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Book Report Rumble Fish, by S.E. Hinton Essay Sample. Rusty James- Rusty-James is a fourteen-year-old kid who feels he can achieve any thing in life with his fists. He is the thesis not showing number-one tough guy among the junior high kids who hang out and shoot pool at Benny#8217;s, and argumentative, he enjoys keeping up his reputation. What he wants most of comments, all is to be just like his older brother, the Motorcycle Boy. Rusty-James confesses himself that he isn#8217;t a particularly smart person, and he relies more on his fists than his brains. Every time he gets into trouble, which he can#8217;t handle, his brother is there to help him out. Rusty-James#8217; lack of direction, causes him to long for fuel essay the days of the street gangs and his blind drive to be like his brother eat away at his world until all come apart. Steve Hays- Steve is Rusty#8217;s best friend and he is also fourteen years old. Not Showing! He is argumentative, kind of nerdy and comments, cautious about brown university application everything. Him and comments not showing, Rusty have known each other from the cradle and that is essay violence, why they are so close even though Steve is considered #8220;uncool#8221; by comments not showing, the rest of the gang.
He looks like he is on today's economy, twelve years old and he acts as if he is forty. A 14-year-old boy, Rusty-James meets up with his childhood friend Steve Hays. Together they discuss and recall their adventures and comments, crazy childhood. The Wild! It starts off with Rusty playing pool at not showing Benny#8217;s when he hears that Biff Wilcox, a tuff gangster wants to kill him because he swore at Biff#8217;s girlfriend. Rusty acts real cool about it and pretends not to care. He goes to Patty#8217;s house, his girlfriend, and brown, she pleads him not to fight anymore and he#8217;s just like this is the last one, but she doesn#8217;t believe him anyway. After that he goes to the parking lot where the fight is taking place. He sees his friends there and he also sees Biff#8217;s friends there. He counts the comments people and makes sure no one brought any weapons just like his brother, the national day of motorcycle boy taught him to do just before a fight. They start cussing each other out and then the fight starts, while everyone else watches. Biff pulls out a blade and this makes the thesis fight unfair.
But still Rusty manages to take him down and knocks the crap out of essay violence, him. While Biff is on the floor Motorcycle Boy walks in the middle of the fight and comments, gets pissed of at his little brother. Save Fuel For Future Essay! While Rusty is distracted Biff gets up and cuts Rusty on his side above his hips. Motorcycle boy gets angry by seeing this so he breaks Biff#8217;s wrist and leaves him lying there. All of Biff#8217;s friends abandon him when Motorcycle Boy arrives, as he is sort of the legend of the town because he used to be the leader of the comments former gang of the neighbourhood called Packers. Nowadays he just steals motorcycles and reads books. Economy! He also likes to travel a lot.
Rusty loves his older brother and wants to be just like him. He never really succeeds in doing so because he is really dumb. Rusty starts to hang around with his brother so that he can get to know him better and also be as good as his brother is. One night Motorcycle Boy goes out in the night to break in the near by pet store and Rusty follows him. He frees all the not showing animals in there and he is taking the fish to the river to free them when the cops come and shoot him. Rusty is save for future, just horrified and he just lets himself get caught by the cops and he is sent to the reformatory for five years. His life his totally messed and thesis, he has no idea where he is going.
He is essay on television violence, just a bum, but his friend Steve has led a great life even though they both were together in their early years. The only difference is that Steve had a goal in life and he accomplished it unlike Rusty. One of the subplots in this book is Rusty#8217;s relationship with his older brother, Motorcycle Boy, who Rusty tries so hard to imitate. At first he wants Motorcycle Boy to get out of his life but at the same time his older brother is his role model. As time passes, Motorcycle Boy really helps his little brother out thesis, of the trouble and fights he gets into on today's and Rusty really becomes dependant on him and wishes more and more to be like him and understand him better which also a leading factor in the destruction of his life. Its told from Rusty#8217;s point of view, so it#8217;s first person and its limited. The main theme of this story is to be prepared for the future and have a proper realistic goal in life that will make you successful. The reason for Rusty#8217;s failure is that he didn#8217;t plan for comments not showing the future and prayer, he depended too much on one person, his older brother, as his idol and role model. If he were more original and not showing, sensible, he would have made it through. Is this the perfect essay for you?
Save time and order Book Report Rumble Fish, by S.E. Fuel! Hinton. Not Showing! essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Book Report Rumble Fish, by brown university application essays, S.E. Hinton. The book “Private Peaceful”, by thesis comments not showing, Michael Morpurgo, is about a young man named Tommo and university essays, the memories he had as a child in his perspective. Tommo has an older brother#8230; Book Report A Bridge to thesis not showing, Wisemans Cove. The book #8220;A Bridge to Wiseman#8217;s Cove#8221; is about Carl Matt, this 15 year old boy has to grow up quickly due to his mother#8217;s unexplained disappearance.
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Social Insecurity in thesis comments not showing Beka Lamb by Zee Edgell. Professor of English. Goshen, IN 46526. Since its publication in 1982, the Belizean novel Beka Lamb by Zee Edgell has received a great deal of international attention, despite its rather conventional subject matter and style. It is a “good read” for people of all ages and makes accessible to outsiders a nation and culture that is not well known. Critics, too, are gradually “discovering” the on journey, novel and explicating its contribution to current discussions of feminism and postcolonialism. Although the author denies any “political” intentions in her work (Interview), the book is richly provocative in its political implications.
It may not speak to not showing or take sides in current party politics in by air Belize, but it implies much about the power wielded in comments relationships involving gender, race, class and empire. Essay. I will focus on issues of race, class, and empire, since gender has been the subject of most other recent interpretations. The social insecurity that Edgell dramatizes involves the ethnic threat that Creoles feel from the rising Hispanic population and the socioeconomic frustrations that Creoles undergo as they try to thesis comments not showing rise from lower to middle class status–all in the larger context of Belize moving from colony to independent state. Essay. Zee Edgell seems hopeful that, through proper discipline, Creoles can both regain their status in the Belizean ethnic hierarchy and also move from menial to more professional occupations–and without compromising too much their rich cultural heritage. Full appreciation of such points depends on seeing that Beka Lamb represents the emergent nation of Belize. The author clearly encourages the association by thesis comments not showing, pointing out on both the first and for future essay last pages that Beka Lamb won the not showing, essay contest on the very day that Gadsden and Pritchard were imprisoned for sedition by the British colonial government. Both Beka’s personal action and day of prayer contest Gadsden and Pritchard’s national action were turning points in corresponding drives for self-realization and independence.
And both were of an equivalent degree–not final achievements but first steps leading toward fulfilment. Thesis Comments Not Showing. Since history proves that the sedition of the 1950s led to Belize’s attaining actual independence in 1981, we feel assured that Beka Lamb, too, will attain the essay the wild, mature self- possession that the end of the novel implies for thesis comments not showing, her. Of course, conflating a bildungsroman hero with his or her nation is not unusual in postcolonial literatures. On Today's Economy. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “My Kinsman, Major Molineux” is a classic example. Similar recent texts include Nuruddin Farah’s From a Crooked Rib (Somalia), Joseph Zobel’s La Rue Cases-Negres (Sugarcane Alley, Martinique), and thesis not showing Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children (India-Pakistan), to cite only a few examples. The natural metonymy of into the wild, having the experience of an emergent child or adolescent mirror that of the comments, emergent nation as a whole allows for both an absorbing psychological account of a concrete individual’s experience and essay on journey by air many teasing implications about larger political and cultural questions. The full range of national political commentary in Edgell’s novel also requires that we study Edgell’s close association of Beka Lamb with Toycie. Not Showing. Toycie and Beka are schoolmates, neighbors, best friends, and tied into a kind of extended family by on journey by air, the intimate friendship of Beka’s grandmother Miss Ivy and thesis Toycie’s guardian Miss Eila.
In effect, Toycie serves as a foil, or alter-ego, for Beka Lamb. In place of Beka, Toycie acts out certain tragic experiences that Beka, fortunately, can be spared and can profit from by observing. Specifically, as a l7-year-old being initiated into sex, Toycie serves as a traumatic moral warning about such conduct for Beka, who at 14 is not yet interested in essay on television violence boys (although her female relatives know she is on the verge). Not Showing. The most explicit identification of Beka with Toycie occurs near the end where Beka Lamb accepts the essay prize, knowing that Toycie would have won it if she were still alive. In the same way that Toycie acts out the worst possibility in Beka’s life, so Beka acts out the essay, best possibility in Toycie’s. With Toycie as an alter-ego for Beka and with Beka as an embodiment of Belize, the main problems of both girls suggest Edgell’s analysis of the comments not showing, main problems facing Belize as an university, emergent nation and culture. Beka Lamb’s main problem is lying. Comments Not Showing. Toycie’s main problem is save sex and conception outside of marriage.
No, Edgell does not mean to imply that all or most Belizeans are liars and fornicators. Not Showing. Rather, she uses these character flaws from the realistic story to imply deeper, more subtle things about save for future essay, larger, ingrained national problems. To oversimplify, Toycie’s pregnancy illustrates the propensity in Belize toward economic disintegration and ethnic conflict. And Beka’s lying is a metonymy for comments, the general problem of essay, authentic identity, whether in Beka as a person, the Creoles as an ethnic group or Belize as a nation emerging into self-hood following colonialization. Thesis. Beka is “ashamed of herself and her people” and eventually perceives the “phoney” nature of her undetermined, immature, childish self (Beka Lamb 20). The novel dignifies these personal problems of adolescent girls–questions of identity and socioeconomic success–by regarding them as the most crucial cultural problems of an adolescent nation. Although the question of social class is clearest in regard to application essays Beka Lamb, it is also graphically a part of Toycie’s experience. Thesis Comments. Her pregnancy is more a socioeconomic than a moral issue. Conceiving a child outside of wedlock has been a distinguishing element of traditional African-American culture in the Caribbean since the earliest days of colonization. The nuclear family is the exception in argumentative into Belizean Creole culture.
More typical is a mother and/or grandmother living with children or grandchildren and a number of other relatives. The father or fathers of the children come and go and contribute some or no financial support. In some analyses, this matrifocal system derives from slave-holding days when owners deliberately broke up nuclear families in order to make slaves loyal to thesis them rather than to other slaves. In other analyses, it is a social pattern inherited from some native African societies in which a man may have numerous wives whom he visits on essay on journey by air occasion (A. J. Brown 68). Not Showing. In Toycie’s case, the family system has broken down with the disappearance of her unwed father to Panama and the migration of her unwed mother to Brooklyn, which leaves Toycie in the sole care of a poor, unmarried aunt who is ill-informed in sexual matters. But, considering the overall scope of the novel, the breakdown of Toycie’s family is not the main point. Edgell associates the nuclear family with the economically successful middle class and the traditional Creole matrifocal family with the poverty- stricken lower class. Both Beka and Toycie need to choose between a diploma or a baby- -that is, between socioeconomic success or failure. Without education–which means waiting for sex until educated and married–both Toycie and Beka Lamb are condemned to menial tasks in the kitchen or laundry (like Eila), which means protracted poverty and helps account for the despair that leads Toycie to attempt suicide–exactly as in V. S. Naipaul’s moving story, “The Maternal Instinct,” where sexual restraint is also linked with economic success.
The moral issue has essentially socioeconomic implications. Edgell seems to suggest that Belize cannot succeed as a mature, prosperous, independent nation until it develops the middle-class institution of the nuclear family. If Toycie’s family shows the failure of that attempt, then Beka’s family illustrates a successful emergence out of the Creole lower class into the small Creole middle class. On both sides of Beka’s family tree, her own family–Bill and Lilla’s–is the application, only married nuclear family. In the maternal branch of her family tree are four informal sexual liaisons: Beka’s aunt Tama lived with a “gentleman” in Honduras for fifteen years; her maternal grandmother conceived Tama and thesis comments Lilla with a half-bakra bushman father, who is national day of prayer essay now living with a Maya woman in thesis comments not showing the bush; his father was an Englishman who fathered him with a Creole woman; and Great-gran Straker lived with a “gentleman” who was a woodcutter. Less is known about Father Bill’s family, although near the end of the book Gran Ivy admits to Beka that “Toycie’s first trouble caught me too, and I turned to rocking the cradle” (170).
She gave up her own dream of success (joining the essay the wild, circus) and became a washerwoman instead. How it was that Bill married Lilla and established a successful nuclear family is not entirely clear. We know only thesis comments not showing that he was already a hard, responsible worker at 14 years of age (28), and we see that the nuclear family fits Lilla’s fascination with the fact that her grandfather was an Englishman. Her anglophile admiration for essay, English expatriates and her rather pathetic attempt to thesis comments not showing grow English roses in Belize suggest that she has appropriated other white cultural values, too, including the importance of a nuclear family. The Lamb family is clearly an anomaly in Belize City–so much so that grocer Gordillo comments on how “lucky” Becka is to be living with both a mother and a father (39). Brown Application Essays. The Hartleys are the only other Creole nuclear family on Cashew Street, and they are so much wealthier than the Lambs as to belong to comments another social realm entirely. When Beka makes an inventory of the Creole families on her street, she mentions five husbandless matrifocal households before Gran interrupts her (145).
The fact that Beka’s inventory comes as a reverie in national day of contest the middle of her essay-writing suggests that she is obsessed with the possibility that her life may turn out like theirs and Toycie’s–just as at Great-Gran Straker’s wake she was horrified by Miss Flo’s choking report that her daughter had just had her third child by her third boyfriend. Propelling the social rise of this nuclear family is the hard work of Father Bill Lamb. One thing makes him significantly different from other Creole men of not showing, his class: He has been willing to save fuel overcome the traditional Creole male bias against earning a living by the “undignified” (82) means of trade or business. Educated Creole men aim at civil service jobs. Less-educated Creole men have not accepted agriculture or business as replacement occupations for thesis not showing, seasonal woodcutting, which is now a virtually defunct occupation. To Bill’s credit, he has been willing to argumentative the wild surrender his cultural pride and serve his boss and thesis their customers without “condescension” (82). To which Bill would add that he has been willing to “struggle” (21)–to work hard and long hours–beginning at essay on television violence, Beka’s age.
Bill’s reward is thesis that he has a white-collar job, membership in the Creole club, and is prosperous enough to next want a septic tank and toilet and perhaps even to move to a better neighborhood (42). Save. The foliage from their lot that breaks down their neighbors’ fences is symbolic of their unusual prosperity, which makes their Creole neighbors “resent” them (41). Thus Bill’s family duplicates the archetypal experience of lower-middle-class families in other western cultures: by thesis comments not showing, hard work and discipline they have raised their social status, although they remain keenly aware of the possibility that they might easily slip back into poverty. The American proverb, “From white to blue collar in one generation,” haunts them. Beka’s failing in school or becoming pregnant would be such a slip–perhaps back to the dreaded “kitchen work” (67) or “washing bowl underneath the house bottom” (2). They may not be consciously aware of it, but the Lambs have abandoned some traditional Creole values in on today's order to rise in comments not showing society.
Lilla grows English roses and Beka straightens her hair. In addition to day of his attitude toward business, Bill has also given up Protestantism (the traditional English faith) for Catholicism (the growing Hispanic- related faith). He has also given up his preferred holidays on comments the Sibun River, where traditional Creole culture thrives best, to holiday instead on St. George’s Caye with the Blanco family. By such compromises the essay into, Lambs raise their status. Edgell seems essentially to recommend the thesis, nuclear family, education and hard work within the argumentative essay into the wild, dominant economic system as the necessary or best means of “progress” for Belize into the modern world. Although such capitalist, middle-class values may seem very conservative to not showing liberal critics from the argumentative essay, First World, they are, oddly, liberal innovations for comments, a Creole culture that, in its family system, oppresses women and in other ways is national prayer ill-equipped to build a prosperous, free society. The question of race and ethnic relations within an thesis not showing, independent Belize is a prominent theme in Beka Lamb, as it continues to be today, some 35 years beyond the setting of the novel.
A recent essay by a Belizean deals directly with the continuing problem of national day of contest, ethnic relations in thesis Belize. In it, Francis Humphreys quotes Harriet W. Topsey’s worst-case analysis: “Ethnic consciousness is leading Belize into on today's an escalating ethnic war” (11). Assad Shoman’s analysis is more realistic: “While it has long been the accepted wisdom that total racial harmony exists in comments not showing Belize, the truth is that there is a considerable degree of prejudice and discrimination among, and contest even within [ethnic] groups” (11). Nigel Bolland is cautiously optimistic: “Real national liberation and human emancipation may yet be achieved in Belize on the basis of a national integration that respects racial and cultural pluralism” (11). Humphreys’ own solution for the problem is to educate Creoles and not showing Caribs in their common African heritage. Wise though his approach may be, it deals with only one element of racial conflict in Belize–that between Creoles and Caribs.
Although the essay the wild, Creole-Carib conflict is comments historically ingrained, it is a conflict within one racial group and, in the case of the save, Caribs, involves relatively few people. Edgell, too, mentions that conflict but does not dramatize it. Instead, she dramatizes the more recent, growing conflict between Creoles and Hispanics. This is a potentially more serious one for Belize since it involves two different racial groups that are also the largest ethnic groups in comments the country. In Hispanic vs.
Creole the issue of brown university application essays, race is also merged with a conflict over economic and political power, which is less present in the Creole-Carib conflict. Bill baldly states the problem to Miss Ivy: “Hatred of British colonialism unites us now. There are so many races here I wonder what will keep us together once they leave” (96). Granny Ivy speaks the hopeful solution to Bill, who has just done his patriotic duty by comments, eating the spicy Spanish food that she has prepared: “We’ll have to fuel get used to it, Bill. Don’t you hear what the politicians are saying out at Battlefield Park? We must unite to thesis comments not showing build a nation” (150). How much racial unity does the novel imply? The first review of the book by prayer essay, a Belizean, Fr.
Charles Hunter, is explicitly aware of the persistent social problem and looks to not showing the book–both hopefully and nervously–as a contribution to its solution. Seven times in his short essay Hunter refers to the “multi- racial” society of day of prayer, Belize. He implies that–but does not show how–the novel is part of the solution. Heidi Ganner sees in the author’s attitude an “impartiality” toward other groups, despite her “leanings” in “favour of her own race.” In Bill and thesis comments not showing Lilla she sees “at heart sincere supporters of a free multi-racial Belize” (90). Flockemann finds that, in the novel, “integration of some kind is held out as a possibility for Beka and her country” (46). Such vague feelings may indeed represent the intentions of the author.
However, they do not mirror the intensity of the problem as depicted in the book, nor the problematic way the book resolves the save fuel, problem. Early on, the novel rather blandly announces its theme of ethnic conflict: “[Belize City] was a relatively tolerant town where at least six races . Comments. . Essay. . lived in a kind of harmony” (11) . . . “Each race held varying degrees of prejudice concerning the others” (12) . . Thesis Comments. . But “in times of danger, it was a tradition for all races to present a united front” (12). One notices immediately a hypersensitivity in the author and her speech community to “difference,” especially in referring to the six main ethnic groups in Belize as six different “races.” The seven groups that the book actually mentions could be arranged in the following order in terms of the way Beka’s Creole group has tended to brown look at comments, other groups. They are arranged, from top to bottom, from high to low prestige–and, not coincidentally, generally from light skin down to darkest skin: Expatriates — white colonialists and other foreign residents.
Bakras — white citizens of Belize. Creoles — mixed whites and Africans. Panias — mestizos (mixed Spanish and essay on today's economy native Americans) Maya — native Americans of Belize. Coolie — descendants of East Indian indentured servants. Carib — dark Africans with Carib Indian admixture. Beka Lamb dramatizes primarily the ethnic conflict between creoles and panias in the pecking order depicted above. In Gran Ivy’s “befo’ time” creoles indeed dominated the thesis comments not showing, panias in sheer number of population, in national prayer contest educational level and in influence in national affairs, thanks to their English-language skills that made them the preferred group for staffing the thesis, colonial bureaucracy. Until recently, Spanish speakers tended to live in by air the districts — especially Orange Walk and Corozal — retain their native language and remain on the fringes of national affairs. Thesis. With independence, with a creole out-migration to the United States, with the essay, economic prosperity of mestizo cane-growers and fishermen, and with an in-migration of thesis comments, mestizos from Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador, the situation has changed, and continues to change. The actual situation in Beka Lamb shows that as early as the1950s, the setting of the book, the on journey, panias had already superseded the thesis, creoles in education and economic power.
The point is on journey by air made clear as early as paragraph three, where Beka recalls earlier predictions that “the prizes would go to bakras, panias or expatriates” (1). Clearly, in her educational career Beka is competing within a Spanish-Catholic school culture, which still operates the best schools in Belize City. And as one of the few creole girls attending the school, she is comments not showing clearly the underdog. Her father also lives his life as a subordinate in Spanish-dominated business culture. He has worked for Blanco since his teenage years. He is beholden to a pania for his livelihood, the vacation spot for essay violence, his family, and the black car used for Great-Gran Straker’s funeral. Two symbolic names given by Edgell to her Hispanic characters suggest this new ascendency. “Blanco,” of course, means “white,” and thesis comments not showing suggests that the Hispanics represent a new aristocracy of the coveted skin color. Emilio’s family name, “Villanueva,” means “new estate,” which again suggests a new establishment.
Fr. Hunter reads positive signs of racial harmony and day of prayer essay contest integration in thesis the fact that the Lambs live with the Blancos on essay St. George’s Caye on holiday and that Mr. Blanco has a skiff named Nigger Gial. In actuality, those details are very sinister.
Yes, the Lambs vacation with the Blancos, but as second-class citizens. They live below the house and cook in comments an outdoor kitchen, like servants, while the Lambs look at Mr. Blanco as a “deity” (51), accept gifts of food from Mrs. Blanco and watch the essay, Blanco children play (separate from them) in their anklets and leather shoes. Thesis Not Showing. Spanish culture dominates Beka Lamb and her creole family in the same way that Mr. Blanco rides and drives Nigger Gial when he skims across the sea. The families remain separated by “wealth, class, colour” (51), and the Lambs are in a subordinate position, beholden to the Blancos. But it is in the development of the relationship of essay, Toycie and Emilio where the Creole-Spanish conflict emerges the strongest and where Edgell clarifies its relevance to Belizean national and international politics.
Both Beka and comments not showing Toycie know that “panias scarcely ever marry creole like we” (47), but Toycie nevertheless tries to “raise her color” (47) by believing in Emilio’s promise to marry her. He “toys” with Toycie (Young), to on today's economy her tragic destruction. It is historically and politically symbolic that the impregnation of Toycie takes place in the cemetery located on St. Thesis Not Showing. George’s Caye. St. Brown. George’s Caye, of course, was the site of the thesis not showing, naval victory in 1798 when the English buccanneers (=pirates) who had settled in Belize routed a small Spanish fleet trying to enforce Spain’s territorial claims in Belize. It is this victory that Belizeans celebrate every September 10, National Day, and that has become ceremonially symbolic of Belize’s independence — first from Spain, nowadays from England.
Following the essay the wild, Battle of thesis, St. George’s Caye, Belize was a de facto property of England, despite continuing quasi-legal claims to the territory by Spain and Spain’s eventual successor, Guatemala. On the social level, Emilio’s sexual conquest of contest, Toycie shows how the Spanish now dominate and thesis exploit the Creoles. Since the essay on journey, Creoles always identified with the thesis, English in the issues raised by the Battle of St. George’s Caye, on the level of day of contest, international politics the impregnation also acts out the fact that the ultimate political victory has now been won by not showing, Spain in the form of essay on today's, a gradually dominating Spanish culture in Belize. That same issue is at the heart of the overtly political discussion urged upon the Lamb family by the political activist, Gran Ivy. She is a member of the thesis comments, Peoples Independent Party, or P.I.P., which is on journey a thinly disguised version of the Peoples United Party, or P.U.P., which led Belize to independence and is still a major political party in Belize.
Like the thesis not showing, P.U.P., the national day of contest, P.I.P. is accused of accepting money from Guatemala in support of its political goals. Whether the fictional or actual political party ever did so is thesis comments not clear, but the bias of the PIP/PUP toward Spanish Central America has always been clear. That bias was former Premier George Price’s answer to essay on television the important question: “Where does Belize’s true identity and best future lie after independence from colonizing Britain?” The options in the book are clearcut. Comments. One is with the West Indies Federation of former British colonies in the Caribbean area. As proposed by England, such a federation would help preserve England’s hegemony in essay by air the region and re-inforce English-speaking culture in Belize–despite the great distance that separates the former Caribbean colonies in geography, history and thesis comments not showing culture. Lilla and save for future essay Bill, both anglophiles, clearly support the Federation. The other option–embraced by Gran Ivy–is for Belize to accept and exploit its geographic destiny; that is, to take advantage of the economic potential of its being the only English-speaking country on the Central American mainland. Since that entails making peace with Guatemala’s claims and establishing good cultural and economic relations with its Spanish-speaking neighbors, the risk is that Belize might in the process sacrifice some of its British culture, institutions and comments loyalties. In such a scenario, the panias will flourish and essay the creoles will be diminished.
Both in the 1950s when the thesis, story is set and in 1982 when the book was published- -and Guatemala was still threatening to invade–these were life-and-death issues, especially for creoles. Zee Edgell was uncannily prescient in dramatizing the future ethnic shift in Belize. As Belize’s “1991 Population Census: Major Findings” indicates, in 1980, just preceding independence and the publication of Beka Lamb, the Creoles still outnumbered the Mestizos. Creoles constituted 40% of the argumentative essay, population; Mestizos, 33.4%. But by ten years later, in 1990, the proportions were dramatically reversed: Mestizos, 43.6%; Creoles, 29.8% (6-7). Comments Not Showing. A major factor was out-migration by creoles (mainly to the United States) and in-migration by mestizos (mainly from save fuel Guatemala). The 1990 census showed that 82.4% of Belize’s foreign-born population was mestizo (41.1% Guatemalan) (13). The figurative dominance of mestizos that Edgell depicts in Beka Lamb has now become literal, and is likely only to increase in the future. Fortunately for creoles, however, since independence Belize’s English-speaking identity has been somewhat stabilized by other influences. Membership in the United Nations has lent authority to Belize’s independence, thus leading Guatemala to quietly abandon its territorial claim.
What the novel does not anticipate very well is the dramatic increase in U.S. Comments Not Showing. hegemony over Belize, thanks to the Belizean dollar becoming tied to into the wild the American dollar, Americans touring and investing in Belize, and air transportation links to the U.S. far outnumbering links with England, the Caribbean or even the Central American countries. The best token of U.S. dominance is that the largest out-migration from Belize is to the United States, with 85% moving there (15)–rather than England, Guatemala or Mexico, as one might expect. Thus far, the American influence (including satellite TV) supports the thesis comments, Creole/English tradition despite the save for future, increasing population and socioeconomic influence of Hispanics. Edgell shows this nascent American influence in Toycie’s mother’s residence in Brooklyn and the influence of American sisters on Beka at St. Cecilia’s School. The rising threat by panias to creoles is implied by Beka’s efforts in school against the Spanish-Catholic system and especially by Toycie’s ill-fated fascination with Emilio. There are no happy resolutions to these ethnic tensions–certainly no integration or implied harmony. Toycie crosses out thesis comments “Espana” and writes “Belize” in the guitar she received from the English woman. Essay. Beka rejects Gran Ivy’s suggestion that she go to Mexico and study Spanish. Emilio and his mother, once friendly to Toycie and Beka, turn cold.
Daddy Bill chokes on Spanish food. And Miss Arguelles, a creole, flaunts her arse in comments not showing Father Mullins’ face, screeching: “You are American but I know you have Spanish blood” (104) –cursing him thus at the very moment when Toycie is violence revealing her pregnancy to Emilio outside St. Joseph’s Catholic Church. Creoles like Toycie suffer to the death. Creoles like Daddy Bill endure second-class citizenship. Thesis Comments. Only rarely, like Beka, do they win the contested prize. Finally, what does the novel imply about the effect of colonization on brown university the native? The empire is thesis not showing overtly present, of national essay contest, course, in the British government’s conflict with Gadsden and Pritchett, whom they accuse of sedition. Becka clearly sides with her Gran- -and against her parents–in supporting Gadsden and Pritchett’s resistance to colonial authorities. In equating Beka’s struggle with that of Gadsden and Pritchett, Edgell makes it clear that she prefers an independent Belize to a colonized one. The preceding discussions of socio-economic and ethnic problems in this paper are also contingent on the colonizing process: Creoles are poor because they have been exploited by the British; and ethnic conflict in Belize stems at least in part from colonizers’ historic exploitation of ethnic differences to “divide and conquer” the natives.
As Evelyn O’Callaghan has pointed out, the colonial institution that most impinges on Beka’s experience is thesis comments not showing St. Cecelia’s Academy, operated by the American Sisters of Charity. According to O’Callaghan, “Beka Lamb focuses on women’s experience and implicitly equates economic underdevelopment under colonial rule with the devaluation of black working-class women under an educational system run by American nuns” (“Edgell”). This indictment of St. Cecelia’s is certainly apt in regard to Toycie, whose life ends in disaster precisely because the Sisters of essay into the wild, Charity show her no charity in her desperate situation. However, St. Cecelia’s influence on heroine Beka is more subtle and comments not showing ambiguous. In fact, despite its obvious limitations, St.
Cecelia’s actually contributes a great deal to her development into a Creole of “high mind.” The obvious limitations of the school, of course, are found in Sister Virgil and Father Nunez. Argumentative Into. Both are characterized as over-reacting to new situations in which they find themselves. Sister Virgil is over-zealous in strictly applying the comments not showing, rules of the academy to Toycie’s pitiful situation. Her strictness may represent a public enactment of save for future essay, her essentially ascetic nature; her name of “Virgil,” after all, suggests “virgin,” as O’Callaghan points out (“Driving” 70). Or her strictness may be explained by the fact that “she’s only just come” to Belize (87-88) and thesis has not yet accommodated her principles to the cultural reality that surrounds her. The nickname that her fearful students give her — “Mighty Mouse” — suggests that she is not always or entirely the villain that she appears to national essay contest be in Toycie’s case. As we shall see later, at one point she speaks some of the truest, most important words in the book.
Father Nunez, too, has entered a new reality in which he over-reacts. Not only is he one of the very few priests drawn from the native population, but he was even ordained in Rome. Thesis Comments Not Showing. Like many converts, he has become more pious, more zealous than his expatriate converters. His social insecurity manifests itself in a closed mind, a lack of understanding of others and national prayer essay a desire to shed his Belizean identity (89). He poses no particular threat to Beka, but in the novel he represents the truly “assimilated” native with a colonized mind. Thesis Comments Not Showing. Edgell makes him seem more comic and pathetic than fear-inducing. If St. Cecelia’s is the day of essay contest, incarnation of menacing colonialism, as O’Callaghan would have it, then Edgell peoples the rest of the staff with surprisingly attractive, somewhat innocuous, and comments not showing often very helpful religious people.
Two seem to be merely idiosyncratic: Sister Mary Frances, a six-foot tall British nun, and essay Sister Mary Bernadette, an aged, half- crazed Irish nun who has spent twenty-five years in Belize. The other three move beyond the innocuous and become positive, active agents for change in Beka’s life. Father Rau, an American, responded to Bill’s appeal for help and comments successfully persuaded Sister Virgil and Father Nunez to allow Beka to essay return to school, despite her heretical comments. Not Showing. He has “joking ways, a humble manner and an aptitude for on journey by air, persuasion” (92). The Mother Provincial surprises Beka by being a jolly woman who applauds Beka’s folksong program, tells a funny story, seems eager to learn about Belize, and awards Beka first prize for her essay. As head of the order of Sisters of Charity, she embodies their essence — and in Edgell’s depiction it is an attractive essence. But it is Sister Gabriela, of course, who represents the Sisters of Charity in thesis not showing bringing out the best in essay on journey by air Beka Lamb. Gabriela–whose name suggests the archangel annunciator–encourages Beka to thesis comments not showing enter the on television, essay contest, as a creative way of providing a more relevant education than the “London” curriculum does (94). An American, Gabriela even visits Beka at her home, admires the native Creole architecture of the thesis, interior and relates well to economy Beka’s mother and grandmother. The “glint of disrespect” that Beka sees in Gabriela’s eyes–and that makes her human, rather than merely a symbolic foil to Sister Virgil–brings out the best of thesis not showing, Beka as a Creole: “in her best creole drawl” she declares her intention to return to save fuel for future school, thereby surprising Sister Gabriela and her mother and Gran.
The topic of the paper that leads to Beka’s success–the arrival of the Sisters of Charity in Belize in 1886–is an odd one. Following the thinking of O’Callaghan and thesis Bromley (13), Beka’s pursuit of the topic could become just another way for the school to overcome her resistance and appropriate her under its hegemonic power, thereby creating a colonized mind in Beka. Beka’s work does, of course, make her a star pupil at St. Cecelia’s. However, the way she carries out essay by air her research and the effect of her work upon Beka help her escape whatever colonizing intention the original assignment had. First, Beka learns a lot about history–not so much about the religious order but more about her own country, as the Mother Superior notes (165).
Most important, Beka researches the subject not by consulting official sources, such as colonial newspapers, archives and books, but by interviewing Mr. Robateau, who was an eyewitness to the arrival of the sisters. In other words, she writes an comments, alternative history by using unofficial, folk, native sources. University Application. In effect, her paper ends the novel in a manner opposite of the famous conclusion to Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, where the point of thesis, view suddenly shifts to that of the British District Commissioner and signals the beginning of national, African history and experience as viewed and written by foreigners. Beka Lamb ends with the history of Belize being written by a native and from a native point of view. Beka’s achievement places her in the ranks of other colonized subjects–such as C. L. James and Jamaica Kincaid–who say that they have used the substance of a colonial education ultimately to triumph over it (Birbalsingh 17, 147-48).
Toycie is destroyed by her direct confrontation with the colonial system. Father Nunez cooperates fully with it and ends up with a colonized mind. But Beka finds a way to not showing use the colonial system to develop the Creole “high mind” that her Gran so much admires. Beka Lamb becomes a self-created, autonomous young woman by the end of the novel. Her identity — and, by implication, the identity of the New Belize — is complex and subtly drawn. On the social level, one is impressed by Beka’s apparent lack of friends at brown application, school and on Cashew Street, following Toycie’s death. In Toycie’s place, Beka makes friends only with a Mayan girl, Thomasita Ek, who is thesis not showing also an outsider at St. Cecilia’s Academy. On a national scale, that friendship lacks much real significance, since the Mayas tend to be so culturally and geographically remote from urban culture that no true, longstanding ethnic conflict has thereby been bridged.
As a political symbol, however, there may be more significance in Thomasita Ek. For as Belize moved toward independence, the P.U.P. and transitional authorities chose the ancient Mayas upon which to construct an “official” national identity. Hence, the new inland capital city of Belmopan was designed in a psuedo-Mayan architecture. Brown University. By officially celebrating the ancient Mayas, Belizean authorities both invoke the Mayans’ glorious achievements as an comments, inspiration to modern inhabitants of Mayan lands and also give national symbolic status to a cultural identity that all groups can accept–because both the ancient and modern Mayans are too remote from practical political issues to be any particular threat. At best, Beka’s alliance with Thomasita Ek may indicate a similarly tentative, fresh start in the forming of new social patterns and argumentative essay into alliances. Most puzzling is Beka as a sexual being. Seven months into her fourteenth year and she still is not interested in boys! True, she vicariously rejects them through Toycie’s experience with Emilio. And on thesis comments not showing occasion she also contemplates her future as a married woman. Brown University Essays. At one point Gran Ivy slaps her face for declaring, “When I grow up I am going to marry a Carib!” (68). Later she tells her mother, “I’m never going to get married” (71).
And last of thesis not showing, all she says, “I’ll never fall in love” (169). Psychologically, one can understand these declarations as Beka Lamb’s own way of coping with the problem that destroyed Toycie–unmarried pregnancy. “Just say no,” is on television violence her motto. Ironically, she obeys the sermon preached to her, in her father’s presence, by the detested Sister Virgil: We women must learn to control our emotions, Mr. Lamb. Thesis Comments Not Showing. There are times we must stand up and say “enough” whatever our feelings. . . . The women will have to decide for a change in their lives, otherwise they will remain vulnerable. (120) In placing the responsibility for violence, pregnancy on the woman instead of the man, Sister Virgil may be “acting the patriarchal feminine as the agent of men,” as Bromley (12) sees her. But in the fictional context her words ring true, proving once again that even the not showing, devil can speak the essay, truth!
Beka Lamb becomes a kind of nun, by principled choice, whether or not she clearly understands the implications of it. She won her prize by writing an essay about the thesis comments, arrival of the essay on today's economy, Sister of comments not showing, Charity nuns in Belize. She has heard the Mother Provincial invite the girls to consider joining the order and becoming the first native Belizean sisters. And her best role model for educated womanhood is the American nun Sister Gabriela. Yet with Beka’s disinterest in religious matters–and especially her heretical disbelief in heaven and hell–one assumes that a religious vocation is not what her shaping experience has prepared her for. No, Beka at the end of the book appears poised to become a “nun” in the service of her country. After all, her essay dealt with the history of Belize.
She wrote it during National Day. She won the prize the violence, day the seditioners were imprisoned. She has always wanted to be a politician, and practiced being such at the politics-laden St. George’s Caye. As her most influential mentor, Sister Gabriela, put it to thesis comments not showing her: You are lucky, Beka. You are being given advantages most young people in this country far smarter than you are not going to get.
Therefore, you have an obligation to serve, a responsibility to produce under the brown university application, most adverse circumstances. Thesis Not Showing. You must go as far as the limitations of your life will allow. If she is not going to essay on television violence be a religious servant, perhaps she will be a national servant. Like many first novels, Beka Lamb has a significant autobiographical element in it. Indeed, at the end of the thesis not showing, book, Beka Lamb seems poised to become someone like her author, Zee Edgell. Application Essays. After graduating from St. Catharine’s Academy (St. Cecilia’s), Edgell studied journalism in England (Beka as writer) and then returned to Belize to work on a newspaper and later become director of the Women’s Bureau in the government (Beka as politician).
She later wrote this hopeful, politically suggestive novel and has participated in a number of international conferences on women and women writers (Beka as feminist). For the problem of ethnic rivalry in Belize, Edgell suggests no clear, easy solution. Beka arranges a medley of Belizean folksongs for the Mother Superior’s visit– but their nature is not specified, and the only not showing example given is Creole (“pinqwing juk me”). Edgell seems to advocate ethnic separation rather than integration, and multiculturalism rather than assimilation. Edgell prefers her own ethnic group to others, or to a melting pot.
Beka’s primary task seems to be to argumentative essay into cultivate her own identity and that of her ethnic group. Perhaps after that has been fully achieved, she can contribute to comments not showing solving the nastier ethnic and essay on television racial rivalries that surround her. At only thesis comments not showing 15 years of age, Beka has succeeded so well in her primary task that we may also be cautiously optimistic about the future of her newly independent country. Birbalsingh, Frank, ed. Frontiers of essay on television violence, Caribbean Literature in English. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. Bromley, Roger. “Reaching a Clearing: Gender Politics in thesis Beka Lamb. Wasafiri 1:2 (Spring 1985): 10-14. Brown, Arthur Joseph. “Family and Kinship.” Encyclopedia Britannica.
Macropaedia, 19. Brown University Essays. 1993 ed. Brown, Bev E. L. “Mansong and Matrix: A Radical Experiment.” In A Double Colonization: Colonial and Post-Colonial Women’s Writing, ed. Kristin Holst Peterson and Anna Rutherford. Oxford: Dangaroo Press, 1986. Thesis. 68-79. Bruner, Charlotte H. National Day Of Contest. “First Novels of Childhood.” CLA Journal 31 (1988): 324-38. Central Statistical Office. “1991 Population Census: Major Findings.” Belmopan: Ministry of Finance, n.d. Edgell, Zee.
Beka Lamb. London: Heinemann, 1982. __________ Interview with Ervin Beck. Belize City. 27 April 1991. Flockemann, Miki. “‘Not-Quite Insiders and Not-Quite Outsiders’: The ‘Process of Womanhood’ in Beka Lamb, Nervous Conditions and Daughters of Twilight.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 27 (1992): 37-47. Ganner, Heidi. “Growing Up in Belize: Zee Edgell’s Beka Lamb.” Autobiographical and Biographical Writing in the Commonwealth, ed.
Doireann MacDermott. Barcelona: Editorial AUSA, 1984. 89-93. Humphreys, Francis. “The Afro-Belizean Cultural Heritage: Its Role in Combating Recolonization.” Belizean Studies 20 (December 1992): 11-16. Hunter, Charles. “Beka Lamb: Belize’s First Novel.” Belizean Studies 10 (December 1982): 14-21. Naipaul, V. S. Thesis Not Showing. “The Maternal Instinct.” In Miguel Street. Essay Into The Wild. London: Heinemann, 1959. 80-88.
Nemhard, Jessica G. “Coming of Age in Belize: A Review of Zee Edgell’s Beka Lamb.” Belcast Journal of Belizean Affairs 2 (December 1985): 60-61. O’Callaghan, Evelyn. “Driving Women Mad.” Jamaica Journal 16 (1983):70-71. __________. “Edgell, Zee.” Encyclopedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English, Vol. 1. Ed. Eugene Benson and L. W. Conolly. New York: Routledge, 1994. Parham, Mary. Thesis Not Showing. “Why Toycie Bruk Down: A Study of Zee Edgell’s Beka Lamb.” Belizean Studies 21 (October 1993):15-22. . Ruiz, David. “Belize’s Literary Heritage: A 500-year Perspective.” Belizean Studies 21 (October 1993): 33. Shea, Renee Hausmann. “Gilligan’s ‘Crisis of Connections’: Contemporary Caribbean Women Writers.” English Journal (April 1992): 36-40. Young, Colville.
Lecture on Beka Lamb. University. Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 31 March 1992.
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clc transcript CLARCOR (CLC) CEO Chris Conway on Q2 2015 Results - Earnings Call Transcript. Jun. 18, 2015 1:33 PM • clc. CLARCOR Inc. Thesis Comments Not Showing. (NYSE:CLC) Q2 2015 Earnings Conference Call.
June 18, 2015 11:00 AM ET. Tom Lawrence - Founding Partner, DVL Seigenthaler. Christopher Conway - Chairman, President and CEO. David Fallon - Chief Financial Officer. David Janicek - Corporate Controller. Jim Giannakouros - Oppenheimer and Company. Brian Drab - William Blair.
Brian Sponheimer - Gabelli Company. Richard Eastman - Robert W. Baird. Larry Pfeffer - Avondale Partners. Nick Prendergast - BBT Capital Markets. Good morning ladies and essay on journey by air, gentlemen.
Thank you for standing by. Welcome to the CLARCOR Inc. Second Quarter 2015 Earnings Conference Call. Today’s conference call is being recorded. At this time, all participants are in a listen-only mode. Following the not showing presentation, we will conduct a question-and-answer session. Instructions will be provided at that time for you to queue up for essay, questions. It is thesis comments now my pleasure to turn the conference over to Mr. Tom Lawrence of DVL Seigenthaler. Please go ahead, Mr. Lawrence.
Thank you. We appreciate your interest in joining us on essay the wild CLARCOR's conference call to discuss results for thesis comments not showing, the second quarter of 2015. By now everyone should have received a copy of the news release that was distributed yesterday. If anyone does need a copy, it is national prayer essay available on CLARCOR's website at www.clarcor.com or you can call Niki Giacchina at 615-244-1818, and comments, she will send you a copy immediately. Before I turn the call over to Chris Conway, CLARCOR's Chairman, President and CEO, I remind you that all statements made in the news release and during this conference call, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. These statements are made pursuant to essay, the Safe Harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of thesis not showing 1995. Economy. The Company believes that its expectations are based on reasonable assumptions. However, these forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause the Company's actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to thesis not showing, differ materially from the Company's expectations of by air future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In addition, the Company's past results of operations do not necessarily indicate its future results. Finally, we want to let people know that the information statements made during the call are made as of the date of the call, June 18, 2015. Those listening to any replay should understand that the passage of time by thesis comments not showing, itself will diminish the quality of the statements.
Also the contents of the call are the property of the Company, and the replay or transmission of the the wild call may be done only thesis comments not showing with the consent of CLARCOR. It's now my pleasure to turn the call over to essay, Chris Conway for thesis not showing, his opening remarks. Thank you, Tom and thank you, Cynthia. Good morning and essays, thank you for comments not showing, joining us today. With me are David Fallon, our Chief Financial Officer; and argumentative essay the wild, David Janicek, our Corporate Controller.
After a few opening remarks, I'll turn it over to David Fallon to review our financial results in more detail. After David's remarks, I'll add some additional remarks before we open it up to questions. We reported record diluted earnings per thesis, share of $0.76 or 12% growth in on today's, earnings per share for the quarter after the close of trading yesterday. This compares to $0.68 for last year’s second quarter. Net sales increased 3%, or $13.2 million resulting from the influence of comments $23.1 million, or 6% in aggregate new sales from our strategic acquisitions of Stanadyne’s fuel filtration business and essay on journey by air, the addition of thesis comments not showing Filter Resources to our oil and gas business. We did face headwinds in several of our end-markets as well as being impacted unfavorably by essay on journey by air, changes in foreign currencies. As we indicated in the press release, there were purchase accounting and thesis comments, deal-related costs in 2014 second quarter related to the GE Stanadyne and save fuel for future essay, Bekaert acquisitions last year. So we provided a table showing adjusted non-GAAP results to help sort through these costs to understand the underlying business performance absent these costs. Sales in our Engine/Mobile segment increased 9% driven by 16% growth in comments, our U.S. business offset by a 4%, reduction in international sales.
The U.S. sales reflect the impact of essay on journey our Stanadyne acquisition as well as 18% growth in thesis comments, our independent distribution aftermarket resulting from a significant new customer and channel development. Excluding this new customer, sales in application, our independent engine aftermarket declined from last year’s second quarter. Sales in our Industrial Environmental business remained flat with mixed results depending on the various markets we participate in. Comments Not Showing. Gas Turbine sales declined 22% primarily due to several large first-fit systems shipped in last year’s second quarter. But our oil and gas business grew 8% on continued strong natural gas vessel sales in the US, as well as strong sales in Asia-Pacific and certain European markets. Our remaining businesses all performed roughly equivalent to last year from a sales perspective with the exception being our packaging business which saw a 7% sales growth and an operating margin of 10.1%. Now, I’ll turn it over to David to review more financial details before I highlight some key accomplishments for the quarter. Thanks, Chris.
In the beginning of May, we filed an essay on journey by air, 8-K with the thesis comments not showing SEC which referenced challenging conditions through the university essays first two fiscal months of our second quarter in our heavy duty engine filtration business including sales to our independent aftermarket OE customers in not showing, certain international markets which were also negatively impacted by changes in average foreign currency exchange rates. These challenging conditions continued through the economy month of May and despite a lack of great go forward visibility in our heavy duty aftermarket, we anticipate that these conditions will continue into our second half of 2015. Despite these second quarter headwinds, we were still able to grow consolidated net sales by comments not showing, 3% including 6% related to recent acquisitions and 1% organically, partially offset by argumentative essay the wild, a negative 4% foreign currency impact. As Chris mentioned in our earnings release, our second quarter top-line growth despite these various macroeconomic and industry issues, is a testament to our successful execution upon our long-term strategic growth initiatives including our recent acquisitions and our penetration into new distribution channels in not showing, our heavy duty engine filtration business. Second quarter net sales in argumentative into, our Engine/Mobile segment increased 9% from last year’s second quarter, primarily driven by additional sales from the thesis comments Stanadyne acquisition, but offset by foreign exchange and a 1% reduction in organic sales. These lower organic sales included a 9% decline in international markets and a 4% increase in by air, domestic markets primarily due to an 18% increase in our US independent aftermarket, which was heavily influenced by the addition of the thesis comments not showing new customer referenced in the earnings release.
Without these new customer sales which have exceeded our initial expectations, our independent afte3rmarket would have declined from last year’s second quarter, we believe as a result of general destocking at our customers most noticeably at essay on journey by air some of our larger independent distributors. We realize there are conflicting industry and economic statistics that either support or counter the not showing top-line challenges we have experienced in the second quarters, but we believe industry not completive dynamics are driving the argumentative essay into the wild recent domestic softness which is thesis not showing somewhat consistent with the recent narratives from some of our competitors. As potential further evidence that recent headwinds were likely based upon argumentative into, broader industry dynamics, we have also experienced a relatively significant reduction in year-over-year second quarter sales to other filter companies after experiencing solid growth in the first quarter. The 9% reduction in second quarter Engine/Mobile international organic sales excluding the Stanadyne acquisition and foreign exchange was primarily driven by comments, a 23% reduction in argumentative essay into, heavy duty sales in China and a 14% decline in export sales. Lower filtration sales in thesis not showing, China which are primarily on road first-fit are inline with the 25% year-to-date reduction in diesel engine and essay economy, commercial vehicle manufacturing there. We believe significant economic uncertainty remains in thesis comments, China. Accordingly, we do not expect a significant recovery in that market of the remainder of the save for future year.
The 14% reduction in heavy duty export sales improved in the first quarter, but these sales are still running significantly behind expectations heading into the year. This softness is partially related to the stronger dollar, but we also have customer concentration in this market and as mentioned in thesis, our earnings release, one of our larger export customers has reduced orders this year, we believe based upon brown, its end-market demand, notably in thesis not showing, the Middle East. Sales in our Industrial Environmental segment were relatively flat from last year’s second quarter as 1% organic growth and 3% growth from acquisitions were completely offset by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Essay. The broad explanation for organic growth of 1% in this reporting segment is that, oil and gas organic growth was almost completely offset by comments, lower organic sales in essay, our gas turbine market with other industrial environmental markets being relatively flat on a combined basis. Organic growth in our oil and gas business was driven by strong natural gas filtration vessel shipments worldwide, notably in the US and comments not showing, Southeast Asia offset by continued lower offshore oil drilling filtration sales. Our year-to-date oil and gas filtration sales have been materially in line with our expectations heading into the year based upon visibility to a solid backlog at year-end. We still anticipate full year organic growth in excess of 10% in our oil and gas market but there is some uncertainty in argumentative essay into the wild, our second half as it relates to lower oil prices and the timing of vessel shipments in the fourth quarter. Organic gas turbine filtration sales declined almost 20% from comments last year’s second quarter. This reduction was driven by essay on television violence, a 45% reduction in thesis, first-fit filter and system sales, offset by a 25% increase in the aftermarkets. Lower gas turbine first-fit sales were somewhat driven by timing as more than half of our first-fit sales should come in argumentative essay, the fourth quarter with over 85% of that in book backlog.
We continue to comments not showing, be pleased with our ongoing progress and growing our higher margin gas turbine aftermarket where sales increased by 25% from last year’s second quarter and on journey by air, 26% year-to-date after growing 35% last year. We anticipate this strong aftermarket growth to continue into the second half of the year with expected full year sales increasing 25% to thesis comments, 30% from by air 2014. Consolidated second quarter operating margin of 14.7% declined slightly from last year’s adjusted operating margin of 14.9%. However, this year’s second quarter operating margin was favorably impacted by thesis comments not showing, a $1.8 million gain on sale of an asset in application essays, our industrial environmental segment. Thesis. Excluding this gain, second quarter operating margin of 14.3% would have declined 60 basis points from last year’s second quarter adjusted figure. This lower consolidated operating margin was primarily the essay on television violence result of thesis not showing a reduction in our Engine/Mobile segment which was unfavorably influenced by lower organic sales and related lower absorption of fixed manufacturing and administrative costs. In addition, our Engine/Mobile segment was negatively impacted by on today's, several somewhat discrete expenses including foreign currency transaction losses, additional warranty expense from a 2014 claim, and a loss on thesis not showing disposal of fixed assets. Second quarter operating margin at our industrial environmental segment, 11.3% excluding the $1.8 million gain on on journey by air sale was relatively consistent with the adjusted operating margin from last year’s second quarter. Finally, we have reduced our 2015 diluted earnings per share guidance from 3.25 at the midpoint to not showing, 3.075 at the midpoint. These lower expected earnings were primarily driven by national contest, lower anticipated results at our Engine/Mobile segment including reduced sales between $25 million and $30 million and a related 100 basis point reduction in our full year Engine/Mobile operating margin due to not showing, lower absorption of fixed costs. Our lowered expectations for Engine/Mobile sales are driven by the assumption that a significant portion of the recent headwinds we experienced in argumentative essay into, both our international and domestic markets will continue into the second half of the year.
With that said, I turn it back over to Chris. Thank you, David. Moving to some of this quarter’s highlights, I specifically want to discuss some of the thesis longer-term corporate initiatives we are investing in to grow the company and the wild, improve profitability. We have previously discussed the formulization of our continuous improvement efforts via the CLARCOR management system, a means of standardizing our methods of management and implementation of lean techniques across the company, we are well along with this effort and I am pleased to report that we have trained over 300 employees, conducted numerous improvement workshops and achieved some significant early results. We’ve seen an increased emphasis on safety, reduced set up times in critical work centers, achieved cycle time and inventory reductions and thesis comments not showing, improved maintenance and up time on important work centers. Most of all, I continue to economy, be impressed by the excitement and engagement of our employees in moving us forward in this effort. All of this is comments aimed at improving service and quality to save fuel, our customers and eliminating ways throughout our operations thereby improving profitability.
Our investments in thesis, RD continue to advance and fuel essay, generate impact. Thesis. Our oil and gas research center in Texas has helped us secure new customers generated new breakthrough products and is a source of cross-company collaboration for filter media development. Much of the work in this center is focused on on journey improved treatment of thesis not showing natural gas at various stages of the supply chain from separation of solids and water at the wellhead to treatment solutions needed at gas processing operations before the gas moves into interstate pipelines and all of these show that we are active in the early stages in the treatment of natural gas, but also we are treating produced water that comes from natural gas production and in removing undesirable chemicals in natural gas. Our new CLARCOR innovation center in Tennessee is save for future under construction and slated for full operational capability by comments not showing, the end of essay into the wild this year. Meanwhile, we are not standing still with that group actively involved in not showing, accelerating projects working with our various businesses. Our emphasis at this center will be to develop new filter media technologies, introduce advanced manufacturing technologies across the company and by air, conduct accelerated product development in conjunction with our businesses.
Current focus includes developments in thesis comments, advanced air and essay, fuel filtration, along with continued advancement of our proprietary next generation nano fiber technology. Finally, we continue to develop our international footprint with the not showing opening of CLARCOR India, near Pune, India, south of Mumbai. We will operate a shared service concept in India with the initial emphasis being existing in-country engine filtration that we acquired as part of the Stanadyne’s acquisition. This will soon be followed by waste water treatment and save fuel for future essay, industrial air filtration. Staffs are on board and we have an comments, experienced leader in India who joined us with previous Greenfield start-up experience in both India and China in his background.
These are a few examples of the save essay investments we are making for the long-term growth and profitability of the company. We will now open it up for thesis comments not showing, questions. [Operator Instructions] We will take our first question from Jim Giannakouros with Oppenheimer and Company. Please go ahead. Good morning, Jim. Good morning, Jim. Question on Engine/Mobile margin. You are guiding to on journey, flattish and I understand that you are pointing to thesis not showing, fixed cost absorption issues. We have been hearing about that for a little – quite sometime now and so, I guess, if you can get a little granular, well, first, what type of organic growth do you need to get leverage there?
And I guess, a second point, are there efficiency gains that potentially could be a driver at the wild margin expansion at thesis either production or distribution facilities? To answer your last question first, eventually, there will be the on today's ability to leverage some of these fixed costs that we’ve added recently. But as you know, I think most people know, we are bringing our distribution center online here in the fourth quarter and that probably will be in an additional headwind as it relates to margin expansion in Engine/Mobile. We focus on growing that business organically in the mid single-digits. We believe that we are able to successfully hit those growth targets that as we exit 2016, we should start to see margin expansion there at Engine/Mobile. I think, for the full year this year, we are projecting 3% organic growth that that includes the benefit of the new customer after growing organically 6%. Comments. So, mid single-digits is brown university certainly a target that we think is thesis comments very achievable and we believe that we exit the second half of national essay next year that we’ll start to see expansion there.
Got it. Thesis. Okay, and save for future essay, one more if I may. Just to better understand the timing of comments not showing shipments both of gas turbine and at PECOFacet, let me start at PECO, I know, David I apologize if I may have missed it in your prepared remarks, but did you outlined how you think the vessel shipments are to track in the second half 3Q versus 4Q? Yes, just quickly touching upon both of those markets. The gas turbine is a little bit of a longer cycle than natural gas. Save Fuel For Future. So we have a little bit better visibility with system sales and gas turbines. If you look at our projected system sales and gas turbine, virtually 100% of comments not showing that is booked for the third quarter and over 85% is national day of prayer essay contest booked for the fourth quarter.
So, we certainly have better visibility and thesis comments not showing, there is on journey by air somewhat greater certainty with that sales flow for gas turbines. For natural gas, we are guardedly optimistic. I would say over 85% of our third quarter backlog is booked and thesis comments, just over essay on journey 50% of our fourth quarter backlog is booked with pretty good certainty for the remainder of the projected sales in thesis not showing, the fourth quarter. So, if we were to on television violence, handicap those two markets related to uncertainty, there is probably a little bit more uncertainty related to timing in natural gas. But the gas turbine numbers are pretty solid. We will take our next question from thesis comments Brian Drab with William Blair. Please go ahead. Good morning, Chris. Good morning, David.
Good morning, Brian. Just following on that last question, what’s affecting the timing of those natural gas vessel shipments specifically? Is it kind of unexpected as they are related to university essays, energy prices? What’s driving that? I think, it’s a mix, part of it is energy prices, especially in some of the international markets, we have projects where they may delay from one quarter to the next. Some of it is just natural project creep in comments, terms of getting the project brought on essays site and started up. Thesis Not Showing. But, in the US, I think, we’ve got more confidence in the US and probably more uncertainty around some of the international projects. Okay. Application. Thanks. In the past, you’ve talked about your oil and gas business being roughly $300 million business, I guess a little under $300 million and thesis not showing, the part that we are most concerned about, I believe it’s about $50 million that was tied to essay economy, upstream activity. Comments Not Showing. So, would you say that maybe we are seeing pressure from lower energy prices affecting business outside that $50 million piece a little bit more than you would have thought a few months ago?
I would say, it’s kind of bottomed out. I don’t think we see significant continued deterioration. University. One part of that is offshore sand control business and we think that’s kind of leveled out where it is right now, significant drop certainly, but we don’t see that degenerating any further at not showing this point. Okay. Thanks. And then, on gas turbine, second quarter, how was the second quarter relative to your expectations? I would say, our performance in gas turbine year-to-date is very much inline what we expected at the beginning of the year. Yes, okay, okay. Save. And then, can you talk just a little bit more about that disparity that you are seeing between the first-fit and not showing, aftermarket performance in gas turbine and what’s driving that great performance in the aftermarket? As you know, the gas turbine systems sales are fairly lumpy. Essay On Television Violence. The aftermarket is a little bit more stable month-to-month and thesis, quarter-to-quarter.
Over 50% of our first-fit sales and when we speak to national prayer essay, first-fit, we are referring to not only the system sales but the comments not showing first-fit filters that go into a system that we are selling or that go into a system that someone else has sold to an end-customer. Brown Application Essays. Over 50% of those first-fit sales should occur in the fourth quarter and that explains the almost 40% to 45% reduction in system sales we had year-to-date. The aftermarket is a little bit of a better flow business. A lot of the traction that we are getting in the aftermarket is related to our clear current pro product and we referenced that in recent calls. That is a product that is getting significant market acceptance and has allowed us to thesis comments, put these very significant growth numbers over the last 18 to 24 months.
The other thing I’d say, Brian, that there is a little bit of understanding is that, our first-fit systems on gas turbines are not exclusively tied to essay on journey, the large frame systems that are spread across to a broader spectrum that includes offshore natural gas which is the original part of the Altair business that GE bought years ago. Lot of offshore and more discrete mobile or smaller stationary units than maybe some of the larger frames. Thesis Comments. So, while we see those swings, it can tend to violence, be certainly influenced by the big systems, but you have projects that span across the broad spectrum of different installations. All right. Thanks. So, you were talking about kind of the distributed power, or the power generation that you have on thesis not showing oil platforms and that’s another piece that could be impacted by energy prices. Argumentative Essay Into. Is that a fair way to think about it? Yes, yes it could be. And how much of the – of gas turbine is not showing that roughly or how much of the first-fit business is that relative to the big projects?
David, you can look here. Yes, it differs depending on the year. I would say, roughly this year, oil and gas system sales are probably between 20% and 25% of our total sales. Okay. And, of that – I am trying to get the break down between the big projects and the smaller projects within gas turbine and first-fit. Is that the number you gave me David? For oil and gas, yes. Of the, roughly $50 million this year we are having in gas turbine first-fit sales, I would say between 20% and 25% is related to oil and gas. I am with you. Okay and then just one quick last one. The retail customer you say is ramping faster than expected.
I mean, this is a great win. I am just wondering, is it just ramping toward the same kind of run rate target that you had in mind or is it maybe the opportunity bigger than expected? I think it is prayer essay leveling out comments, now at the run rate target we expected. Essay Into. Certainly, the customer has ongoing growth expectations and at this point, we are not baking any of those in, but there could be upside to comments not showing, what we are seeing. Thanks, very much. We will take our next question from Brian Sponheimer with Gabelli Company. Please go ahead.
Hi, good morning guys. Good morning, Brian. Good morning, Brian. Just to spend some time within Engine/Mobile and talk about what you are seeing, maybe market-by-market on-road versus, say the construction, mining, Ag markets and potentially what may have decelerated, particularly on the on-road side? We’ll tackle the off-road first, that’s probably a little bit more clear. Our probably most significant exposure on the off-road is related to the Stanadyne acquisition. Essay On Today's. It’s virtually a 100% off-road, especially in the US.
The most notable decline in that business is on the Ag side. John Deere is a pretty significant customer there. Not Showing. I think their year-to-date Ag equipment sales are down about 25%. That business however is essay about 80% aftermarket, 20% first-fit. Our first-fit assembly sales year-to-date are down about 20%. So pretty much inline with what Deere has seen. But our aftermarket because of the dynamics in the Ag end-markets is also down probably close to 10% on a year-to-date basis. So Ag, very clearly is a challenged market at this point in time. Sales to thesis comments, some of our other OE customers including construction and mining construction still has performed fairly well.
I would say, mining is probably down. So, the overall picture for off-road probably isn’t positive at this point in time. When you look at our on-road business, which is the traditional Baldwin business, that’s probably a puzzle that’s a little bit more challenging to decipher. We clearly have seen broad based pressures, meaning that the dynamics we are seeing is not concentrated into a particular class of customer. Although, some of for future our larger distributors have seen larger declines in what we have seen with some of our smaller distributors. But if you were to remove the impact of the sales from the new customer, very broadly base our aftermarket domestic business, which is probably 60% on-road was down in the low single-digits. And as I mentioned, that is pretty broad based. It’s both small and thesis comments not showing, large distributors. You guys get the sense that that’s more driven by broader economic activity or just potential better use of inventory by the distributors? I think it’s a combination of both of by air those factors. Specifically, a couple of our larger customers are definitely adjusting inventory destocking and right-sizing their inventory.
But I think, everybody started out slow in the first part of the year and I think, just now starting to come around and adjust in some of the thesis comments markets. All right. I appreciate that. Thank you. [Operator Instructions] And we will go next to Richard Eastman with Robert W. Baird. Please go ahead. Yes, good morning, Chris, Dave.
Good morning, Rick. Can I just ask a quick question, if I kind of essay on journey make an adjustment on Stanadyne to the full, maybe a full quarter revenue number, it looks like perhaps, $27 million-ish, which seems like an awfully – that seems like a good number. What was the thesis not showing op profit in on today's, this quarter on comments not showing Stanadyne? What was their contribution there? The operating margin in the second quarter was about 22% to 23%.
Okay, so, some improvement and presume maybe it was at volume or mix, sequential improvement, because we are still kind of trying to work towards 24%, 25% on that revenue, correct? Yes, it’s certainly was related to volume and absorption, but there was an offset. We had an additional warranty claim based on an event from national prayer 2014 that we recognized in the second quarter. Without that, that claim, we probably would be closer to the 25%. Okay, all right. And then, also, so, I am trying to sift through the thesis numbers, for the second half, this domestic aftermarket business on the Engine/Mobile side, it would appear that you are expecting that to rebound.
Again, I think the history suggests that maybe a third quarter of contraction in the inventory levels at distributors is somewhat unheard of. So are you expecting… I’d agree with that. I would agree with that. We do expect a bit of a rebound. I think we are trying to remain a little bit cautious based on what we have seen here. Yes. Argumentative Into The Wild. And then, can I just ask a quick question on PECO?
Excluding the acquisition, was there growth in that business in the quarter? There was on an organic basis. Comments. So that business is probably more impacted by foreign exchange than our other global businesses. The impact of foreign exchange, the university negative impact of thesis foreign exchange and the positive impact from the Filter Resources acquisition almost offset one other one-to-one. Essay. So, the GAAP sales growth is essentially same as the organic sales growth. Okay, I see. Thesis Comments Not Showing. All right. And then just, maybe one last question, when we pull the guidance down here, we kind of expect, we expected to do so. Save Fuel For Future. If I look at the low-end, the $1.59 billion of revs and thesis comments, the three bucks in EPS, can you just rank the risk factors there that would generate the essay low-end versus, say midpoint? I mean, I am thinking that there is some risk here in this big fourth quarter shipment timing on the gas turbine side.
Yes, both gas turbine and vessels. Those totally slipped out on comments us. That would have and then Engine/Mobile run rate driving to a continued to level that we saw at the end of Q2, so. Okay, so, if we don’t have the recovery on the aftermarket US business in Engine/Mobile, but the other two factors, really the timing on the vessel shipments and the gas turbine systems, that really couches or supports the low-end there? Okay. Okay, great. Brown Application. Thank you. [Operator Instructions] We’ll go next to thesis comments, Larry Pfeffer with Avondale Partners. Please go ahead. Good morning gentlemen. Good morning, Larry.
So, just again on the on-road exposure, did you see the de-stocking gather pace over the second quarter and into June or was it kind of just a steady kind of fuel low single-digit decline throughout the quarter? It gathered pace as we – from the entrance to the quarter to the end of the quarter. Okay and then, I mean, I know it’s early into June, but just any indication on what you are seeing early here in the third quarter? It’s very consistent with what we saw in May. Okay and then on the Stanadyne business, I know you guys kind of thesis comments not showing gave the breakdown on where first-fit and aftermarket were in the first half of the year there. Do you expect any change in the rates of decline for for future essay, the old Stanadyne business here as we move into the second half? No, I don’t think so. Thesis Comments. And I think, you read some of the Ag projections from the major Ag companies and we kind of expect to on television violence, mirror what they are indicating.
Okay and then, just lastly on the – sorry, I heard a little feedback there. On the share repurchase side, you guys are still sitting there with a solid balance sheet. Are you thinking anything more than offsetting dilution here as we move into the back half of this year, in the next year? At this point, I think, our strategy is consistent with what it’s been in the past and it’s just offset dilution. We will be opportunistic depending on share price and availability of capital.
But, there is no reason to expect anything other than just to offsetting dilution for the remainder of the year. Okay. Thank you, gentlemen. Best of luck in the quarter. All right. Thank you, Larry. Thank you, Larry. We will go next to Nick Prendergast with BBT Capital Markets.
Please go ahead. Hi, good morning. I just wanted to clarify just one thing real quick on your guidance table where you have your estimated sales growth here. I am assuming this is all in including acquisitions, but not including FX, is that the correct way to look at it? Or is that everything – all included? It is thesis GAAP, it is all in. That’s all in, so it includes your acquisitions, your FX, all your $45 million of FX and everything? Okay. All right. Thank you. And gentlemen, it appears we have no further questions.
Mr. Conway, I’ll turn the violence conference back over to you for any closing comments. Okay, thank you for your attention and interest in our results this quarter and we’ll look forward to talking to not showing, you next quarter. Thank you. This does conclude today's conference call. At this time, you may disconnect. This article is for PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from $200/m. Interested in essay into the wild, upgrading to PRO?
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