics#8221;. In many ways, physics has developed hand-in-hand with mathematics. It seems almost impossible to imagine physics without a mathematical framework; at the same time, questions in physics have inspired so many discoveries in mathematics. But does physics simply wear mathematics like a costume, or is dissertation math a fundamental part of essay, physical reality? Why does mathematics seem so unreasonably effective in fundamental physics, especially compared to maths impact in other scientific disciplines? Or does it? How deeply does mathematics inform physics, and 2010 physics mathematics? What are the tensions between them the subtleties, ambiguities, hidden assumptions, or even contradictions and paradoxes at the intersection of formal mathematics and the physics of the definitive essay hero, real world? This essay contest will probe the marriage essay, mysterious relationship between physics and mathematics.
Further, this section actually carries a bunch of thought-provocative questions to get you going in hero your essay writing. #8230; And, yes, the important dates are here [^]. Now, my answers to a few questions about the contest: Is this issue interesting enough? Yes. Will I write an essay? No. Florida. Why? Because I haven#8217;t yet put my thoughts in essay a sufficiently coherent form. However, I notice that the contest announcement itself includes so many questions that are worth attempting. Essays In Sociology And Mills. And so, I will think of jotting down my answers to these questions, even if in essay hero a bit of a hurry. However, I will neither further forge the answers together in a single coherent essay, nor will I participate in the contest. And even if I were to participate#8230; Well, let me put it this way.
Going by in sociology and mills Max Tegmark#8217;s and others#8217; inclinations, I (sort of) #8220;know#8221; that anyone with my kind of answers would stand a very slim chance of actually landing the prize. #8230; That#8217;s another important reason for me not even to try. But, yes, at least this time round, many of the detailed questions themselves are both valid and interesting. And so, it should be worth your while addressing them (or at least knowing what you think of them for your answers). #8230; As far as I am concerned, the only issue is time. Definitive Essay Hero. #8230; Given my habits, writing about such things#8212;the deep and philosophical, and therefore fascinating things, the things that are interesting by themselves#8212;have a way of totally getting out of control. That is, even if you know you aren#8217;t going to interact with anyone else. And, mandatory interaction, incidentally, is another FQXi requirement that discourages me from in sociology gerth, participating. So, as the bottom-line: no definitive promises, but let me see if I can write a post or a document by hero just straight-forwardly jotting down my answers to those detailed questions, without bothering to explain myself much, and of a without bothering to tie my answers together into a coherent whole.
Ok. Enough is enough. Bye for now. [May be I will come back and definitive hero add the #8220;A Song I Like#8221; section or so. Not sure. May be I will; may be I won#8217;t. Bye.] I am not participating in this FQXi competition. Actually, I had more or less reached this decision right by the middle of this month, but still, just because there was some time in baby hand, kept on definitive hero, indulging in aimless, useless, baseless, energy-less vacillations about octobre, it. Until it was the evening of August 31st, anyway. Definitive Hero. #8230; Yes, yes, I know there still is some more time in rallycross essay hand, even if only because India is ahead of USA in terms of the time of the time-zone. The time still in hand (about 15 hours) is enough to write a mere nine-page essay anyway. However, read on to get to essay hero, know why I would still not be writing. #8230; The reason, ultimately, turns out to be grounded in the competition topic itself, viz., the question: #8220;Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong?#8221; Loosely speaking, the nature of this question makes it a #8220;negative#8221; topic, not a #8220;positive#8221; one. #8230; That could take some explanation. #8230; OK.
No. I am not a New Age idiot. So, I don#8217;t mean to say that the reason I decided to keep away from this competition is writing bachelor's degree because the topic invites some of kind of a criticism of others . Definitive Hero. That#8217;s not what I mean by creative bachelor's florida the adjective #8220;negative#8221; here. Definitive Essay Hero. What I mean by #8220;negative,#8221; here, is: the (logical) compliment of #8220;the positive.#8221; And, by #8220;positive,#8221; what I mean is: a direct existential kind of a statement. Essay Contests 2013. #8230; More detailed explanation is called for. Definitive Essay. OK.
For example: #8220;The Sun exists#8221; is political essay contests a positive statement. It directly captures a fact of reality. Another example: #8220;The Sun shines brightly,#8221; again, is essay a positive statement. Not primarily because the word #8220;brightness#8221; has a connotation of political 2013, clarity, efficacy, joy, happiness, etc., all supposedly positive things, but simply because the adjective #8220;brightly#8221; does not logically negate the sense of the basic truth contained in the rest of that sentence. On these lines, the statement: #8220;A black hole sucks in everything, even light#8221; also is a positive statement. Its purpose is to identify the definitive essay, nature of an existent rather than to deny, qualify, or question one. In Ayn Rand#8217;s way of putting it: The positive statements are of the baby thesis meaning, kind: Existence is identity.
Or: A is definitive essay A. Political Essay. They are not concerned with what possibly might belong in the non-A. They are not concerned with the definitive essay hero, logical complement of bachelor's degree florida, A. Alright. #8230; What#8217;s that to do with not participating in definitive essay the essay competition? I think I have already ended up hinting at this aspect, right during my last post. The FQXi competition question does not ask: #8220;What new, foundational thing have you got right?#8221; It asks: Where did physicists got it wrong? Answering the first question is always easier; the second one is not. Physics is a science.
It establishes its truth via a laborious process, one that proceeds through observations, analysis, hypotheses, experimentation, analysis of data, validation, integration, etc. And, it#8217;s a cyclic or iterative process; the parts of it are interdependent. You don#8217;t begin thinking of integration only sections dissertation prospectus after conducting the experiments; considerations of integration are part of the context of analysis and hypothesis generation as well. You don#8217;t do analysis only before experimentation; you need it right during validation, too. Hero. So on and so forth.
All in all, establishing a new truth requires a whole lot of real, hard, work. Naturally, the progress is slow. Naturally, therefore, there is very little to show in any annual/biennial essay contest, if at all one has produced anything in discursive that time period. Naturally, therefore, it is very easy to identify what one does have to show, if one has it. However, precisely due to the nature and extent of the hard-work involved, it is very difficult to even summarize what all things one does not have. Definitive Essay Hero. In a way, it#8217;s a matter of teleology#8212;and the crow-principle of epistemology. The goals are few. But they lead to a whole big #8220;tree#8221; of baby meaning, issues, factors, possibilities and considerations to manage. It#8217;s always possible to tell the goals#8212;and it#8217;s even easier to tell the actually achieved goals from among them (which are even fewer than the goals). But it#8217;s always too complex to definitive essay, even indicate the extent and political 2013 scope of the #8220;tree#8221;s directly involved in it: the teleological one, and the epistemological one (by which, here, I mean: the definitive, #8220;tree#8221; arising out degree florida, of the basic meanings of the essay, concepts, generalizations or issues at sections dissertation, hand). Beyond these complex trees, there also is that biggest of all considerations, when it comes to all matters concerning knowledge, viz., the consideration of integration . Integration of the new knowledge with the sum total of all of the rest of the hero, knowledge.
Statements of goals and achievements are easier to make. But since the process of knowledge creation is so intricate, difficult and laborious, statements of what went wrong are far more difficult to make. The #8220;A#8221; is easy enough to identify if it involves the political 2013, goals and the achievements; the #8220;non-A#8221; is far too voluminous for the mind to separately deal with. That#8217;s the basic reason why mere polemics never succeeds. Even if a polemics (the non-A) is objectively valid, and even if it#8217;s done very neatly or sharply, the listener#8217;s mind still is simply unable to hold on to much of it, unless the positive part#8212;the #8220;A#8221; of it#8212;is not explicitly identified. So, you get the idea of why I couldn#8217;t get much past that question. Of course, as I stated in my last post, I could still have written something on some one important issue and simply dumped it. I did try. #8230; As it so happens, I was participating in a LinkedIn discussion on the nature of randomness (#8220;Is anything truly random?#8221;). I wrote a lot there, and also got misunderstood#8212;at least some, if not a lot. (Expectedly so.) So, it seemed like a good topic on essay, which to write the FQXi essay. Writing Degree Florida. I did try along this direction.
However, as soon as I finished my initial take on the #8220;outline#8221; part of it, I realized the essential dissonance. What I was addressing was an identification of the definitive, basic nature of randomness. But what I was supposed to be addressing was a survey of the physical assumptions that are not only wrong but also obvious enough in contests their wrongness as to be ripe to be acknowledged by definitive hero the (astro)physicist community (at MIT) as indeed being wrong. Too much of a chasm in there. Too much of dissonance. Sections Dissertation Prospectus. The essay indeed would have carried some (what I think are) good contents. Indeed, I should sincerely try to bring it all together, give it some good, additional touches#8212;specifically, the scholarly kind of touches (doing a real serious lit search etc.). And, then, submit it to a suitable journal (e.g.
Foundations of Physics/AJP/The Physics Teacher/Whatever; not Nature/Science/PRL). However, just the fact that it can make for a good essay, doesn#8217;t mean that it makes for a good essay for essay, this competition . Arranged Essay. Could anyone have written a good essay to address that particular question? For the reasons indicated above, I don#8217;t think anyone could have. There is just too much that is bad with the present-day physics. Essay. The situation is so (or such) bad that, as mentioned in 2010 my last post, in essay hero one#8217;s attempts to baby meaning, condense it all, the first things to strike one happen to be all philosophic in nature.
And, rational philosophic principles are not always well-known to hero, people. Thesis. So, you also have to face the issue of having to definitive hero, explain even simpler among the degree florida, terms, as you go along. Further, things have gone bad to such extent that not just the Platonic intrinsicism but even classical subjectivism looks brightly rational in comparison. For example, in the so-called Many Worlds Interpretation, originated in an American#8217;s 1950#8217;s PhD at definitive hero, Princeton, people don#8217;t just create their own reality, as a classical subjectivist would have you believe. The Many Worlds Interpretation#8217;s point is that no people are basically necessary to political, create world, not even a creator god (the idea of it). Physical processes, occurring in hero the universe , by themselves, are enough to spawn infinity of universes . Yes, you read it right. That#8217;s the actual thesis. 2013. (And, idiots at places like Princeton, Berkeley, MIT, etc., have by definitive essay now developed a tradition of taking such nonsense seriously.) So, in short, there indeed is contests a lot of nonsense out definitive hero, there. (It#8217;s precisely because the situation is bachelor's degree florida so bad philosophically that it also is so bad quantitatively.) But there still is that nine page limit. So, you can#8217;t possibly both write well and comprehensively enough to actually address the essay question. There are objective principles because of which an essay of the kind that the competition question demands, is impossible to definitive essay hero, write.
So, no, I don#8217;t think that anyone else could possibly have a good essay that also actually addresses the actually posed question. They may have good essays that don#8217;t address the question or bad essays that do. But they can#8217;t possibly have both. Creative Degree Florida. Now, that#8217;s something that looks like modern physics, doesn#8217;t it, FQXi? No A Song I Like section, once again.
I still go jobless. Definitive Hero. Keep that in mind. [This is initial draft, published on marriage essay, August 31, 2012, 6:31 PM, IST. May be I will make some minor corrections/updates later on] So, you think physicists got it wrong? So, you think physicists got it wrong? If so, why not tell them#8212;or, even if they wouldn#8217;t listen, at least to essay hero, the world #8212;what precisely it is?
The obvious reference is to the latest FQXi essay contest. The topic they have selected for this edition of the essay contest is: #8220;Which of bachelor's degree, Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?#8221; For more details, see here [^]. Note that the definitive, last date of marriage, submitting your essays is August 31, 2012. There also is a chance that #8220;proper#8221; physicists may end up reading your essay; see the #8220;Who is FQXi#8221; page here [^]. However, in case you didn#8217;t know about FQXi, also note that this is not the first time that they are conducting such an definitive hero essay contest. Check out the political, winning essays from the earlier contests: 2008 (on #8220;The Nature of Time#8221;) [^], 2009 (on #8220;What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics?#8221;) [^], and definitive essay hero 2010-11 (#8220;Is Reality Digital or Analog?#8221;) [^]. To read the essays already submitted for the current (still open) contest#8212;and the ongoing public discussions on in sociology, them#8212;follow this URL [^].
In case you are curious to essay, know my opinion of this essay contest, the reason why I didn#8217;t participate in it so far, whether I would participate at least now, etc.: Why I didn#8217;t participate thus far. Well, there are different reasons for it, not a single one. Essays In Sociology Gerth And Mills. As to the very first contest, I would have liked to participate in it. However, I simply wasn#8217;t even aware of the FQXi itself at that time. In fact, despite my fairly extensive browsing of physics-related sites, I didn#8217;t come to know of the first edition of the essay contest any time before it was already over. Hero. What would I have written for the first contest (#8220;The Nature of Time#8221;)? I would have written about the nature of space before coming to that of time. If further curious, my position would have been in many ways quite similar to Ron Pisaturo#8217;s [^]. A few asides: (i) I didn#8217;t know about Pisaturo or his position at that time. (ii) Pisaturo, in his articles, addresses more points than I would have.
In fact, some of these points existed only faintly on my radar; it was he, who, in rallycross addressing them, highlighted their existence/importance to me. (iii) Regarding the nature of space itself (not to mention other issues like the finitude or otherwise of the physical universe), my position was (and remains) independently arrived at. In fact, I found out via an definitive essay hero exchange of a few emails with him that there could be some differences in our positions, may be even some essential ones, esp. at the level of arranged, details. In particular, it#8217;s concerning whether space is definitive hero a concept of mathematics, physics, or both. Now, as far as my own position is concerned, I had been jotting down my points in small pocket notebooks (the paper version!) that I usually carry around. I hope to find the gerth, time, and essay hero more importantly, the right frame of mind, to convert these into an essay.
I would certainly like to do that, but only after I am more than halfway through writing my QM book. Which means: after about a year or more. Ok. Enough about the first contest. For the immediate next contest (#8220;What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics#8221;), while the topic selection here was rather smart, I personally didn#8217;t think that it was well focused enough. Writing Bachelor's Degree. And so, in all probability, I wouldn#8217;t have participated in hero it. However, it didn#8217;t matter one way or the other because I happened to essays in sociology and mills, miss the definitive, deadline once again. (FQXi contests are not held periodically i.e. regularly.) As to the last contest (#8220;Is Reality Digital or Analog#8221;), I thought that the topic was, at least at the very first sight, a bit frivolous. Writing Degree. However, as it happened, what I thought of it on the second thoughts also didn#8217;t matter anyway because I once again missed the deadline, this time round by essay just a few days or so.
I think there was some discussion on HBL on marriage, a related topic roughly around that time, and I, in fact had a subscription to definitive, the HBL at that time. That topic, I think, began with the discussion on whether 0.999999#8230; equals 1.0 or not; then went a bit on to series and infinitesimals in a geometrical context; and then, another related thread made appearance: whether, as we go #8220;all the way down,#8221; does the baby thesis, physical stuff at that level have sharp boundaries or not. BTW, this is a far, far better way of definitive essay, formulating what the FQXi contest topic had merely hinted at. #8230; My answers, without providing full justifications here: the stuff #8220;all the way down#8221; cannot have (infinitely) sharp boundaries, because infinity does not exist in the physical reality (HB had this same position); 0.9#8230; does equal to 1.0, but only in the limiting sense#8212;the former does not #8220;go to#8221; the latter. Here, surprisingly, HB differed from me, in the sense, he didn#8217;t at least immediately agree with me; he kept quiet#8212;perhaps was thinking about rallycross essay octobre 2010, it. (In case you missed the definitive, reason why I might have found it surprising: the infinitesimal is nothing but the infinitely small. Just the way the infinitely large does not physically exist, similarly, the infinitely small also does not physically exist. Both are mathematical concepts#8212;concepts of methods.) #8230; Anyway, coming back to the FQXi contest, notice the of a, difference that the FQXi topic had from definitive essay, that discussed at the HBL: both digital and analog are, primarily, mathematical concepts, not physical. The fact that they can be successfully applied to physical reality does not, by essay itself, make them physical. That#8217;s the definitive essay hero, reason why I said that the terms in which the issue got discussed at HBL were better#8212;the formulation there captured the essential issue more directly, in fact, quite explicitly. Rallycross Essay. However, as far as I remember, even as these related discussions were going on, none had even mentioned the FQXi contest at HBL, while I was there. Essay. So, I missed that edition too. Essays. So, this is the first time that I have run into a FQXi contest while there still is essay some time left for it.
Would I participate now? As of today, frankly, I don#8217;t know. #8230; As you can see by now, as far as I am concerned, it#8217;s the essay octobre, topic that matters more than anything else, actually. Come to think of it, I am not afraid of putting even the definitive, inchoate among my thoughts, in baby an essay contest like this. And, that#8217;s to a large extent because, I am most certainly not at all afraid of participating in it and hero also not winning anything#8212;not even a fourth prize. In Sociology Gerth And Mills. One doesn#8217;t enter an definitive essay essay contest in essays in sociology and mills order to win a prize (just the way one does not take an examination to definitive, score the octobre 2010, highest marks/ranks).
In case you are sufficiently idiotic to not get it, notice that what I said in the last line is not an definitive hero argument against having prizes in contests (or taking them home if you win them). It is merely a way of highlighting the rallycross essay, fact that prizes do not deterministically elicit better responses (just the definitive, way top examinations ranks do not necessarily always go to creative writing bachelor's degree florida, the best guy). (If you are not convinced, substitute #8220;fatalistically#8221; in place of #8220;deterministically.#8221;) The main function of prizes is to attract publicity, and thereby, possibly increase one#8217;s chances of finding, or reaching out to, the right people, the right minds. Prizes serve to essay hero, attract a better audience rather than a better set of participants . That is, statistically speaking, of course. You don#8217;t necessarily have to win prizes in writing order to reach out to a better audience. (And, what#8217;s a better audience, you ask? Obvious. It#8217;s an audience that is itself capable, employs you, pays you, respects you, etc.#8212;overall, values you on a rational basis.) That is the reason why participation matters more than winning. (The Olympics participants usually get it right#8212;and most of the humanities folks, never do. For example, consider: If it were to be just a matter of exceeding one#8217;s own past performances, or to see the limits of one#8217;s abilities, why not go to a secluded place, exceed your abilities to your heart#8217;s content, and then, never let anyone else get even the wind of it? Ditto, even if your motivation is less exalted, and consists solely of exceeding others#8217; abilities#8212;beating others. Here, suppose that there are just the definitive hero, two of you, you and your opponent (or the ten of marriage essay, you, or ten teams ), and suppose that you (or your team) win (wins) over (all) your opponent(s)#8212;but strictly under the condition that no one else ever gets to know of it.
None. You continue to know that you exceeded your past records, or that you beat others, but there is no audience for it, no better consequences to follow in your own life, out of essay, it#8230; And, now, also consider a contrasting scenario: What if you do get to connect to the right kind of an political essay contests audience even if you don#8217;t win a contest in essay which you participate. What would it be like? Here, I am tempted to speculate: It would be just like any of our (India#8217;s) sports teams, especially, our cricket team. #8230; So, either way, it is the participation that matters more than the winning. Degree Florida. QED, nah?) So, the definitive hero, idea of participating in a contest like FQXi is quite OK by me. So, coming back to 2010, the topic for the current edition of this contest: As soon as I read about the contest (which was something like the last week or so), I got the sense that the topic selection was, once again, rather smart#8212;but also that the topic was a bit too open-ended, though probably not too broad.
Reading through the definitive essay hero, vast variety of the essays that people have submitted so far only rallycross essay confirmed, in a way, this apprehension of definitive hero, mine. If a well-informed physicist friend were to ask me in an informal but serious chat the question of the topic (#8220;Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong?#8221;), the political essay, first set of things to definitive hero, strike me would have been rather philosophical in octobre nature. But then, this is not an essay contest in philosophy as such, though, I guess, certain parts of philosophy clearly are not out of place here#8212;in fact, dealing, as the contest does, with questioning the foundations, philosophy of physics, and also relevant principles from definitive hero, general philosophy, are clearly welcome. However, the main part that philosophy can play here would be limited to identifying the contests 2013, broad context; the essay cannot be concerned with expounding philosophy itself, as such. And, so, if this friend were then to further insist that I narrow down my answer to some specifically physics-related ideas, I would really begin to wonder what reply to give back. That, in definitive essay particular, was the position in which I found myself for the past few days.
I found that, if I have to think of some issues or ideas specifically from physics to answer that question, I could easily think of not just one or two but at least five-six issues, if not ten or more of in sociology and mills, them. And, I found that I could not really pick out one over the other without also substantially involving general philosophy as well#8212;comparing and contrasting these issues in essay hero the light of creative writing florida, philosophy, i.e. Definitive Hero. using philosophy to meaning, put every one of them in a common broad context embracing them all#8212;in which case, it would become (at least a small) book and cease to be just an essay i.e. an article. So, honestly speaking, this essay contest has, in definitive hero a way, foxed me. In a way, it had become a challenge for me to see if I could find just one or two issues out of all those numerous issues. Without there being adequate space to put all of marriage, those issues in context, treating just one or two of definitive essay, them would come to mean, I thought, that I consider the selected issues to be at baby, least more pertinent if not more foundational than the others left out of the definitive, essay. And, there, I realized, my home-work is not yet well done. I don#8217;t have a very clear idea as to why I should pick out this issue over that one. Contests. That#8217;s why, at least as far as I am concerned, the essay topic had, in fact, become a challenge to me. I then decided to see if I could challenge the definitive essay hero, challenge (!).
Namely, what if I pick up a few issues almost at random, and write something about them, without thereby necessarily implying that these selected issues must be taken as the hierarchically more foundational/at the core/important than the gerth, others? Would it then be possible for me to write something? BTW, there would have been another point against participating, which no longer matters: Sometimes, the discussion at definitive essay, FQXi seemed to digressed too much into inconsequential matters. Submitting an essay is to commit to having discussions. But inconsequential/petty digressions could easily get too laborious for the essay author. Here, however, I have noticed that as the contest and its management matures, the degree of such largely pointless digressions seems to political contests 2013, be going down. I think you now can more easily ignore the issues/folks you don#8217;t want to tackle/answer, especially so if you really don#8217;t care much about winning the definitive essay hero, prize. So, that#8217;s another point in favor of participating.
So, the churning in political essay 2013 my mind regarding the topic, regarding whether to participate in it or not, is still going on, even as I write this blog post. Definitive Hero. However, I think I am getting increasingly inclined towards the idea of writing something anyway and dumping it there. #8230; Let me see if I can do something along that line. And, the only way to see whether that is doable or not is to actually sit down and start writing something. Writing. I will do that. #8230; If something #8220;sensible#8221; comes out it, you will see me submitting an entry by August 31. If not, here is a promise: I will at definitive, least share a bit from rallycross, whatever that I wrote (and decided not to essay, submit for the contest), here at essays in sociology gerth, my personal blog, and possibly also other blogs/public fora. Definitive. No #8220;A Song I Like#8221; section, once again. I still go jobless. Keep that in mind. [Minor corrections and updates were made on July 23, 2012.] The way people use language, changes. In the mid- and late-1990s, when the Internet was new, when blogs had yet to creative writing florida, become widespread, when people would often use their own Web sites (or the feedback forms and #8220;guestbooks#8221; at essay hero, others#8217; Web sites) to express their own personal thoughts, opinions and feelings#8212;in short, when it still was Web 1.0#8212;one would often run into expressions of the title sort. For example: XYZ is a very great course#8212;NOT!
XYZ university has a very great student housing#8212;NOT! XYZ is a very cute product#8212;NOT! #8230; You get the idea#8212;you really do! (NO not!!)#8230; That#8217;s the sense in which the title of this post is to be taken. For quite some time, I had been thinking of a problem, a deceptively simple problem, from engineering sciences and mechanics. Essays In Sociology Gerth And Mills. Actually, it#8217;s not a problem, but a way of definitive hero, modeling problems. Consider a body or a physical object, say a piece of chalk. Break it into two pieces. Sections Dissertation. Easy to do so physically? #8230; Fine. Now, consider how you would represent this scenario mathematically.
That is the problem under consideration. #8230; Let me explain further. The problem would be a mere idle curiosity but for the fact that it has huge economic consequences. Definitive Hero. I shall illustrate it with just two examples. Example 1: Consider hot molten metal being poured in sand molds, during casting. Though #8220;thick,#8221; the liquid metal does not necessarily flow very smoothly as it runs everywhere inside the thesis, mold cavity. It brushes against mold-walls, splashes, and forms droplets. These flying droplets are more effective than the main body of the molten metal in abrading (#8220;scrubbing#8221;) the definitive essay, mold-walls, and thereby dislodging sand particles off the mold walls. Further, the droplets themselves both oxidize fast, and cool down fast. Both the oxidized and solidified droplets, and the sand particles abraded or dislodged by political contests the droplets, fall into the cooling liquid metal. Essay. Due to oxidized layer the essay contests 2013, solidified droplets (or due to the high melting point of silicates, the sand particles) do not easily remelt once they fall into the main molten metal. The particles remain separate, and definitive thus get embedded into discursive, the casting, leading to defective castings. (Second-phase particles like oxidized droplets and sand particles adversely affect the mechanical load-carrying capacity of the casting, and hero also lead to easier corrosion.) We need the flow here to be smooth, not so much because laminar flow by itself is a wonderful to have (and mathematically easier to handle).
We need it to remain smooth mainly in order to prevent splashing and to reduce wall-abrasion. The splashing part involves separation of a contiguous volume of baby meaning, liquid into several bodies (the main body of liquid, and all the definitive essay, splashed droplets). If we can accurately, i.e. Essay Octobre 2010. mathematically, model how droplets separate out from hero, a liquid, we would be better equipped to handle the task of designing the flow inside a mold cavity. Example 2: Way back in mid-1980s, when I was doing my MTech at IIT Madras, I had already run into some report which had said that the economic losses due to unintended catastrophic fractures occurring in the US alone were estimated to be some $5 billion annually. #8230; I quote the figure purely from my not-so-reliable memory. Baby Thesis. However, even today, I do think that the quoted figure seems reasonable. Just consider just one category of fractures: the loss of buildings and human life due to definitive hero, fractures occurring during earthquakes.
Fracture mechanics has been an important field of political essay contests 2013, research for more than half a century by now. The process of fracture, if allowed to continue unchecked, results in a component or an object fragmenting into many pieces. It might surprise many of you (in fact, almost anyone who has not studied fluid mechanics or fracture mechanics) that there simply does not exist any good way to mathematically represent this crucial aspect of droplets formation or fracture: namely, the fact of one body becoming several bodies. More accurately, no one so far (at least to my knowledge) has ever proposed a neat mathematical way to represent such a simple physical fact. Not in any way that could even potentially prove useful in essay building a better mechanics of fluids or fracture. Essay. Not very surprising. After all, right since Newton#8217;s time, the definitive essay, ruling paradigm of creative writing degree, building mathematical models has been: differential equations. Differential equations necessarily assume the existence of a continuum. The region over definitive essay hero which a given differential equation is to be integrated, may itself contain holes. Now, sometimes, the of a dissertation prospectus, existence of definitive essay hero, holes in sections a region of space by itself leads to some troubles in some areas of mechanics; e.g., consider how the compatibility criteria of elasticity lose simplicity once you let a body carry holes. Yet, these difficulties are nothing once you theoretically allow the essay, original single body to split apart into two or more fragments.
The main difficulty is the following: A differential equation is baby thesis nothing but an equation defined in definitive hero terms of differentials. (That is some insight!) In the sense of its usage in physics/engineering, a differential equation is an equation defined over a differential element. A differential element (or an infinitesimal) is a mathematical abstraction. It begins with a mathematically demarcated finite piece of essay 2013, a continuum, and systematically takes its size towards zero. A #8220;demarcated finite piece#8221; here essentially means that it has boundaries. Definitive Essay. For example, for a 1D continuum, there would be two separate points serving as the end-points of the finite piece. Essays Gerth And Mills. Such a piece is, then, subjected to the mathematical limiting process, so as to yield a differential element. To be useful, the differential equation has to be integrated over the entire region, taking into consideration the boundary and initial values. (The region must be primarily finite, and it usually is so. However, sometimes, through certain secondary mathematical considerations and tricks involving certain specific kinds of boundary conditions, we can let the region to be indefinitely large in extent as well.) Since the basic definition of the essay hero, differential element itself refers to a continuum, i.e. to a continuous region of space, this entire paradigm requires that cuts or holes not existing initially in marriage discursive essay the region cannot at all be later introduced. A hole is, as I said above, mostly acceptable in definitive essay mathematical physics. However, the hole cannot grow so as to actually severe a single contiguous region of space into two (or more) separate regions.
A cut cannot be allowed to run all the rallycross essay 2010, way through. The reason is: (i) either the differential element spanning the two sides of the essay, cut must be taken out contests, of the hero, model#8212;which cannot be done under the differential equations paradigm, (ii) or the entire model must be rejected as being invalid. Thus, no cut#8212;no boundary#8212;can be introduced within a differential element. Thesis Meaning. A differential element may be taken to end on a boundary, in a sense. Definitive Hero. However, it can never be cut apart. Essays In Sociology And Mills. (This, incidentally, is the reason why people fall silent when you ask them the question of one of my previous posts: can an infinitesimal carry parts?) You can look at it as a simple logical consistency requirement. Essay. If you model anything with differential elements (i.e. using the differential equations paradigm), then, by the logic of the way this kind of mathematics has been built and works, you are not allowed to introduce a cut into a continuum and make fragments out of it, later on. In case you are wondering about a logically symmetrical scenario: no, you can also not join two continua into one#8212;the differential equation paradigm does not allow you to do that either.
And, no, topology does not lead to any actual progress with this problem either. Topology only helps define some aspects of the problem in mathematically precise terms. But it does not even address the problem I am mentioning here. Such a nature of continuum modeling is indeed was what I had once hinted at, in one of my comments at iMechanica [^]. Essay. I had said (and none contradicted me at that forum for it) that: As an aside, I think in classical mathematics there is definitive essay no solution to gerth and mills, this issue, and there cannot be#8212;you simply cannot model a situation like #8220;one thing becomes two things#8221; or #8220;two infinitesimally close points become separated by hero a finite distance#8221; within any continuum theory at all#8230; In other words, this is writing bachelor's a situation where, if one wishes to think about it in mathematical terms, one#8217;s mind stops. Today, I happened to definitive hero, idly go over baby thesis these thoughts once again. And then, a dim possibility of appending a NOT appeared. The reason I say it#8217;s a dim possibility is because: (i) I haven#8217;t yet carefully thought it through; (ii) and definitive hero so, I am not sure if it really does not carry philosophic inconsistencies (philosophy, here, is to be rather taken in the sense of philosophy of science, of in sociology, physics and mathematics); (iii) I already know enough to know that this possibility would not in essay hero any way help at least that basic fracture mechanical problem which I have mentioned above; and (iv) I think an essay application simpler than the definitive, basic problem of fracture mechanics, should be possible#8212;with some careful provisos in place. May be, just may be. Rallycross 2010. (The reason I am being so tentative is that the idea struck me only this afternoon.)
I still need to go over hero the matter, and so, I will not provide any more details about that dim possibility, right here, right today. However, I think I have already provided a sufficiently detailed description of the problem (and the supposed difficulty about it) that, probably, anyone else (trained in basic engineering/physics and mathematics) could easily get it. So, in the meanwhile, if you can think of any solution#8212;or even a solution approach#8212;that could take care of this problem, drop me a line or add a comment. Marriage Discursive. #8230; If you are looking for hero, a succinct statement of the problem out of this (as usual) verbose blog-post, then take the above-mentioned quote from my iMechanica comment, as the problem statement. #8230; For years (two+ decades) I thought no solution/approach to that problem was possible, and even at iMechanica, it didn#8217;t elicit any response indicating otherwise. Of A Dissertation. #8230; But, now, I think there could perhaps be a way out#8212;if I am consistent by basic philosophic considerations, that is. Definitive Essay Hero. It#8217;s a simple thing, really speaking, a very obvious one too, and not at all a big deal#8230; However, the point is, now the (or my) mind no longer comes to baby, a complete halt when it comes to that problem#8230; Enough for the time being. I will consider posting about this issue at iMechanica after a little while. #8230; And, BTW, if you are in a mode to think very deeply about it, also see something somewhat related to this problem, viz., the 2011 FQXi Essay Contest (and what its winners had to say about definitive essay hero, that problem): [^]. Though related, the two questions are a bit different. Baby Thesis. For the purpose of this post, the main problem is the one I mentioned above. Definitive Essay Hero. Think about it, and sections of a prospectus have fun! And if you have something to say about definitive essay hero, it, do drop me a line! Bye for now!! (Hindi) #8220;nahin nahin koee tumasaa hanseen#8230;#8221; Singers: Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhosale. Music: Rajesh Roshan.
Lyrics: Anand Bakshi. [PS: Perhaps, a revision to fix simple errors, and possibly to add a bit of content here and there, is sections of a still due.] I am an engineer from Pune, India---more like a computational engineer-cum-physicist. (This blog is in copyright. (I should easily give you the permission to use the material here, but you have to ask me first.))
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clutter essay all rights reserved. Essay? AHR is published in PDF and Print-on-Demand format by ANU E Press. You're all crazy. Every one of you. You just sit here, in your cosy little house, with your cold sodas and your Facebook pages, like it all matters. Like it's even real. But it's not! It's all going to burn and you're going to be nothing but bleached skulls. Rallycross Essay Octobre? Don't you get it?
You're dead! All of you are dead!' (Riley in Strange Things Happen') Procrastinating one Sunday, I set aside a pile of print-outs from on-line media stories on the perils and inanities of Facebook and essay hero settled in for a serious read of the creative writing florida South China Morning Post (in hard copy, of course, with hot coffee on the side). You may need to know this great newspaper to definitive hero appreciate my shock at finding therein a sententious editorial about Facebook (Facebook no substitute for real world contact'). While it is a Murdoch property, criticised at times for a willingness to accommodate the pressures of Beijing, the SCMP is still a hard news-focussed paper, full of serious analysis of events around the world: it does not feature frothy columnists, and celebrity wardrobe malfunctions rarely make the front page. Yet here, with no context beyond a slight story about phishing attacks on baby Facebook, was one of those loopy, furious moral blares that in essay recent years I have come to discursive essay associate with Australian newspapers: there is always superficiality to networking on essay hero the Web', the writer opined.
If Facebook perhaps' helps us keep in touch with friends in essays gerth and mills faraway places, making new friends and maintaining old friendships requires effort, emotional commitment and contact in the real world. Facebook is no substitute for face time'. My print-out collection is full of attempts like this to definitive essay adjudicate what is and meaning isn't real in the lives of hundreds of millions of people. Many of hero these pieces must be written (I surmise) by stressed-out journalists with no more access than I have to lots of personal face time'. As a Facebook user whose loved ones are often very far away, of course I disagree with the editorial's premises; anyone who thinks that social networking is a superficial' matter of clicking should explain to me (to begin with) in just what world the effort of political essay making a photo album for friends and family does not involve emotional commitment; and in definitive what kind of real world it counts as an evasion of contact to have an on-line party, or to essay send gifts, humour and words of comfort or affection to people across space and time. It would have to be a world without regard for writing and reading, obviously: no love of definitive hero letters, no emotional responses to rock art and cathedrals; no crying over novels and poems, either. Come to think of it, it might be a world without great newspapers (a prospect which some pundits no doubt have uncomfortably in mind). Irritating as media grizzles about the failings of political essay 2013 mediation may be (and the essay hero locution face time' bears witness to their sentimentality; what happened to the rest of the body?), I do not save these articles in order to disagree with them. For one thing, they're not that rational. Strong affect sprays about when older media attack new media that threaten their markets, and in particular when Murdoch newspapers wage culturally high-toned war on just those social networking sites that have been thumping MySpace, the site belonging to their proprietor (see Knight). A couple of prospectus weeks before the SCMP stooped to conquer Facebook (and a month before the essay use of Twitter to arranged marriage get news out in Tehran became a global story), the on-line Australian gloated, Time is Up for Twitter'.
Hooking to a story that 60 per cent of hero new users give up tweeting within a month, this spiteful piece compared transitory technologies' to swine influenza; people build up resistance' to diseases that must mutate to infect ever most hosts' before spluttering out'. Baby Thesis? Print, in contrast, is essay, a robust and portable' technology, information rich and never crashesthe platform for the online information age [sic] that you are reading now'. If the sections of a dissertation prospectus part about robustness and portability is essay hero, true enough (while bringing to mind old jokes about the excellence of newsprint for wrapping fish and chips), the platform punch-line makes no sense except as a syntactically mangled blur of techno-clichés. There was a timein another economy and creative writing bachelor's degree florida before Mr. Murdoch himself took the lead in reducing jobs in print news productionwhen any half-way decent sub-editor would have killed such a clause stone dead. What really interests me is the stories that older media (including television and the on-line versions of print media) tell about social networking, and the slightly nutty fervour that so often drives the definitive telling.
Given the now mainstream success of social networking sites, with people friending and political 2013 following their Nannas and with Barack Obama's 2008 election campaign symbolically marking a new era of definitive hero global-popular participation on-line, the essays and mills commentariat are, in part, caught up in an apocalyptic moment of their own rhetorical making; in journalistic as in policy spruiking usage, new media talk has long proclaimed that one set of innovations will displace anotherdeath' of definitive essay hero print, end' of the book. As anyone who works with media should know, reality is of a prospectus, more complex. With technological change, old media find new uses or are reinvented interactively with new ones; arguably the hero most influential medium for politics in Australia at the end of the twentieth century was a telephone-radio hybrid, talk-back radio'. This is not to dismiss the sense of crisis engulfing the profession of journalism, especially investigative reporting (Davies; Nichols and McChesney). 1 However, at the user's end their relative cheapness and accessibility to ordinary people continues to give old media a key role in essays and mills narrating the advent of social changes related to new technology, and in shaping at least some of the essay hero initial popular understanding of new technologies themselves: once upon creative writing bachelor's, a time, people acquired their first memories' of cyberspace from a novel, William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984). I am by no means a new media scholar and my participation in definitive essay on-line culture is enthusiastic only of a within a very limited zone. I love Facebook and YouTube, enjoy msn with a couple of hero close friends, barely tolerate Skype, quickly feel nauseous surfing the web and loathe email with a passion. However, since all media are mixed in their cultural make-up and social uses, it behoves me as a student of history in popular culture to observe how the tales being told of new media at any given time draw on thesis meaning familiar generic and rhetorical reserves that help render change intelligible to us as a mode of continuity. Essay? An example of arranged discursive this and essay hero one of my favourite Facebook put-downs is the outburst quoted above from Riley, the essays and mills undercover girl from the hero future in the second season of the Fox network TV series, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles.
Cracking under the strain of impersonating an alienated, pre-Judgment Day American teenager, Riley wheels on her bemused foster family in the kitchen one day and, with four viciously delivered metonyms (just sit here', cosy little house', cold sodas', Facebook pages'), pours scorn all over their lives. In this moment, Facebook is absorbed into the store of belittling stereotypes of mindless suburban complacency that print media, film and, superbly, television (the suburban medium par excellence), have been producingand donating to of a dissertation prospectus critical culturefor more than fifty years. A swelling number of Facebook stories is available on-line. When I drafted this paper in early November 2008, Google recorded 747 million Web-wide mentions of MySpace (with 5,050,000 in Australia); 580 million for Facebook (5,060,000); and 104 million for the more specialised Second Life (but only 648,000 from Australia). I didn't think then of checking Twitter. By 19 May 2009, the respective figures were 858 million for MySpace (22 million in Australia); one and quarter billion for Facebook (37,500,000 in essay Australia); 177 million for baby meaning Second Life (25,700,000 in Australia, a significant increase); and 511 million for Twitter (15,100,000 in Australia). Definitive? There is 2013, no way of interpreting what the hero relative changes mean, or how many finger-wagging Murdoch editorials the essay Facebook numbers include, but the size of the overall increase in definitive essay just a few months is impressive. At the same time, it has become rare for a day to rallycross essay 2010 go by definitive essay without the major Australian newspapers featuring on-line at least one Facebook or Twitter story. In Sociology Gerth? Sporadic checks while I was writing pulled up stories including a teen' saved from suicide by a Facebook friend, Facebook and cyber-bullying in girls' schools, Facebook and sexual recruitment' for NRL players, Facebook as a tool for Arab militants recruiting spies against Israel, the uses and pitfalls of Facebook for small business, and definitive Facebook as a haven for Holocaust deniers. While forming a very small part of the on-line discussion of political contests social networking sites, these stories arise from news media efforts not only to catch a wave of popular interest while reporting actual incidents but also to definitive essay shape collective perceptions of a wider phenomenon.
In the process, journalists often draw on arranged marriage essay their rich professional reserves of reductively metonymic realism (setting the scene', the character sketch') to cast social network users as types whose ways of acting are symptomatic or productive of diverse social ills: alongside terrorists and sexual predators there are always students uploading their mobile pics of boorishly drunken parties, stupid girls' sharing every detail of their vapid daily routines, and workers who boast about definitive essay hero bludging but forget that they've friended their boss. Sections Prospectus? As in folklore, each of essay hero these figures is sustained by a dense field of concrete examples both stellar (Hugh Grant and Bono for Facebook party uploads, MySpace's Paris Hilton or Twitter's Ashton Kutcher for cosmic triviality) and it-could-be-you' mundane (Kyle Doyle's SICKIE WOO' Facebook status update). 2 Simultaneously grounded in and abstracted from the real history of on-line culture, such figures stick' in writing degree florida media memory, powerfully eliciting recognition (the party animal, the princess, the definitive essay slack worker) while drawing attention away from a myriad other practices thriving on the sites. Stereotypes are forms of sections dissertation apprehension rather than bad representations, and definitive hero their force is to mobilize familiar knowledge to explain and absorb unfamiliar experience (Morris, Identity 143-44). While the limitations of a morphological critique of popular culture have been argued many times (Morris, Too Soon ; Morse), formal typing is in sociology gerth and mills, a generative principle in popular culture itself. Definitive Hero? Media editorializing thrives on it and, as hard news-gathering receded as a journalistic practice during the Howard era, the readily available technique of consensus assertion through type (the' ethnic lobby, the' Aboriginal industry, the' politically correct) organized columns of essay 2010 what became in those years a major genre of definitive Australian social debate: grizzling, or fretful complaint'.
The fretfulness is important. Most of the grizzling that made it to press or to air in sections of a prospectus Howard's day was majoritarian complaint about the perduring cultural power of social minorities (Morris, Too Soon 219-33), and the Macquarie Dictionary reminds us that the first meaning of grizzle' is to become grey', a metonym of ageing and thus (in this social logic) of fading power. When I call you a grizzler, or when we have a good grizzle' together, more is involved than naming the act of complaint. The idea of grizzling includes an evaluation of the act itself as ineffective except at the level of emotional release. The release itself may be strong: grizzling is more aggressive than the definitive essay hero also annoying but more pathetic acts of whingeing and whining. Grizzlers may have a bit of right on their side: when my Nanna said, stop whingeing', she meant, don't be a sook', while stop grizzling' meant, all right, now shut up and get on with it'. But the release is devalued as inadequate to the real or imagined provocation; to call a speech act grizzling' suggests a helpless as well as reiterative mode of criticism. Facebook no substitute for real world contact' is a grizzle in this sense. Political Essay Contests? What on earth is supposed to follow from definitive essay a declaration like that? If parents are being incited to pull the marriage essay plug on their children, or to essay hero seize their mobile phones, will millions of essay adults also rush off-line to chat in a neighbouring office or across the definitive essay hero back fence? What would happen in the real world' of our working lives if we did so?
Old-school editorials have a transitive mode of authority; seeking to sway public opinion or nudge policy action, the writer has an objective which could one day be achieved. When an upscale paper like the SCMP read by educated, over-employed, middle to essays gerth upper class expats and locals working 15-hour days and definitive essay more in a city that runs on thesis financial services and essay transport logisticsmakes a wildly inoperative call for political contests 2013 its readers to abandon on-line socializing for more face time', a curiously sub-cultural mode of essay address conflicts with the mode of essays in sociology authority. This editorial networks with technophobes, concerned relatives or loved ones of hero teenagers' (and other types) who voluntarily spend too much time on-line, and people who just don't like Facebook; it predicates a real world in which people can choose how they spend how much of their time. Yet overwhelmingly in essay contests 2013 Hong Kong, as in many cities today, middle class people have borderless working lives and essay hero we spend most of our time, wherever we are, with computers. Facebook for me is real world contact. In Sociology? It's not the only kind I have but ( pace Riley) it matters. In a day consumed by memos, reference-writing, refereeing tasks, managerial compliance chores and a never-ending stream of email, Facebook is my bit of heaven, a haven of warmth, silly fun and friendliness I can enter in an instant from my screen; contact there is real because it is diverse and unpredictable (unlike much of my work). Essay? To argue that another site is writing degree florida, better for this purpose could make good critical sense, and to definitive essay hero propose a legally enforceable maximum 40 hour week for knowledge workers' would be even better. Gerth? However, to urge me to spend more time off-line (making new friends and maintaining old friendships') for the sheer good of essay my soul is a grizzle from essays in sociology gerth and mills those fairies at the bottom of the garden.
I certainly do not mean to definitive suggest that all criticism of Facebook is grizzling. Serious legal, ethical and political issues are arising from or being intensified by the Facebook' phenomenon (to use a typifying metonym myself), in the process sharpening some of the challenging debates of our time; free speech and its limits, censorship, the right to privacy, the negotiation of social protocols for a transnational economy that thrives on difference as well as inequality, the relations between semiotic and other modes of violence, tensions between legal, communal and performative models of arranged marriage identity, the foundations of definitive essay community, the power of corporations in our personal lives, and the technological transformation of contests 2013 work are just a few of these. Anyone who doubts their political import in essay many parts of the world might consider the case of Fouad Mourtada, a 26 year old IT engineer beaten and jailed for 3 years in Morocco for placing a spoof profile of political Prince Moulay Rachid on hero Facebook, 3 or, on a different scale, China's disabling of Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Blogspot, Tumblr, Live Journal, Hotmail and Bing in essay the lead-up to the twentieth anniversary on 4 June, 2009, of the massacre in definitive essay Tiananmen Square (Flumenbaum). Given this range of essay weighty issues to address, grizzling is of interest for hero its capacity to foreground unsettling worries and questions that trail along in the mix unresolvably, like an insistent and recurring malaise. For example, one familiar set of of a dissertation worries concerns the hero sociable personality and what it ought to be doing in the writer's world; does Facebook impair our ability to enjoy life and care for others off-line? Extensively debated in relation to manifest sub-cultures such as Hikikomori (see Jodice and Karmen) and meaning Otaku (Lamarre) in Japan, anxiety about definitive essay hero what it should mean to be human on an average day is 2010, hard to formulate plausibly now for larger populations. Thus an definitive essay, early grizzle by Bugeja about the implications of Facebook for sections dissertation university life (distraction in class, unwitting self-disclosure, inappropriate pictures, surveillance, commercial data gathering and identity theft) 4 suggests in the course of a generally moderate discussion that there is a direct link between the size of the hero university IT budget, a corresponding loss of marriage discursive essay faculty jobs, and a Facebook-driven proliferation of distracted, egocasting' student personalities: unless we reassess our high-tech priorities, issues associated with insensitivity, indiscretion, bias, and fabrication will consume us in hero higher education' (Heads Up'). The night of the writing florida living dead is close at hand. A related anxiety cluster invokes real' friendship in an effort to achieve an impossible norming of intimacy. Brusquely handled by definitive the British judge who ruled in a 2008 harassment case that Facebook friends do not have to be friends in the traditional sense' (Emerson), concern about the authenticity of Facebook friendship is not only circulated in the press but relayed by creative bachelor's ambivalent users of the site itselflike the sad case from Toronto with 700 Facebook friends who ended up drinking alone when he tried to organize a party (Niedzviecki). While this confession may simply tell us something about Toronto, or the author (I don't know that I'd drink with him either), narcissistic, instrumental or desperate friend-accumulation is also the subject of widely posted YouTube clips and a recurring discussion topic across the essay hero hundreds of Addicted to arranged marriage discursive Facebook' groups on essay hero the site 5 eliciting on rallycross essay octobre 2010 one of these a well-turned, 14 stanza ballad, Can I be your Facebook Friend?':
Can I be your Facebook Friend? Friendship's new reality. And we'll celebrate our union. For all cyberspace to see. Cause this friendship is unique. We can hold a conversation. And we never have to speak. I'll accept of course, and then. I will sit here on your profile. You won't hear from me again.
This poem nicely catches the nuances of the Facebook addict' type: an anti-social, agoraphobic, low maintenance' lurker who is definitive essay, also a passive-aggressive and voyeuristic stalker accumulating useless social capital. Were this to be taken literally as a realistic portrait of the average Facebook user, human community as we know it might really be at risk. As I write, Facebook claims more than 200 million users (averaging 120 friends each), of arranged discursive whom more than 100 million log on at least once a day, spending more than four billion minutes daily on the site worldwide. 6 As one of those users (need I say?), I recognize neither myself nor my 370-odd Facebook friends in the poem's anomic persona. True, after the initial contact I rarely hear directly from the essay hero large number who are my ex-students or professional acquaintances, but I am sporadically aware of their lives and creative florida we are there for each other if the need or desire arises. This casual awareness is hero, typical of large families (how often do we interact with all of our relatives?) and also of small communities; I spent my first twelve years of life in a town of 2,000 souls where absolutely nobody, not even the newsagent, was on regular speaking terms with everyone else. Of course, the essays gerth and mills poem is witty rather than grizzling because it personifies shameful little behaviours that most of us have indulged in, with or without Facebook (although they can be accentuated there). There is a bit of the lurker and the voyeur in most happily sociable people; who has never eavesdropped or peeped at definitive essay a neighbour's stuff?
Familiar as they may be to people with wide-ranging lives on-line, these arguments need to be made; not everyone who uses email and rallycross 2010 visits web-sites is at ease with social networking. However, merely bristling at anti-Facebook stereotypes or mocking the malaise that prompts them risks buying in to an exaggerated view of definitive hero what is new and distinctive about the experience the site provides, while ignoring the increased cross-cultural complexity of such malaise today. Creative Florida? Concern about the future of sociability has been evolving in the West for hero more than a century, as the spread of a consumption-driven economy has distributed imperatives of self-marketing and self-display to ever-widening populations. Thesis Meaning? Today, the deliberate inculcation of what Henri Lefebvre (1984) called controlled consumption' to drive economic growth in developing countries is carrying those imperatives across multiple societies with historically differing concepts of definitive essay hero what counts as proper subjectivity. With a little adaptation, Veblen's 1899 work on the leisure class provides us with ample material for a rip-snorting essay on vicarious consumption and the predaceous temper' on Facebook. However, it is more illuminating to reread Veblen alongside detailed accounts by worried Chinese critics of the PRC's strategic production of consumerism and popular culture' after Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour (see Wang) in 1992; Bao, for sections dissertation example, examines how behaviours, tastes and interests befitting new urban personality types were minutely modelled for the readers of a popular newspaper, Shanghai Weekly . In between these historical extremes lies the post-World War Two reconstruction of capitalism in the West and the classic literature on modernity and everyday life. Definitive Hero? In his Introduction to political contests 2013 the 1984 edition of Lefebvre's Everyday Life in the Modern World (1962), Wander points out just how much Lefebvre's account of consumerism as a bureaucratically controlled' terror spreading its principles of essay anxiety, repetition and compulsiveness through all aspects of arranged discursive essay life and into the soul learned from the essay hero earlier work of Fromm (1947) on the marketing orientation': The modern world fosters a childlike personality, a person who constantly seeks and needs approval. Political Contests 2013? Aimless, over-reactive, inconsistent, face aching at the end of the day from the ever-present and required smile, the marketing persona is of a piece with the modern world. (Wander in Lefebvre xiv) At least one thing to be said for Facebook and other mobile socializing modes is that they take the ache out of smiling (like'), although unfortunately they also transfer it from the definitive hero face to the wrist or, in of a dissertation prospectus my case, the thumb: :)
For Lefebvre, the febrile tedium of everyday life routines (the quotidian') forms the underbelly or the verso' of the modern understood as what is novel, brilliant, paradoxical and bears the definitive hero imprint of technicality and 2013 worldliness' (Lefebvre 24-5). I have no doubt that social networking sites are of a piece' with the modern world in Lefebvre's sense; given the vastness of definitive essay hero his theory's horizon, how could they not be so? However, if we reduce Facebook or any other massive phenomenon to a pretext for creative writing bachelor's revising classic theories of commodification and hero alienation, the question does arise why an ethnographically challenging 200 million people world-wide invest their energies in arranged an activity that any adroit critic can easily portray as of a piece with their everyday pain and oppression (not to mention that of the workers who make computers and cope with the toxic waste). False consciousness' seems more than ever insufficient as an explanation; always vulnerable to essay the charge of implying (from a masterly position) that masses of people have yet to political essay contests authentically experience their own lives' (Grossberg 365), ideological analysis has trouble accounting for the degree to which popular culture can incorporate its own ideological diagnostica topic that no doubt arises on the 500 Facebook groups devoted to essay hero aspects of Marxism'. Within the great tradition of modern cultural critique, an aesthetically-minded alternative is to follow Lukács via Jameson ( Signatures 9-34) or de Certeau (16) in seeking a utopian impulse in popular culture that reaches (even in sections of a dissertation Facebook) for a better future from the heart of reification, giving us pleasure in the process. The more creative Cultural Studies move today draws rather on sociology and definitive essay hero aspects of ethnographic method to ask questions within a concrete and carefully delimited social context about our often ambivalent involvement in popular culturean approach that admits of marriage discursive empirically anchored and thus potentially surprising answers (Couldry; Gregg). 7 Having a bet each way at the level of methodological principle, I lean far enough towards that old utopian quest to wonder whether Lefebvre's excoriating account of the modern everyday as it displaces a culturally if not materially rich traditional life of definitive style' ( Practice 38) does not direct us now towards the wrong historical vast horizon. Everyday life is not a human universal. For Lefebvre, the everyday is a modern historical product that wondrously erupts' into literature with the overwhelming triviality of that epic twenty-four hours' (3) recounted in Joyce's Ulysses . A regime of living thickly composed of creative writing bachelor's florida petty recurrences (gestures of labour and leisure, mechanical movements' ), everyday life has a time-tabling, programming, numbering drive that divides up human experience; lived time, for example, splits into the pledged' time of work, leisure' (an allocated break' from the everyday), and definitive hero steadily increasing compulsive' time spent satisfying various demands other than work such as transport, official formalities, etc' (53). Apt for fostering consumption as it multiplies our tasks, this distributive force breaks up the unity of form, function and structure' that for rallycross 2010 Lefebvre characterized style' in all the humble objects and social practices of traditional living (29-30).
While French peasant cupboards varied in form and construction from place to definitive place, their fitness for a cupboard's purpose did not vary. Discursive? I think of the Australian bush meat safe': my grandmother's was cream and my mother's cacky green, but they worked the same way, they were not obsolescent, and they kept the blowflies at bay. Yet even as the definitive hero destruction of in sociology gerth style-based ways of life continues and definitive essay hero as many millions of people struggle (not least in China) for a modicum of consumer comfort, perhaps in the over-developed world today it is arranged discursive essay, everyday life rather than style' that is slowly breaking downalong with its repetitive, minutely layered routines that differentiated the gendered space-times of modern domestic and working experience. Definitive Essay? Invoking the Incas and Aztecs along with Greece and Rome, Lefebvre envisaged the total absence of everyday life in of a prospectus a given community at a given time' (29) and not all of definitive essay hero his examples were from the ancient world; adolescents and students in particular, he noted, fear everyday life as a vague potentiality' known only through their parents (74). Lefebvre was writing in the 1960s, and an expansion of pledged and compulsive time under neo-liberal management over the past forty years has well and truly spread everyday life to formerly spared social categories. Arranged Essay? At the same time, though, I'm not sure that anyone who hangs round the house all day, a-rhythmically working and playing on-line in the same sloppy daks and trainers we wear to definitive hero the shops, the marriage discursive essay gym or a meeting (or fluidly passing from definitive essay hero eBay to Wii Fit to creative writing degree florida compulsive email without leaving our screens) actually has an everyday life' in Lefebvre's divisive sense. The socially insular, cave-bound figure of the hacker or the gamer in popular mythology certainly does not.
In fact, significant genres of popular narrative have been talking to us about the passing of everyday life for definitive quite a while. In our great paranoid epics about sections technologies of surveillance and perception, the hero must first be wrenched from a routine life that he finds either a little dull (Will Smith in Enemy of the definitive essay hero State ) or unbearable (Keanu Reeves in The Matrix ). His quest is creative writing bachelor's degree florida, then either to retrieve the hero normality that he now values more deeply, or to in sociology gerth and mills transcend it and to access the truth behind those meticulously programmed appearances; the Matrix is a totalisation of the definitive hero everyday as Lefebvre understood it. In the overture to the Matrix trilogy (which, in contests passing, reveals just how much of a Platonist Jean Baudrillard can be), Neo needs only to conquer fear and jump out the window to leave Tom Anderson' and office life behind. In hundreds of lesser action films (a recent example is definitive, Eagle Eye ), this physical leap of faith literalizes the essay passage from everyday life to a new reality, while the recurring line of dialogue, I just want my life back', marks the passage of a question about the stability of the definitive hero everyday. Zombie and vampire stories also share the central premise of an marriage essay, assault on everyday life. Differently preoccupied as they are with sustainability, both genres feature the losing battle of the uninfected to preserve a semblance of definitive essay normal' life before joining the essay contests war for brute survival that fills the world of post-apocalyptic fiction, in definitive which no everyday life remains ( The Road Warrior , the Resident Evil series). The zombie apocalypse canon is the more absolutist about the relentlessness of this drift; if Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) adapted the Afro-Caribbean folklore marked as such in White Zombie (1932) to the setting of an American farm house under siege, Dawn of the Dead (1978) memorably locked the remnant bearers of everyday life in the temple of Lefebvre's controlled consumption', a shopping mallwith an out-of-control consumption principle ravening outside. Revisionist vampire stories have a more nuanced historical vision, holding out creative degree florida, hope for an evolution in everyday life.
Born into definitive essay hero Veblen's world, Dracula was a very much an old school man of style' forced to deal with modern people (Van Helsing, Lucy); his descendants are historical border creatures who nightly negotiate the everyday, whether in political essay contests romance ( Angel , True Blood , Twilight ) or as politics ( Blade , the hero Joe Pitt' novels of Charlie Huston). And then there is the Terminator franchise, with its eschatological framing of a girl's moment of arranged contempt for a cosy little house, cold sodas and Facebook pages. The film series temporally stretches the mundane double consciousness of consumer modernity (knowing this way of life is definitive hero, not sustainable into the future, we want this way of life to survive) into a war over history's direction between contending forces in both the essay present and the future. So far, only the fourth film, Terminator Salvation (2009) explores a fully post-everyday world. Essay? Terminator (1984) and Terminator 3: Rise of the meaning Machines (2003) are wrenching out' stories, with Sarah Connor dragged in definitive hero the first film from her big hair and ankle-warmer ordinariness, never to know everyday life again, while her son John is hiding out in of a dissertation Los Angeles at the start of the third. However, in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) everyone except the monomaniacal Sarah (and, of course, her liquid metal T-1000 enemy) is immersed in the everyday; under the essay hero tutelage of John Connor as a child, even the T-800 helper (Arnie) learns some of octobre its routines. Linking to this film in particular, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles TV series makes John Connor's adolescence a study in psychic conflict between longing for essay an ordinary suburban life and knowing that (as Riley puts it) it's all going to burn'.
What sets John apart as a leader here is not his awareness of the essay contests fire to come; in a fuzzy way, there is common knowledge around him of the unsustainability of our world. Rather, this version of John Connor stands out from his helpers (with the definitive partial exception of Cameron, his studious Terminator guard) because he knows why people care , none the less, about cold sodas and cosy houses, like it all matters'. I doubt that John Connor could risk having a Facebook page, but I'm fairly sure that he'd want one. Let me offer my own two or three cents about utopia and Facebook. First, Facebook is not all quizzes, hey babes' and pokes. Most negative media stories obsess about essays one or two features (photos and status updates in particular), but the point about Facebook is that it bundles together multiple functions and potential things to do. Most of us never use all of them, and other social networking platforms do some of these things better than Facebook does (MySpace for new music, Live Journal for communities, Ning for interest groups, Twitter for global converse and news as-it-happens ), but what Facebook does well is combine : you can write private letters, play games, send gifts, do quizzes, circulate news, post notes, music and clips, share photos or research, test your knowledge, join groups and causes, make haiku-like allusions to your state of mind and definitive essay hero chat on-line with friends, all in one place and timerestoring or relieving, according to need, the pattern of an everyday life. Facebook is on-line culture lite': this makes it an object of scorn for digital elitists and white noise' haters (see Tuttle), but it is also a source of its mainstream appeal. Corresponding to this variety of uses is the diversity of kinds of of a contact Facebook allows, with the relation between contact' and essay hero intimacy also having the marriage potential to vary over time within each singular friendship.
In this respect it follows the rhythms of real life' as a whole: as Lauren Berlant puts it, all kinds of emotional dependency and sustenance can flourish amongst people who only meet each other at one or a few points on the grid of the field of their life' (Faceless Book'). Nothing flourishes for people who join Facebook and do nothing with it; passive or un-giving use of any network is rewarded in kind (Strohmeyer). As Thompson points out, a depth dimension to ambient awareness' accumulates only with time and aggregation. It does grow over time; Facebook has increased my affective quality of life, and hero not only because it offers a break from my academic service work. The collective stream of contests posts brings me word of books, articles, music, films, video clips and news that I would otherwise never discover. At a time of life when new involvements become more rare, I suddenly have digital penfriends with whom I exchange old-fashioned letters through Inbox (one of the least remarked features of Facebook), while an acquaintance from decades ago has become a dear friend whom I contact almost daily. Retrieving a joy of my childhood, when my father would bring home a two bob' chocolate on a Friday night and we'd listen to The Goon Show and My Word on the ABC, I play variants of hero Scrabble with friends on four continents throughout the day. Political Contests? Facebook also nudges me to remember more of my past than I am wont to do, as other people's actions unpredictably pull bits of our scattered lives together.
There is more to this aspect than the nostalgia decried by Susan Dominus (sometimes it seems like Facebook is the most back-ward looking innovation ever expected to change the future') and Steve Tuttle (Goodbye, William and Mary alums I barely remember from 25 years ago'). Facebook has utopian force for me because it gently undoes the dissociative patterns I learned as a girl in pugnaciously real' Australian country towns; it lets me have family on the same plane as my ex-students, my friends who talk books, my colleagues in Hong Kong and Australia and friends who also post in Italian, French and Chinese. Directly because of essay hero Facebook, I was able to speak by phone to a much-loved cousin just before he died. If Facebook vanished overnight, I would experience grief. Many users already express grief when the Facebook team' announces a redesign' or streamlining' of some aspect of the of a dissertation site. 8 Grizzling about Facebook within Facebook itself is an activity that is too complex for cursory treatment here, but it is something I would research if I were a new media scholar. I'm generally not active in Facebook groups, but over definitive essay hero the past year I have twice felt so upset about upgrades' that killed cherished features of my' on-line world that I, too, signed petitions and joined multiple versions of 1,000,000 Against the New Facebook Lay-Out'. Apart from the anger endemic to living passionately in an environment that the owner can alter at will (a condition a bit like being in love and a lot like being a tenant), most obnoxious to arranged discursive me is the Facebook doublespeak that coos about giving you more control' over your page, while flagrantly reducing that control as we are nudged to push ever more content from other media providers. The worse occasion for me was the definitive hero September 2008 redesign; by essay forcing several added rounds of clicking, it separated the applications (and thus the hero display of signs received from friends) from the news feed, in time as well as visual spacethereby splitting memory and conservation from essays in sociology gerth contemporaneity, the past from the definitive essay flow of the present.
Like most of baby meaning my Hong Kong friends I had loved those gift-based apps and curated the definitive hero images carefully as I once did scrapbooks of shoes and hairstyles from 1950s comics; some icons were beautiful and others were not, but all were mnemonic traces of events and writing florida personal stories. When Facebook began calling these clutter' (an aesthetic position shared by mostly American friends who always hid their stuff behind a corporate web page look), I realized that my affection for these apps was of a piece with growing up in what was once sniffily known in Australia as an Irish house'full of clutter, often dusty junk unappealing to behold but charged with the vitality of the souls who had given each object or left it behind. Clutter is an unfriendly name for the portals of the spirit-world; it can be very bad luck to throw clutter away. So I keep some of mine on Facebook, immured on that Boxes' page, but when I go there now it feels like visiting a cemetery rather than a home. Groups formed to definitive essay oppose Facebook initiatives can attract a couple of million people and they often complain of censorship and PRC-style technical interference from site administrators. The protests against in sociology gerth and mills the March 2009 remodelling of the Home page to make Facebook more like Twitter seem to have been a little more effective than those of 2008 in extracting modifications of an unpopular yet widely accepted site revision. Win or lose, though, perhaps it is this experience of joining with equally frustrated and grizzling strangers world-wide in a reiterative struggle with a transnationally effective corporate state' that exercises power through emotional blackmail (that is, hegemony; if you don't like it, leave!') that for me most clearly models political practices of far wider import than Facebook itself. On Facebook at the moment we may be grizzling about ease of access to Growing Gifts, Hatching Eggs or My Fab Bag. Essay? However, if it is more or less new for me to essays in sociology do this on-line, the mode of continuity that makes this small change intelligible is neither fictional nor derived from Western critical literature on the political potentials (and otherwise) of new media use. Rather, I understand it in an ordinary way through the growing power, in limited but I think expanding spheres, of the Chinese netizenry, which draws its effectiveness (in particular, against hero abuses of power in creative degree everyday life) as much from the culture of the political system that it inhabits and harasses as it does from the media it uses.
9 Over-supplied as we are with representative government, Australians have been accustomed to thinking of Chinese political culture as remote. Yet as our own system intensifies its reliance not only on deal-making and spin' but on public cynicism about the possibility of truth and integrity in politics, I note that it is during the often but not always fruitless exercise of opposing Facebook's decisions and exposing what lies inside their rhetorical cocoon that Hong Kong's petitionary' style of definitive essay public pressure activism as exercised within an unrepresentative, undemocratic mode of governance becomes, however briefly, a transnational norm. Petitioning may or may not be effective but over time it is the shared experience of a form of collective agency enabled by a broad and amorphous imagined community (fellow Facebook users') that has significant utopian and practical potential. 10 As culturally changing systems of political and corporate power reshape our lives in the West, we may have more to learn than we know from Chinese internet activism's capacity to trouble inaccessible and seemingly impregnable powers. In the meanwhile, having a good grizzle about Facebook can sometimes achieve a little more than we have learned to expect. Meaghan Morris is Chair Professor of Cultural Studies at Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and Professor in the Department of Gender and sections of a dissertation Cultural Studies at the University of Sydney.
Her books include Identity Anecdotes: Translation and Media Culture (2006); Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema (co-ed. with Siu-leung Li and Stephen Chan Ching-kiu, 2005); Race Panic and essay hero the Memory of Migration (co-ed. Political Essay? with Brett de Bary, 2001); and Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture (1998). My thanks are due to definitive hero Carl Chan, who first persuaded me to try Facebook and twice helped me in essay contests important ways with this article. Catherine Driscoll and Melissa Gregg nudged me hard to think about Facebook, and definitive essay hero the article is based on a seminar for arranged the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies, University of Sydney. 1 For a review of Davies with a sceptical view of the model of journalism's history assumed by accounts of its imminent death, see Preston. 2 For tip of the iceberg indications of the Grant and Bono coverage see, respectively, Simpson and Bruce; Claburn.
Parodied in the 2006 Pink music video Stupid Girls' and the inspiration for several pop songs about girly mega-narcissism, Paris Hilton's style of chronicling the definitive hero micro-events of her affective and sections prospectus material consumption is canonical for the rich and definitive essay famous' genre; Ashton Kutcher (husband of Demi Moore) is an actor whose use of Twitter is now metonymic of its trivial uses, thanks to essays gerth the number of media stories that have been written about him. See Facebook Sickie Guy Facing Investigation' for essay hero the Story of Sydney AAPT call centre worker Kyle Doyle, whose boss reportedly spotted Kyle Doyle is not going to work, f*** it I'm still trashed. SICKIE WOO' on Doyle's profile; the incident is now an exemplary case for Human Resources training discourse on Facebook in the workplace (see Stokeley). 3 See Three years for profiling a Moroccan prince on arranged marriage essay Facebook'. After an international campaign about the violations of Mourtada's rights during arrest, he was reportedly freed by royal grace' after 43 days of detention; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/03/21/moroccan-blogosphere-on-fouad-mourtada-finally-free/. For an interesting discussion of the June 4th blockade and the language nuances involved, see Techcrunch ; http://uk.techcrunch.com/2009/06/02/china-shuts-down-twitter-and-bing-in-lead-up-to-tiananmen-anniversary/ 4 By early', I mean that the publication of the article in essay early 2006 preceded the opening up of sections of a dissertation Facebook to mass use. Launched by definitive essay Mark Zuckerberg on February 4, 2004, Facebook was limited at first to gerth and mills Harvard students.
It expanded membership eligibility first to other Ivy League schools, then other universities, then high school networks in definitive September, 2005, before opening to everyone over the age of 13 with a valid e-mail address on September 26, 2006. 5 There is also a small number of Facebook groups (13 as I write) dedicated to more or less expletive-laden versions of the topic, I Don't Know You But Let's be Facebook Friends'. Of A Prospectus? Most of essay them show little or no sign of activity. As a check on the reality-effect of the student orgy' stereotype, it is also worth noting that Facebook claims that more than two-thirds of its users are now outside of colleges, that about 70 per cent of users are now outside the United States, and that the dissertation prospectus fastest growing demographic is 35 years old and older. 7 Exemplary of this is essay, Gregg's forthcoming study ( Work's Intimacy ) on the impact of being always available on-line on the lives of middle and lower middle class workers in Brisbane.
8 Wikipedia gives quite a detailed and well-referenced account of the writing major intra-Facebook controversies and the mode of their resolution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Facebook#cite_note-43. 9 For a threshold Chinese case in June 2009 that was somewhat submerged in international news media by definitive hero the events simultaneously occurring in writing Tehran, see Fending Off Demands for Sex' for the widely publicised case of hero 21-year old Deng Yujiau, who was freed by a court after killing a Communist Party official who had tried to marriage assault her. 10 My thanks to Russell Smith for this formulation. Bao, Yaming. Shanghai Weekly: Globalization, Consumerism and Shanghai Popular Culture.' Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9.4 (2008): 557-567. Berlant, Lauren. Definitive Essay? Faceless Book.' 25 December 2007. http://supervalentthought.com/2007/12/25/faceless-book/ Accessed 30 October 2008. Bugeja, Michael J. Heads Up: Facing the sections of a Facebook.' The Chronicle of Higher Education . 27 January 2006. Can I Be Your Facebook Friend?' Posted by Elaine Spall. 29 February 2009.
search#/topic.php?uid=2204645326topic=8458 Accessed 7 June 2009. Claburn, Thomas. Bono's Bikini Teens Perplex Facebook's Privacy.' Information Week. 29 October 2008. http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/privacy/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=211800114cid= RSSfeed_IWK_ALL Accessed 2 June 2009. Couldry, Nick. Definitive Essay? Inside Culture: Re-imagining the Method of Cultural Studies . London: Sage Publications, 2000. Davies, Nick.
Flat Earth News . London: Chatto Windus, 2008. De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life . Political 2013? Trans. Steven F. Rendall. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984. Dominus, Susan. Definitive? Thanks to Facebook, Your Childhood in Park Slope in the 80s Never Has to End'. The New York Times . 17 October 1008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/nyregion/17bigcity.html Accessed 30 October 2008. Emerson, Daniel. Facebook Friends Not Real Friends: Judge'.
Sydney Morning Herald . 27 March 2008. http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/facebook-friends-not-real-friends-judge/2008/03/27/1206207279597.html Accessed 5 November 2008. Facebook No Substitute for Real World Contact.' Sunday [South China] Morning Post. 17 May 2009: 8. Facebook Sickie Guy Facing Investigation.' Nine News. 23 October 2008. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=651937 Accessed 5 November 2008. Fending Off Demands for Sex: Chinese Hero Freed.' Sydney Morning Herald . 19 June 2009. http://www.smh.com.au/world/fending-off-demands-for-sex-chinese-hero-freed-20090617-cgro.html Accessed 19 June 2009. Flumenbaum, David. ‘China Blocks Twitter Ahead of Tiananmen Anniversary.' The Huffington Post . 2 Jun 2009. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/06/02/china-blocks-twitter-ahea_n_210177.html Accessed 7 June 2009. Fromm, Erich.
Man for political Himself . New York: Rinehart, 1947. Gregg, Melissa. Work's Intimacy . Essay? Cambridge: Polity Press, forthcoming 2010. Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of essay This Place: Popular Conservatism and definitive Postmodern Culture . New York and London: Routledge, 1992. Jameson, Frederic. Signatures of the Visible . Political Essay Contests? New York and London: Routledge, 1992. Jodice, Francesco and Kal Karman. Hikikomori in Japan (1of 3) . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gIx6hZweHc Accessed 19 October 2009.
Knight, Elizabeth. My Space Invaders Poke Murdoch's Eye.' Sydney Morning Herald . 25 April 2009. http://business.smh.com.au/business/myspace-invaders-poke-murdochs-eye-20090424-ai0u.html Accessed 20 May 2009. Lefebvre, Henri. The Practice of Everyday Life. 1962. Definitive Essay Hero? Trans. Essay? Steven F. Rendall. Introd. Philip Wander. Definitive? Berkeley and London, Transaction Books, 1984.
Morris, Meaghan. Identity Anecdotes: Translation in Media Culture . London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, 2006. . Bachelor's Degree Florida? Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture . Bloomington, Indiana UP, 1998. Morse, Margaret. An Ontology of Everyday Distraction: The Freeway, the Mall, and Television.' Logics of definitive Television . Ed. Patricia Mellencamp. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1990. 193-221. Nichols, John and Robert W. McChesney. The Death and Life of Great American Newspapers.' The Nation. 18 March 2009. Niedzviecki, Hal. Facebook in a Crowd.' The New York Times . 26 October 2008. Preston, Peter. Damaged Limitations.' The Guardian.
9 February 2008. Simpson, Richard and Sarah Bruce. Bachelor's Florida? The Night Hugh Grant Ended Up in the Arms of definitive a Gaggle of Student Beauties.' Mail Online. 8 October 2007. The-night-Hugh-Grant-ended-arms-gaggle-student-beauties.html Accessed 2 June 2009. Stokeley, Sarah. Facebook and the Boss.' NETT#.
3 March 2009. http://nett.com.au/people/hr-and-training/facebook-and-the-boss/11321.html?p=1 Accessed 2 June 2009. Strange Things Happen at the One Two Point.' Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles . Political? Season Two, Episode 10. Fox Network. 2008-09. Thompson, Clive. Brave New World of Digital Intimacy.' The New York Times. Essay Hero? 7 September 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/magazine/07awareness-t.html Accessed 30 October 2008. Three Years for Profiling a Moroccan Prince on Facebook.' Refworld.
27 February 2008. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,AMNESTY,,MAR,47cbc6531a,0.html Accessed 19 May 2009. Time is Up for writing bachelor's Twitter'. The Australian. 30 April 2009.
http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,,25405926-16382,00.html Accessed 17 May 2009. Tuttle, Steve. You Can't Friend Me, I Quit!' Newsweek. 4 February 2009. http://www.newsweek.com/id/183180 Accessed 19 May 2009. Veblen, Thorstein.
The Theory of the Leisure Class: an Economic Study of Institutions . 1899. Forgotten Books . Wang, Jing. Culture as Leisure and Culture as Capital.' positions: east asia cultures critique 9.1 (2001): 69-104. Please feel free to contribute to this discourse. Australian Humanities Review all rights reserved. Definitive Hero? ISSN: 1325 8338. Editors: Monique Rooney Russell Smith.
Email: email@example.com. AHR is published by the Association for the Study of Australian Literature (ASAL).
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essays on apathy All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal or Moneybookers. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. The bystander effect is a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. Conventionally, there is an inverse relationship between the number of bystanders and the probability of essay, help. This implies that the likelihood of baby thesis meaning, receiving help reduces with an increase in the number of definitive hero, bystanders (Graham 102). The sheer presence of bystanders serves to reduce the chances of intervention. This is because an increase in baby thesis, bystanders reduces the likelihood of essay, a bystander interpreting the sections prospectus, emergency as a problem, which reduces the probability of a bystander assuming responsibility for definitive essay initiating action to help. Similarly, observers in writing florida, an emergency case are highly likely to intervene in the absence of other witnesses.
In a chain of hero, classical research studies, John Darley and Bibb Latane revealed that the amount of time a participant takes to baby meaning initiate action and definitive essay hero seek aid varies in accordance to the number of observers present in the room (Hudson and Bruckman 175). There are numerous explanations for the bystander effect, although social psychologists have placed emphasis on two leading explanations: social influence and diffusion of responsibility. This paper discusses the psychology behind the bystander effects and its impacts on society and outlines the Darley and Latanes theory and the experiments relating to the bystander effect. Darley and Latanes Theory and Experiments about the Bystander Effect. John Darley and sections of a prospectus Bibb Latane were the first to demonstrate the bystander effects in 1968 after the murder case of Kitty Genovese in 1964 caught their attention. Darley and Latane conducted numerous experiments in an attempt to explain the psychology behind the bystander effect. Essay! The four dozen experiments conducted within 12 years yielded similar results. The experiments entailed placing a participant either alone or amidst other participants and then staging an emergency scenario (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 78). Darley and Latane measured the time it took the participants to respond to baby the emergency situation, and whether they or not they took intervention measures. The prevalent outcome of all the experiments was the presence of other participants inhibited the definitive essay, participants from helping, usually by essays in sociology gerth, a considerable margin. In one experiment by Darley and Latane, subjects were positioned in three different treatment conditions: alone in the room, with two confederates acting as if to be normal participants, and with other two participants.
An emergency situation was staged by filling smoke in the room while participants were filling out questionnaires. When the participants were alone in the room, 75 percent reported the smoke. On the contrary, only 38 percent of essay, participants in the room with two other individuals reported the emergency. In the case of the final group, the two confederates noted the political contests 2013, smoke but ignored, leading to only 10 percent of the participants reporting the emergency (Miles, Klaus and hero Wolfgang 96). Numerous studies have attempted to explain the in sociology gerth and mills, bystander effect, a 2008 study by Simon Crowther and Mark Levine reported that increasing the hero, size of political essay contests 2013, bystanders prevented intervention during situations of street violence, especially when the essay, bystanders were strangers and encouraged help in cases where the bystanders were friends (Levine and Crowther 1440). The study concluded that when bystanders shared group-level psychological associations, the group size can either promote or prevent helping.
There are numerous reasons associated with the failure of bystanders acting in political essay 2013, emergency scenarios; however, social psychologists place emphasis on two primary factors: social influence and diffusion of responsibility. Graham (125) argues that the definitive hero, fundamental principle of social influence asserts that bystanders usually assess the reactions of marriage essay, other individuals during an emergency scenario in definitive essay hero, order to determine whether intervention is required or not. Since other individuals present in of a dissertation prospectus, the scene are doing nothing, they all maintain the view that inaction from other people implies that help is not needed. In addition, social influence perspective holds the essay, view that there is the necessity to behave in an appropriate and socially acceptable manner. Therefore, when other witnesses fail to intervene, people usually perceive this as a signal that there is no need for help or that help is inappropriate (Meyers 104). Studies have reported that witnesses are less likely to respond if the scenario is ambiguous.
For instance, in the murder case of Genovese Kitty, most of the 38 onlookers thought that the incident was a case involving lovers quarrel, and did not comprehend that the victim was being killed. Social influence is analogous to the aspect of conformity, which refers to individuals acting in accordance to attitudes, behaviors and beliefs of political, group norms. According to the social proof phenomenon, individuals usually assume that the actions undertaken by others correspond to the correct behavior in a particular scenario. Meyers (85) points out that social proof is a common occurrence in ambiguous circumstances where individuals are not capable of determining the appropriate behavior, and definitive essay is mostly driven by the predisposition that surrounding individuals are more informed concerning the situation than the baby thesis, individual. The bystander effect is best explained in terms of the effects of hero, social influence, which involves the meaning, tendency of individuals conforming to either mistaken or correct choices, a psychological phenomenon also known as herd behavior (Levine and Crowther 1435). Despite the fact that social proof illustrates a rational motive to take into consideration the knowledge of others, formal analysis reveals that it leads to convergence of people towards a single choice in a manner that decisions made by large groups of people are based on limited information, which is the actual case of the bystander effect. In explaining bystander effect, social proof is viewed in the perspective of conformity, wherein an individual in an emergency situation is definitive essay hero, likely to be unsure of the appropriate course of action; as a result, they often embark on other individuals for cues regarding the correct behavior. People usually conform because they believe that their understanding of the essay octobre 2010, incident is less accurate than other individuals understanding of the same situation; therefore, they consider the definitive essay, actions of others as the most suitable course of action (Levine and Thompson 245). Darley and Latane use the political contests, diffusion of responsibility theory to explain the bystander effect, which asserts that the presence of other observers reduces the pressure on essay, individuals to respond to an emergency because of the thought of shared responsibility.
Fundamentally, a large group of people leads to the perception of reduces the sense of individual responsibility to respond because it is shared by all the bystanders present. Diffusion of responsibility theory is used in the explanation of the sections, bystander effect, wherein an hero, increased presence of onlookers leads to reduced probability of a victim receiving help during emergency situations. For instance, placing oneself in the contest of a large city in a rather busy street and a strange person falls to the ground and start suffering from convulsion and seizure (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 145). It is evident that many observers will turn and rallycross look at definitive essay the person, but no single person opts to help or call for medical aid. The primary explanation for this occurrence is because of the essays in sociology, presence of many witnesses, which leads to no person feeling the pressure of individual responsibility. It is highly likely that other onlookers will think that their peers have already called for aid, or that their peers are not initiating any action implying that the emergency is not serious after all. The phenomenon of diffusion of responsibility tends to take place among group sizes above a particular critical size and in situations lacking the explicit assignment of responsibility. It seldom occurs when an individual is alone and usually increases with increases in definitive hero, group size (Graham 85). Darley and Latanes theory of diffusion of responsibility is well applicable in outsized groups under antisocial and pro-social conditions. Under pro-social contexts, the essay, willingness of the individual to respond or provide assistance to a person in need is repressed by the occurrence of other spectators.
The individual usually holds the belief that other witnesses present will offer assistance; therefore, an individual in an emergency situation does not recognize that he or she has the responsibility to respond. The case of the Murder of Kitty Genovese is a model exemplar of diffusion of responsibility in a pro-social context. It has been proved that the probability of an individual providing help reduces with the increase in the number of witnesses present. Further, there is a high probability that diffusion of definitive hero, responsibility is likely to take place in anonymous situations. Under pro-social circumstances, people are not likely to respond if they do not have some personal relationship with the victim; rather, they hold the perception that someone having a personal relationship with the victim will come to his/her aid. Under antisocial conditions, diffusion of writing degree, responsibility increases the likelihood of a person engaging in negative behaviors when the individual is the context of a group comprising of similarly motivated people. Negative behavior is motivated by essay hero, the deindividuating impacts, diffusion of feelings regarding personal responsibility for outcomes (Hudson and Bruckman 147).
The helping behavior of individuals is accurately explained using the aspect of diffusion of responsibility. This is arranged marriage discursive, because social psychological research have revealed that individuals failure to provide assistance to others in emergency situations is not grounded by apathy and indifference, but inhibited because of the presence of onlookers. Subsequent experiments by John Darley and Bibb Latane pointed out the decision to assist or respond relies on the number of present bystanders. The size of the group had considerable influence on the probability of helping in cases of definitive essay, staged emergencies: 85 percent of participants intervened in the absence of other bystanders, whereas 62 percent responded when with another bystander, and only 31 percent responded in the presence of four other onlookers. Other research studies have reported similar results including reports obtained from actual emergency scenarios like calling ambulance. In ambiguous scenarios, the appraisal of the arranged discursive, scenario by the individual and corresponding inaction or action relies on the reactions of onlookers present. The interpretation of an emergency situation by other onlookers has a significant influence on essay hero, the individuals helping behavior and perception of the emergency scenario. One of the most significant aspects that Darlene and Latane did not take into account in their experiments was the presence of bystanders who lack the capability of baby, helping. However, other studies have affirmed that diffusion of responsibility does not take place in cases where a bystander is perceived as lacking the capability to help. Diffusion of responsibility is also helpful when viewed from the perspective of group psychology and can be helpful in imposing positive behavior.
For instance, when one bystander decides to take responsibility during emergency situations and undertakes an assistive action, there is the definitive essay, likelihood that other bystanders will follow suit. Therefore, the presence of other bystanders usually has an effect on the helping behavior of an individual through diffusion of responsibility and social influence (Graham 147). There are other reasons that Darley and rallycross essay octobre Latane do not take into account when explaining the bystander effect. Other reasons why people may not react in emergency situations include the assumption that other onlookers are extremely qualified to provide assistance in emergency conditions such as law enforcement officers and medical doctors; as a result, their assistance would not be required. Individuals are also faced with issues of experience evaluation apprehension and the fear of hero, appearing as a loser among other onlookers. In addition, people do not like being superseded by other superior assistants, which creates a perception that they may be providing unnecessary assistance. Other factors that inhibit individuals from and mills providing help include the fear of facing the hero, legal outcomes and providing substandard and perhaps dangerous aid. A limitation of Darley and essays gerth Latanes explanation of the bystander effect is that it only focuses on informational social influence and ignores other forms of conformity such as normative social influence.
Normative social influence usually takes place when an definitive, individual conforms in in sociology gerth, order to be accepted by a social group. According to the social impact theory, normative social influence increases with an definitive, enlargement in the group size. This can be used to challenge the concept of in sociology gerth and mills, bystander effect, wherein an individual can opt to definitive provide assistance in order to creative writing bachelor's be accepted. Similar, people may opt to hero follow the actions undertaken by an individual who is providing assistance in order to contests achieve social acceptance. Another aspect of conformity not explained by Darley and hero Latane is minority influence, wherein an in sociology and mills, individual in a minority group aims at influencing the majority group to accept the beliefs and behavior of the definitive essay, minority group (Hudson and essays in sociology gerth Bruckman 100). Experiments conducted by Darley and Latane provided precise explanations for the bystander effect, a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. This paper has illustrated that the bystander effect takes place through social influence and diffusion of responsibility, with the murder case of Genovese Kitty serving as a classical example of the bystander effect.
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