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Biology a2 aqa coursework

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Aqa biology coursework a level - …

calculator homework This homework will give you practice in coursework parsing, inheritance, interfaces, event-driven programming, packages, ArrayList, and group ideas, designs involving programs that use the a2 aqa MVC (Model-View-Controller) model of interaction. In case you have not already noticed, this is an Open homework. You must read the Open/Closed policy before working on this project. Critical Analysis Essay. The policy can be found at policy. Coursework. Your company wants to analysis essay brave new world build a suite of interactive calculators, e.g., a integer calculator, a scientific calculator, a financial calculator, etc. For this homework, you will create a generic calculator class, called GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine), which provides a general framework for biology a2 aqa coursework, the implementation of several types of calculators. By extending the essays GenericCalcEng you will be able to implement concrete calculators (e.g., scientific, financial, etc.). For this project, in addition to implementing the GenericCalcEng, class you will implement two classes that implement two concrete calculators. This first class is named RestaurantCalcEng, and it represents a calculator used in fast food restaurants.

The second one is named ScientificCalcEng, and represents a typical scientific calculator. We will provide code to be used in biology the development of sketch of brief biographical essay, Graphical User Interfaces for the concrete calculator classes you will implement. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. The code will allow you to group service easily define a calculator interface in coursework no time. More details about the program are provided in the Specifications section. Note: The bulk of the implementation associated with this project is the implementation of the logic that creates functional calculators. Type Biographical. This logic is what the a2 aqa coursework JUnit module (that you will create) will test.

Developing the actual GUIs is a minor component of this project and mathus essay, something that should take you almost no time. For example, if you choose not to implement the GUIs for biology coursework, the calculators you will notice that you will pass all the tests in project ideas the submit server, as we don't check for that component via the submit server. The graders will check the GUIs manually. Take note of the point distribution for this project as this will tell you the weight associated with the GUIs. This homework will be graded as follows: 75% - Implementation 10% - Implementation of your JUnit Test 5% - Restaurant Calculator GUI 5% - Scientific Calculator GUI 5% - Time log.

Calculator Operation Model. Note: In the description below an operand represents a numeric value and an operator any user-defined computation (+, -, factorial, etc.) Most numerical calculators process the following type of a2 aqa, operations: unary operations - Those that require one operand (e.g., sine(10)) binary operations - Those requiring two operands (e.g., 10 + 30) no-operand operations - Clear operations, backspace operations, constant definition, etc. Before completing any calculations, all calculators need to identify whether a unary, binary, or no-operand operation is being requested, along with the operand(s) (if any). Once the brown university application essays identification has been made, the actual processing (determined by the operand) will take place. This means that, if you implement several calculators with different operands (e.g., a scientific, restaurant and binary calculators), parts of your processing will be common to all calculators. Specifically, the common processing is the identification of the kind of operation requested and biology a2 aqa coursework, the operands.

To implement this common processing without code duplication, the best approach is to define a class that provides methods that tell us what operator needs to be processed along with the operands. By using this class, we need only worry about implementing the inspirational person computation associated with each particular operator. For this project you will implement such a class. We name this class GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine) , because, as its name implies, it provides the a2 aqa coursework generic behavior associated with any calculator. The class identifies operators and operands, and provides support for common operations found in brown application essays any calculator (e.g., processing of backspaces, reset, etc.). This class cannot generate any results. Coursework. It just identifies what needs to be done and relies on a subclass to actually implement the processing associated with an operator. Implementing a calculator using GenericCalcEng. Let's suppose you want to implement a simple floating-point calculator that supports the operators +, -, *, /, =, backspace, and reset. To implement this calculator you just need to create a new class (let's called it BasicCalc ) which extends the GenericCalcEng.

By extending GenericCalcEng, BasicCalc doesn't need to implement the inspirational essay backspace or the biology a2 aqa reset operation as those are already provided by the base class. Furthermore, it doesn't need to implement any code to identify operands (e.g., reading digits) or code that identifies operators. Analysis Essay. All this processing is taken care of by GenericCalcEng. What does BasicCalc implement? It provides the GenericCalcEng with a list of the operators (the name and type) the BasicCalc will process. In addition, it provides the implementation of coursework, abstract methods present in the GenericCalcEng class. One of brown application essays, these methods takes care of processing unary operations, the other takes care of binary operations and a third one is in charge of biology a2 aqa, processing constants. The GenericCalcEng will call these methods to a character sketch is a type essay process operators it identifies. As you can see, defining new calculators is relatively easy, once the GenericCalcEng has been implemented.

More details about the GenericCalcEng and the classes you must implement are provided in the Specifications section. The code distribution is available by checking out the project named p8 . The code distribution provides you with the following: A library called cmsc131CalculatorLib . A number of Java files. PublicTests.java - This class represents the set of JUnit public tests. The expected results for each test can be found in the text files with a pub prefix. A time log file. Calculator Library (We provide this.) The cmsc131CalculatorLib provides a number of support classes that you will need for this homework. The classes you will find in this package are: GenericCalcGUI : A class that implements the generic calculator GUI. GUIListener : An interface that defines the a2 aqa callback method used by constrast, the GenericCalcGUI class. Java Files (We provide these.) CalcOperator.java : This simple class is biology just a convenient encapsulation of two entities, an operator name and its type. Although its use is not required, it is likely to come in handy.

The operator name is just a single String symbol (e.g. + or /, Super, Fries). The type is a character sketch is a type biographical used in your processing. Types include things like whether this is a binary or unary operator (see below). The class consists of a constructor with the following prototype: public CalcOperator(String operatorName, int operatorType) This class also provides two accessor methods, getName( ) and getType( ) , which return these values.

The various operator types are encoded as symbolic constants (as int values). The operator type names for this assignment are: For example, a binary operator such as + has the a2 aqa operator type CalcOperator.BINARY_OP . CalcEngExample : This class provides an example of a calculator engine implemented by service project ideas, extending the GenericCalcEng class. Coursework. It is provided just to critical brave new world help you get an coursework idea of how to design your own calculator engine. Group Service Project Ideas. GUIExample : This class provides an example of how to implement a GUI interface and controller using the GenericGUI class. Again, it is provided to help you get an idea of how to design your own calculator GUI.

TestsSupport : This class has support code for the JUnit public tests. You will implement GenericCalcEng , a Java abstract class that represents the model component of the MVC paradigm for the generic (common) part of the calculator. The generic calculator can be tailored to coursework recognize any unary and binary operators we want to implement. The generic calculator parses (that is, it syntactically classifies or recognizes) operators and essay, operands and passes those values to methods in biology the derived classes that will take care of implementing the a character is a of brief biographical essay operator. We can classify the GenericCalcEng operators into the following categories or types : Unary operators : Those requiring only one operand. (For example, cosine, square root, etc.) Binary operators : Those requiring two operands. (For example, addition, multiplication, etc.) Assignment operator (=) : Evaluates and displays the result of a binary operator. Clear operator : Clears the entire state of the calculator.

Clear last operand : Resets the last operand entered, by a2 aqa coursework, setting it to mathus essay 0. Backspace : Erases the last character of the display. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. Constant : Initializes the compare constrast essay current operand with a constant value, e.g., the function associated with a PI calculator button. The GenericCalcEng operands are defined by the digits 0 through 9 and/or a decimal point. This means that the generic calculator will recognize as valid operands the following entries: 123, 123.45, 0, 0.56. There is no need for a '-' sign, since negation (if needed) is handled at the operator level (e.g., unary +/-).

GenericCalcEng Public Operands. The public methods of the GenericCalcEng class are: Default (no argument) constructor : Defines the calculator state to biology a2 aqa coursework be ready to process selections. The display unit is compare essay initialized with the value of 0. addToOperatorList : Because a GenericCalcEng works with different concrete calculators, it needs to keep track of which operators the calculator will support. The generic calculator engine does not apply these operators, since that is biology a2 aqa left to the derived calculator classes. But it does need to know, for example, that sqrt is the name of a unary operator. In order to know this, a GenericCalcEng object maintains a list of operators and essay, their associated types. This list must be implemented using an biology a2 aqa ArrayList . The list starts out empty, and mathus essay, this method is called to add a given operator and its type to this list. Here is biology a2 aqa its prototype: public void addToOperatorList(String operatorName, int operatorType) The parameter operatorName is the String name of the brown university essays operator (e.g., + or sqrt). Biology A2 Aqa. The operatorType identifies the operator type as one of the types given above (UNARY_OP, BINARY_OP, etc.), as given in group service project the table above (see code distribution). The entire list of operators must be given before the a2 aqa coursework calculator is actually used. processSelection : This method implements the group project ideas action(s) that take place whenever a calculator button has been clicked. For example, to add the numbers 42 and 5 the user click the sequence of buttons: 4, 2, +,5, and =. This would result in five calls being made to this method, each time passing the name of the button selected as the argument.

Here is the a2 aqa prototype: public void processSelection(String selection) The method recognizes digits, the period and operators. It combines digit(s) and/or the period in order to generate operands. You may assume the operator input is constrast essay valid. This method will also trigger the biology execution of any operator once the appropriate operands (if any) have been identified and will update, if need be, a string object representing the calculator display. Thus, processSelection is the a character of brief core method of the GenericCalcEng class.

This key method is described in greater detail below. getDisplayContents : As the calculator is used, your program must keep track of the quantity to be shown in the calculators display unit. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. This method returns a String that represents the calculator's current display contents. It is university essays called by the GUI whenever the display needs to be updated. Biology A2 Aqa. public String getDisplayContents() For example, when the calculator starts up, a call to this function will return 0. After the user clicks on the button 4 (which causes processSelection(4) to be called) the new contents of the display will be 4. Compare. After clicking on 5 (causing the call processSelection(5)) the display contents will be 45. processUnaryOperator : This is an abstract method that must be provided by the concrete subclass (e.g., ScientificCalcEng) public abstract String processUnaryOperator(String operand, String operatorName) This method is called by coursework, processSelection once a unary operator and its operand have been identified. The processUnaryOperator method must implement the functionality of all the unary operators provided through the addToOperatorList method. Note that the argument is inspirational person passed in as a String (not double or integer).

Rather than converting digits to biology numbers immediately as each digit button is pressed, it is easier to concatenate the digits into a string, then pass the string to processUnaryOperator (or processBinaryOperator below), and then convert the result to a number. You may assume the brown application operator input is valid. processBinaryOperator : This is an abstract method similar to processUnaryOperator that deals with binary operators. You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processBinaryOperator(String firstOperand, String operatorName, String secondOperand) processConstantOperator : This method is called by processSelection once a constant operator has been identified. The processConstantOperator method returns a String representing the constant value associated with the biology a2 aqa operatorName parameter. Critical Analysis Brave. You may assume the coursework operator input is university application valid. public abstract String processConstantOperator(String operatorName) Feel free to add any additional private methods as you see fit.

However, you may not add any public methods beyond the ones specified above. As mentioned above, the processSelection method does not apply any binary or unary operators, since this is biology done in the concrete derived classes (e.g., ScientificCalcEng). For example, if the operator is the binary operator +, then processSelection will call a method in the derived class to brown university application essays apply the addition operator. (See processUnaryOperator, processBinaryOperator and processConstantOperator methods above). On the biology a2 aqa other hand, operators that are deemed to application essays be common to all calculators (e.g., ASSIGN_OP, CLEAR, CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND, BACKSPACE) are implemented by this method. For purposes of testing, it is necessary that you implement your calculator functions in biology coursework the same way that we do. Brown Application. If you consider the calculator's behavior when the user keys in the sequence 3 4 + 5 6 = the number 34 is the biology first operand, the operator is mathus essay +, and coursework, the second operand is 56. Person Essay. When = is seen, the binary operator + is applied, and the resulting sum of biology coursework, 90 is displayed.

How does the calculator know that 3 and 4 are parts of the brown university application essays first operand and 5 and 6 are parts of the second operand? The calculator is controlled by its state, which is made up of the following variables: firstOperand : (String) The left operand of a binary operation (34 above). secondOperand : (String) The right operand of a2 aqa coursework, a binary operation (56 above). Essay New World. currentOperator : (String) The binary operator (+ above) which is to be applied to these operands. displayContents : (String) The current contents of the display unit. context : (int) Indicates the context in which the calculator is currently running (see below). theOperators : (ArrayList) A list of the operators and their respective types for the current calculator. Keep in mind that you can add any other instance variables you see fit and you don't need to biology a2 aqa use exactly the variable names we provided. The calculator's operation depends on the context. Person. The possible contexts (states) are: Reading-First-Operand ( RFO ): This is the default context. Any digits that are entered are stored in the first operand.

Reading-Second-Operand ( RSO ): This context is entered whenever a binary operator is entered. Digits that are entered are stored in the second operand. Error ( ERR ): You are not required to implement this context (since we will not test for it explicitly). This context is biology a2 aqa entered whenever an error occurs (e.g., invalid input such as 3.4.5 or division by zero). When in this context the calculator ignores all operations until the operation CLEAR operation is performed. Semantics of GenericCalcEng Operators. The calculator starts in the default state, which is described in the CLEAR operator below.

In the description below, the term current operand refers to person essay either firstOperand or secondOperand, depending on coursework, the current context, RFO or RSO, respectively. CLEAR : Sets the calculator to the default state where the display shows the value of brown university application essays, 0, and a2 aqa, the context is RFO. CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND : Sets the current operand to zero. Updates the inspirational essay display with a 0 value. BACKSPACE : Removes the rightmost character (whether a digit or a decimal point) of the current operand.

If the biology a2 aqa coursework rightmost character is the critical essay only character, it replaces the character with 0. It updates the display accordingly. Coursework. ASSIGN_OP : If the context is not RSO, this operation is ignored. In the RSO context, the processBinaryOperator() method is invoked. The first operand is updated with the result of the most recently specified operator, the result of the computation is displayed, and we return to the RFO context. UNARY_OP : The processUnaryOperator() method is invoked on the current operand. The display is service updated with the result of the biology a2 aqa coursework computation. CONSTANT_OP : The processConstantOperator() method is invoked. The current operand is initialized with the value returned by processConstantOperator().

The display is updated with the constant value. BINARY_OP : There are two cases, depending on the current context. RFO : The first operand and current operator are saved, and the context is changed to RSO. The display is not changed. Inspirational Essay. RSO : There are two cases, depending on whether a second operand has yet been entered: If no input has been provided for the second operand then no calculation is performed, and the current operator is saved. Biology Coursework. (For example, the input 4 + * 6 = results in group service project ideas 4*6=24, and the + is ignored.) Otherwise (if the second operand is nonempty) then the previously saved current operator is now performed by biology a2 aqa, invoking the processBinaryOperator() method.

The result is stored as the first operand, and university, the display is updated to this value as well. The second operand is reset to empty, and the given operator becomes the new current operator. (This allows us to chain binary operators together, so that 3 + 4 * 5 = results in (3+4)*5 = 35.) Creating calculator engines using the GenericCalcEng class. In order to have an operational calculator we must extend the GenericCalcEng class. Coursework. The subclass will specify the operators and provide the implementation of the group service project ideas GenericCalcEng abstract methods. The class CalcEngExample, part of the code distribution provides an example of creating a very simple calculator based on the GenericCalcEng. Once you have implemented GenericCalcEng and one of its subclasses we have a fully operational calculator. However, it is not one that is easy to use. We have provided a class called GenericCalcGUI (Generic Calculator Graphical User Interface) that will enable you to create a complete calculator GUI. We will describe the process for a basic floating-point calculator ( which you do not need to implement for this project ). You will need to implement a similar process for both the restaurant and scientific calculators. Biology Coursework. The setup for these is exactly analogous to mathus essay the basic calculator (just replace Basic with Restaurant or Scientific below).

As you read this, please refer to the file GUIExample.java (given in the code distribution). Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. It illustrates how to brave create a simple GUI with a couple of buttons. The behavior of GUIExample.java is trivial, and simply echoes back the user's selection. First, you would define a class BasicCalc that implements the GUIListener interface (see the code distribution). This interface requires that your class BasicCalc implement the following callback method (which is invoked whenever the user clicks on a button). Its job is to process the selected operation and update the calculator display contents. (More about this below.) public void buttonSelected(String selection) In your BasicCalc class define an instance variable, say gui , that is biology coursework of type GenericCalcGUI. (We have provided the compare GenericCalcGUI class for you as part of the cmsc131CalculatorLib.) Create a new GenericCalcGUI in your BasicCalc constructor, and save a reference to it in this instance variable. The GenericCalcGUI constructor takes two parameters: a String giving the calculator window title, and a two-dimensional array of biology a2 aqa coursework, String objects representing the positions and labels of the buttons in the calculator. Each row of strings represents a row of critical analysis essay new world, buttons in the GUI.

This can be a ragged array, implying that some rows have fewer buttons than others. A2 Aqa Coursework. Finally, you need to inform the GUI that your BasicCalc class is the one implementing the callback method (buttonSelected). In order to do this, from within the BasicCalc class constructor, invoke the gui's setGUIListener() method as follows: In order for your calculator to possess the desired functionality, you must create a second instance variable in your BasicCalc class. Mathus Essay. This variable stores a reference to a concrete instance of a GenericCalcEng class that implements the functionality of the basic calculator. Let's call it engine . In your BasicCalc constructor, create such a new instance and assign it to engine. Now, when the biology buttonSelected() callback is called, it needs to perform the following operations: invoke the mathus essay engine's processSelection() method to process the selected button, get the contents of the calculator's display (as a String) by invoking the engine's getDisplayContents() method, and update the calculator's display contents. This is done by invoking the method gui.setDisplayContents() method. Biology Coursework. Its argument is the value returned from the previous step. The following figure illustrates how the brave various classes interact at the user-interface level for this basic calculator example.

The picture is biology a2 aqa similar for the restaurant and scientific calculator. Remember, you don't need to implement this basic calculator. We are just using it as an example of how to set up a GUI for any calculator. Classes you must define. Brown University Application. For this homework you must define the following classes: GenericCalcEng : Implements the generic calculator. RestaurantCalcEng: This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the biology coursework engine of a floating-point calculator used in a restaurant.

The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). Inspirational Essay. The functions expected from this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng using the addToOperatorList() method.) For the restaurant calculator only , result values should be displayed using two decimal points. This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double value = 78.123; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(0.00); String valueStr = decimalFormat.format(value); A value of 78.12 will be stored in biology coursework valueStr. RestaurantCalc : The RestaurantCalcEng class only performs the critical analysis calculator operations. The RestaurantCalc class sets up the biology a2 aqa coursework necessary connections to person the GUI to create the actual restaurant calculator. See the file GUIExample.java in the code distribution) for an example of how to do this.

The GUI appearance must match the coursework GUI presented in the Sample Run section. ScientificCalcEng : This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of a floating-point scientific calculator. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng with the addToOperatorList() method.) Most of the aforementioned operators can be found in the Java Math class. Compare. For the scientific calculator only , values with no fractional part should be displayed without a decimal point.

This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double result = 12.0; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(); String str = decimalFormat.format(result); A value of biology, 12 will be stored in str (instead of 12.0). The call to method setGroupingUsed( false ) is used to disable the a character sketch type of brief biographical essay automatic insertion of commas. With this call the value 12345678.9 would be converted to 12345678.9, and without it the value would be converted to coursework 12,345,678.9 instead. ScientificCalc : The ScientificCalcEng class only inspirational essay performs the calculator operations. The ScientificCalc class sets up the GUI for the scientific calculator. See the file GUIExample.java in the code distribution) for an example of how to do this. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. The GUI appearance must match the sketch is a type of brief biographical essay GUI presented in the Sample Run section. Biology Coursework. Note: For all calculators defined above, the standard arithmetic rules of mathus essay, precedence do not apply.

For example, in the expression 34 + -56 * .5 the a2 aqa first two operands are added before multiplication is applied, so the result is -11 (not 6). University Essays. Packages you must define. In order to gain experience in designing a programming project involving packages, you must create the coursework following packages and arrange your classes as described below. The packages must be named using the names we have specified; otherwise, we will not be able to grade your project. (Remember that packages can be created in Eclipse using File → New → Package.) genericCalcEng : We have already created this package for you. It contains the GenericCalcEng class and the CalcOperator.java file we provided. restaurantCalc : Contains the RestaurantCalcEng and the RestaurantCalc classes. scientificCalc : Contains the ScientificCalcEng and person, the ScientificCalc classes.

As with all programming assignments: You must use meaningful variable names and good indentation. You must avoid code duplication, by calling appropriate methods (rather than cutting and pasting code). You may define your own private utility methods to perform often repeated tasks. Please do not change the names of any of the classes you are to implement, and use signatures given above for your methods . The graphical layout of your calculator must match those given in the sample run. You must use the same package structure given above. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. Your operator list in GenericCalcEng must be implemented using ArrayList from the Java class library. Test your program using the JUnit module you create and test your submission using the submit server. Person. In this section we present two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement. This will guide you in determining how to set up the GUIs.

If you take a look at the PublicTests.java file and the pub*.txt files, you will be able to biology coursework see the processing associated with the the different operators each calculator implements. As you can see, you can tests your implementation without using GUIs. Group Ideas. Here is an example that shows two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement, in biology their initial states. We have provided a JUnit module representing the public tests. However, you need to create your own JUnit module to critical essay test your project. Define the coursework tests as you see fit. We expect at least three tests in a character type of brief biographical the JUnit file. Name your JUnit test file MyJUnitTests.java.

Feel free to use the TestsSupport.processSeveralSelections method to a2 aqa process different key combinations, as we did in the PublicTests.java. Remember that you are not required to implement the following problem. Please visit the course web page for information regarding challenge problem. For this challenge problem, you have three possible choices, each for a particular number of gold stars. If you want to implement them all that is fine, however we can only grade one. IMPORTANT : For the challenge problem create a package called challenge . In that package should appear any classes needed to complete your challenge problem implementation. The challenge problems below may require you to modify the constrast GenericCalcEng and other classes of your homework. Provide the modified versions of these classes in the challenge package.

Make sure you provide, in the challenge package, a Challenge.java file with a main method that allows us to run the challenge problem calculator. Also make sure that your Challenge class has a default constructor. Biology Coursework. Note: For the challenge problem you must use the analysis essay brave new world scientific calculator. Make an entry in the timelog indicating which Challenge problem choice you have implemented. Coursework. Add an option to the calculator that allows the display to show the results using commas. For example, instead of mathus essay, 12345 the a2 aqa coursework user would see 12,345. You should add a button to the GUI labeled com that allows the user to turn this feature on and off. Step 2 (1 additional Gold Star, for essays, a total of 2) In addition to Choice 1 , add the following memory functions to the calculator infrastructure: MS - Allows you to store in memory the element currently being displayed. MR - Allows you to use the value stored in memory as the biology a2 aqa coursework next operand.

Any retrieved value is immediately displayed. MC - Sets the memory to 0. You should add three buttons to the GUI labeled MS, MR, and MC, respectively. Choice 3 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of 3) In addition to Choice 1 and Choice 2 , add parenthesis semantics to the calculator infrastructure. A Character Sketch Type Of Brief Biographical. That means your calculator can process expressions surrounded by parenthesis, regardless of the level of nesting. You should add two buttons to the GUI labeled ( and ). Feel free to place the biology GUI buttons wherever you consider to be best. Submit your project using the analysis new world submit project option associated with Eclipse.

Remember to complete your time log before submitting your homework.

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Immature Romeo Essays and Research Papers. play “ Romeo and Juliet” written by William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet meet and think that they are instantly in love leading . them to their deaths because of their lack of knowledge of one another. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. Although Romeo and Juliet seem to be all grown up and ready to live alone together, they are not. Group Service Project. They are two immature teenagers who are without common sense and by falling in biology love, have created a very dangerous situation for themselves and brown application essays their families. First of all, Romeo and Juliet. Characters in biology a2 aqa Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1181 Words | 5 Pages. Shakespeare presents each of their characters relationships, during Porphyria’s lover and Romeo amp; Juliet; with one being a poet and the . other a play writer, they both display two star crossed lovers who will each defy against everything they know to be with one another. One theme that went again everything they knew was Romeo amp;Juliet’s defying nature against their families and tradition. During Romeo amp; Juliet both of their family’s disapproved of their relationship, for brown university one main reason. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Robert Browning 1654 Words | 4 Pages. ?Character Analysis Name: Romeo Family: Montague Age: 16 Write down 5 words that describe this character’s personality: 1. Impulsive . 2. Sensitive 3. Immature 4. Passion 5. Stupid Write two dialogues spoken by the character that reveals this characters personality.

I am Fortune’s fool! -Shows how he is stupid I defy. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , KILL , Love 836 Words | 4 Pages. bump into coursework, Benvolio and Romeo , and in gratitude, he invites them into the Capulet’s party. Through fate, Romeo and Juliet meet, . and then the entire story falls out mathus essay, form then. For the nurse, it was through her free-will to a2 aqa agree and witness of the marriage of Romeo and Juliet. Her decisions is also contributes to Romeo and compare constrast Juliet’s fate. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. And not only that, Tybalt’s decision to fight Romeo , also contributed to the fate of inspirational person, both himself and a2 aqa Romeo . He caused himself to die, and Romeo gets exiled for critical analysis essay new world avenging. Benvolio , Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet 1044 Words | 3 Pages. characterisation and dramatic technique,discuss the nature and a2 aqa coursework development of brave, Romeo and a2 aqa Juliet's relationship. Compare Constrast. Romeo and . Juliet's relationship begins and only lasts for only three days however through that short period of coursework, time the two “star crossed lovers” fall in love and university application essays subsequently get married.

There families are at war and this forces Romeo and Juliet to keep there relationship and marriage secret, the a2 aqa coursework, pair are extremely young with Romeo being 16 and Juliet being just 14. It all ends tragically when they. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1793 Words | 5 Pages. A constant theme of infatuation progressively is displayed throughout Romeo and Juliet, starting with an innocent desire for true love, and . ending in death. Constrast. Romeo and Juliet are the main characters that display the biology coursework, obsession through dialogue.

The first sign of university application essays, infatuation began with Romeo . He claimed, “love, whose view is muffled still, should without eyes, see pathways to his will” (Shakespeare 20). Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. Romeo is obsessed with the idea of love, and is convinced that love controls you. He ends up getting. Decision making , Irony , Juliet Capulet 1791 Words | 5 Pages. Love in analysis new world all its Forms in biology a2 aqa coursework - Romeo and Juliet Essay The theme of love is compare constrast essay, probably the most common theme in biology a2 aqa coursework all literature and . Romeo and Juliet is no exception. Essay. The theme of love is biology a2 aqa coursework, predominant throughout the entire of play of Romeo and Juliet. There are many different forms of love and Shakespeare incorporates many of them into his Romeo and Juliet play. In Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare brings out the cruel superficial love Romeo has for Rosaline, the bawdy, physical, and sexual love that Shakespeare.

Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and mathus essay Juliet is a story of biology coursework, two doomed teenage lovers whose fate ends in tragedy. In modern times the name Romeo has become . nearly synonymous with “lover”. Romeo , in Romeo and Juliet, does indeed experience a love of such purity and passion that he believes he can no longer live and decides to take his own life when he believes that the object of his love, Juliet, has died. The power of brown, Romeo’s love, however, often obscures a clear vision of Romeo’s character, which is far more complex. He is. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 1762 Words | 4 Pages. easy. In Romeo and biology a2 aqa Juliet, Shakespeare demonstrates that young people struggle in mathus essay life depending on their maturity level. Shakespeare shows . that three people in the play are struggling to deal maturely with different challenges Romeo , Juliet and Tybalt are placed with the same problems. Biology Coursework. Romeo is is a essay, faced with challenges throughout the entire play.

Romeo is forced to figure out a plan and coursework follow it. His maturity level causes his actions to fail. Inspirational Person. Romeo shows very. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Mercutio , Romeo and Juliet 966 Words | 3 Pages. ROMEO AND JULIET: FREE BOOKNOTES CONFLICT Romeo and Juliet is based on external conflict and portrays the long-standing . quarrel between the two established families in Verona, the Capulets and the Montagues. Protagonists Romeo and Juliet are the protagonists of the play. Biology Coursework. Antagonists The long-standing quarrel between the group service, Capulets and the Montagues, which prevent Romeo and Juliet from being able to profess their love openly. Climax The climax occurs when Romeo kills himself by drinking. Characters in Romeo and biology coursework Juliet , Mercutio , Romeo and Juliet 1923 Words | 6 Pages. Romeo and Juliet: A Poor Demonstration of Love “These violent delights have violent ends, and in their triumph die like fire and sketch is a essay . powder which as they kiss consumes” (2.6.10-11).

Out of love, the star-crossed lovers can’t bear the burden of living without each other, choose to die together in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. However, has Juliet made the right decision, or has she really thought about love and marriage? Romeo is biology a2 aqa, gentle and passionate, whereas Paris is honourable and practical. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Examine Shakespeare's treatment of relationships in Romeo and Juliet. In this essay I will be examining William Shakespeare's treatment of . relationships in Romeo and brown Juliet. Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, Warwickshire and was alive during the Elizabethan era. He was an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. He wrote at least thirty seven plays and also wrote poems.

His plays were comedies, histories and tragedies and some. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 2303 Words | 6 Pages. 1D7-05 C. Bucci May 23, 2008 Romeo Juliet: Superficial Love There are infinite ways to define love. Love has become such an sketch type biographical . ambiguous and vague term, though it is one of the a2 aqa, most recognizable of person essay, human emotions. It has existed as far back as humans remember and love has been a source of interest and biology a2 aqa inspiration in the Arts, Religion, Sciences, and most popularly, in Literature. The most memorable and popular work of love is William Shakespeare’s tragic Romeo Juliet. Constrast. What is so remarkable. Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , Juliet Capulet 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and biology coursework Juliet and West Side Story Comparison Essay.

inspired by the author of Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare inspired Ernest Lehman because of the obvious similarities . in theme, plot and mathus essay the characters of both of their stories. Inspiration can be the best way to jumpstart your own imagination and is especially helpful when it comes to the theme of a story. A2 Aqa Coursework. The themes of both Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story are very similar. The theme of masculine pride is apparent in critical analysis both stories.

In Romeo and Juliet it is clearly. Christopher Marlowe , Ernest Lehman , First Folio 1340 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo and Juliet: Dreams, Visions and Premonitions. visions and premonitions play in Romeo and Juliet? In Romeo and Juliet, dreams, visions and a2 aqa premonitions play a very important . role. They foreshadow the eventual tragedy, tell us about analysis essay brave new world, a character’s view over a particular matter, and reflect underlying messages in the play. They are symbols, telling us about the various themes in the play as well. An example of a dream foreshadowing the eventual tragic ending of the play is found in Act 1 Scene 4, in which Romeo says that he “dreamt a dream tonight”. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Mercutio , Queen Mab 2431 Words | 7 Pages. Romeo and Juliet’s love was doomed from the start. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. Juliet’s lust for power ( That's a very interesting idea.

I only thought she had the . A Character Is A Type Of Brief Biographical. boy-girl kind of lust. ) was destined to a2 aqa destroy her relations with Romeo . Mathus Essay. Capulet forces (betroths) Juliet to marry Count Paris, a man she does not love. When she refuses to marry him, Capulet threatens his daughter and says, “…get thee to biology a2 aqa coursework church o' Thursday, or never after look me in the face”. This causes Juliet to take her own actions against his (her?) father’s. Characters in constrast Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1469 Words | 4 Pages. The tragedy Romeo and Juliet has been criticized by many critics throughout the years. Biology A2 Aqa. Most critics tend to agree that Shakespearean literature . has strong gender roles. Compare Essay. This means that the biology a2 aqa coursework, men will carry themselves with honor and pride. A typical man for the time period in which Shakespeare set his play was the head of the household; anything the man or also known as the head of the project, family wanted would be put into motion almost as soon as he finished saying the words. The strong males in the tragedy.

Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Count Paris , Female 2332 Words | 7 Pages. Shakespeare’s, Romeo and Juliet, love, in essence Romeo , is the guiding force which brings Juliet through these stages of . adolescence to the onset of maturity. As she stabs herself with the biology a2 aqa, dagger, she has become a self-assured, capable and loyal woman; ultimately she has come of age. What is your will? Juliet replies to her mother’s call. (18, ln 6) Shakespeare first introduces us to type of brief biographical essay Juliet in her most innocent and sheltered form, her baby phase. She begins the play as an immature naive character. Romeo and Juliet 1116 Words | 2 Pages.

?November 18th 2011 Jennifer Romeo and Juliet Persuasive Essay Draft Everything in life happens for a reason, and . ultimately fate has a special way in making it all happen. Within the tragic love story of William Shakespeare’s classic, “ Romeo and Juliet” fate decides the two lover’s destiny together along with many other factors. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. The power of fate brought Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet together yet it also decided to lead them into their own demise. Ultimately fate decided. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Examine the Ways in compare Which Shakespeare Develops the Character of Romeo Through His Use of Language. Romeo's character is biology a2 aqa, developed greatly throughout the play, ? Romeo and Juliet', through Shakespeare's use of language. Various themes are . introduced to the play; love, tragedy and conflict are some examples. Romeo's character can be identified by his connections with the themes. At the beginning of the brown university, play, Romeo seems quite mature, in the sense that he is in love, and growing up.

However, immaturity is beginning to arise, as Romeo shows that he cannot cope with the biology coursework, unrequited love haunting him. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 955 Words | 3 Pages. Gender Roles in Romeo and Juliet In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Juliet resorts to mathus essay conniving and shrewd ways in . order to control her destiny and free herself from her confined existence. Contrary to the critics who view Juliet as innocent, childish and immature , Juliet’s habits of manipulating people–particularly the men in her life, expressly Romeo –through simulating maleness implies a parallel between the biology a2 aqa coursework, approaches falconers (mostly males) use to critical essay brave new world train their falcons (mostly females). 16th century , Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Gender 1251 Words | 4 Pages. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet ends in a2 aqa tragedy, because of some of Romeo and Juliet’s faults. Romeo and Juliet . obviously rush into things. Mathus Essay. They do not listen to biology the advice of Friar Lawrence and end up paying the ultimate price. Critical Analysis Brave. They also ignore the obvious factors that prohibit Romeo and Juliet from ever being happy together. Romeo and Juliet are also very immature and are groomed for social disaster. Romeo and Juliet are also not in love, but in lust.

The combination of impatience, immaturity, and. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 2940 Words | 7 Pages. ?In the play Romeo and Juliet a series of unfortunate the circumstances and illogical decisions force the protagonists into an impossible . position ultimately resulting in their death. As Il-fated as the two star-crossed lover's may have been the root of all their problems can be traced back to rash decisions by characters and circumstances placed unfairly on characters by warped societal expectations. While the Friar had nothing but the best intentions his illogical and somewhat naive decisions. Characters in Romeo and a2 aqa Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Marriage 1224 Words | 4 Pages.

infant rind of this weak flower Poison hath residence, and group service project medicine power: For this, being smelt, with the part cheers each part; Being tasted, stay all . senses with the heart,” (Friar Lawrence, 2.3, 19-23) An Analysis of Foil Characters within Romeo and Juliet A foil character is a character whose function is to be compared or contrasted with the main protagonist. Moreover, a foil character is used to heighten and a2 aqa illuminate drastic differences or extreme similarities in the main character. Characters in Romeo and brown university essays Juliet , Mercutio , Protagonist 1485 Words | 5 Pages. Who Is Blame for Romeo and Juliet's Death. Many have said that romance brings love and affection, but when taken to biology a2 aqa the extreme, it can lead to tragedy and despair. In the literary play . Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare created a tragedy protagonist, Juliet, whose tragic death “buries their parents’ strife” (Prologue). The eternal feud between Montague and Capulets restraints the brown university application essays, love between Romeo and coursework Juliet and ultimately lead to university application their death. Juliet’s death has many different factors, and it’s hard to determine the truly blame of Juliet’s.

Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Romeo and Juliet 1060 Words | 3 Pages. romeo and juliet - the balcony scene. Shakespeare’s tragedy “ Romeo and a2 aqa coursework Juliet” is a play in which the emotions, pity, and terror are exploited to portray the extent of feeling of . love and service attraction throughout. The balcony scene plays a vital role in the way the depth of feeling between Romeo and biology a2 aqa coursework Juliet is portrayed. Prior to this scene Romeo and Juliet have exchanged a number of kisses, and showed a mutual physical attraction for each other however as of yet they have not disclosed their true depth of their feeling. During the play. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Interpersonal attraction , Love 1623 Words | 5 Pages. ?How does Shakespeare show that Romeo’s love for Juliet is essays, real? How do his words and biology coursework actions differ from when he said he loved Rosaline? In Shakespeare’s . play Romeo and sketch is a type of brief biographical essay Juliet, the a2 aqa, introduction of Romeo to the audience is haunted by critical essay a melancholic mood.

The scene is biology, set in service Verona where Romeo’s family is worried about him due to his rejection in love from a woman, Rosaline. However throughout the scenes studied, it seems that love is the primary driving force behind most of Romeo’s actions and words. Characters in Romeo and a2 aqa coursework Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1715 Words | 4 Pages. Presented in Act I of Romeo and Juliet? In Shakespeare’s play, “ Romeo and Juliet”, the theme of inspirational person, love is central to the play . and is highlighted by being set against a backdrop of conflict and a2 aqa violence. Brown. Throughout the a2 aqa coursework, play, Shakespeare uses the constant juxtaposition of love and hatred. I believe he does this so that the audience can really feel the plight of the two lovers set against such hateful circumstances.

It also helps them to empathise and appreciate the struggle that Romeo and Juliet have to. Characters in essay Romeo and a2 aqa Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 2266 Words | 5 Pages. Romeo and Juliet Movie Comparison. In Franco Zeffirelli’s 1968 version of Romeo and analysis new world Juliet, is a traditional adaptation of Shakespeare’s original Romeo and Juliet, . with some variations. Baz Luhrmann directed the 1996 version, also known as the MTV Romeo † Juliet. This version is very modernized, but keeps the language intact with few changes. There are many differences between Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet and the Signet version of Romeo and Juliet. Romeo’s entire speech that begins “Alas that love, whose view is muffled still. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Leonardo DiCaprio , Mercutio 2725 Words | 6 Pages.

ROMEO AND JULIET - FATE OR IMPULSIVE ACTIONS? up their own fate with their behaviour and biology a2 aqa coursework actions. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, they young lovers were victims of their own impulsive . actions. The lead characters were impatient and did not think before jumping to conclusions. Their carelessness is seen when Romeo and Juliet get married even though their families are at feud. The young blood of the men from both sides and their attitudes lead to street violence, and mathus essay Romeo forgets to get all the information about Juliet's death and her attraction.

Characters in Romeo and biology a2 aqa Juliet , Death , Marriage 966 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kassie Costello Ms. McIntyre English 112 28 May 2014 Tragedy in application Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare: English 112 Essay William . Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a play that portrays the long-lasting feud between two distinguished families of a2 aqa, Verona, Italy. The Montagues and Capulets are sworn enemies, making the love shared between Romeo (a Montague) and Juliet (a Capulet) dreadfully difficult to act upon. The star-crossed lovers must remain a secret to all but few, and fate brings them. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Christopher Marlowe , Poetics 1243 Words | 5 Pages.

Analysis of Major Characters in Romeo and Juliet. Analysis of inspirational essay, Major Characters in The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Romeo - The name Romeo , in a2 aqa popular culture, the . name Romeo has become nearly synonymous with lover. Romeo , in Romeo and Juliet, does indeed experience a love of such purity and passion that he kills himself when he believes that the critical analysis brave new world, object of his love, Juliet, has died. The power of biology coursework, Romeo's love, however, often obscures a clear vision of Romeo's character, which is far more complex. [IMAGE] In fact, even Romeo's relation. Characters in brown university application Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1305 Words | 4 Pages.

Analysis of biology a2 aqa coursework, Juliet from Romeo and Juliet. It is nor hand nor foot, Nor arm nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O be some other name! What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By . any other word would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call’d, Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Inspirational Person Essay. Romeo , doff thy name, And for thy name, which is no part of thee, Take all myself. In the biology a2 aqa coursework, play’s beginning Juliet first appears in critical essay brave her bedroom when her mother is calling her to get ready for the Capulet’s. Characters in biology a2 aqa coursework Romeo and Juliet , John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ice-cream, a mother and her family, and love between two selfless people.

This is true love. In the play, Romeo and Juliet, written by . William Shakespeare, the feeling of attraction between the two main characters is mathus essay, not true love. The setting of a2 aqa coursework, this play is the streets of Verona, Italy, during a time when arranged marriages at the age of 14 were socially acceptable. Two young teens, Romeo and Juliet, were convinced that they had feelings for each other, but acted more out of inspirational essay, lust than anything. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo and biology a2 aqa coursework Juliet – Literary Paragraph. Romeo and Juliet – Literary Paragraph In Romeo and Juliet, each character has a specific role and for the main character, . Romeo , seems to mathus essay be the one who changes the most. Romeo changes throughout the play as he is constantly become mature. As Romeo’s thoughts, feelings and actions have revealed his great changes among all other characters.

According to the play, Romeo presented three palpable changes as the biology a2 aqa, followings, he gets over Rosaline right after meeting Juliet, his hatred towards Tybalt. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 956 Words | 3 Pages. undesirable outcomes such as a punishment of is a type of brief biographical, some sort or in some cases, death. Coursework. This is the message that William Shakespeare tries to convey in university application essays his infamous . play, Romeo and Juliet. This play revolves around characters from two rival families that elicit their deaths and that of several others due to their impulsive personalities. Biology. Romeo , Juliet and Tybalt each let a particular emotion cloud their judgement, causing them to make decisions with no prior thoughts of consideration for consequences. Their. Characters in Romeo and constrast Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 2238 Words | 6 Pages. Tuongvan Le Ms. Biology Coursework. Johns 05/18/10 4B Romeo and Juliet Research Paper In Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Romeo’s . character was undermined as a foolish, feminist, and untrustworthy man to the audience, which finally contributes to the tragedy of the play.

He is foolish as he was completely defeated by love-sick, impulsively asked for marriage after seeing Juliet for one night, and blindly drank the poison. Also, Romeo was a feminist as he was crying on the floor like a woman after the Prince. Characters in Romeo and service Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1430 Words | 4 Pages. between Romeo and Juliet as sacred. This is evident from Romeo's words to a2 aqa coursework Juliet, If I profane with my unworthiest hand/ This holy shrine, . the gentle sin is this. Romeo is person essay, comparing Juliet's hand to a holy place which is unworthy to biology a2 aqa coursework be visited by Romeo's hand. My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand/ To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.

These words by Romeo again do the job of making it clear to group service the audience that the relationship between Romeo and Juliet is holy. Romeo says to. John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1488 Words | 4 Pages. • Shakespeare portrays Romeo and Juliet as star-crossed lovers, doomed by fate to biology a2 aqa coursework a tragic end. • Bad luck and unfortunate coincidences . abound: (1) Of all the people the illiterate Capulet servant could have asked to read the invitation list in Act I, scene 2, he chooses Benvolio, Mercutio, and Romeo ; (2) Of all the hotties at the Capulet party, Romeo spots Juliet first; (3) It just so happens that the County Paris decides he wants to marry Juliet the same day Romeo meets her; (4) Friar John. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Death , Friar Lawrence 2315 Words | 7 Pages. Romeo and Juliet: Blinding Love Love is brown, blindness I don't want to see/won’t you wrap the night around me/ Oh my love Blindness A little death . without mourning/ No call and biology a2 aqa coursework no warning . /a dangerous idea that almost makes sense.”(U2, Love Is Blindness, 1991, mp3.) This song by U2 is speaking about a person who is in an emotional state of agony because of something has happened to their lover or relationship. The line” wrap the critical analysis essay, night around me” is referring to biology a2 aqa coursework someone who feels numb because of. Juliet Capulet , Love , Romance 1418 Words | 5 Pages.

? Romeo and Juliet Research Paper William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is now a major term of romantic tragedy over two . feuding families between Capulet and Montague. Based on William Shakespeare’s work, there are two different versions of this story. While Franco Zeffirelli’s version conveys an old fashioned style of Romeo and Juliet, on the other hand, Baz Luhrmann’s version demonstrates a modernized version having characteristics of fancy clothes, loud music, and modern atmosphere. Comparing. Franco Zeffirelli , Juliet Capulet , Leonard Whiting 1291 Words | 3 Pages. I believe that the (1961)‘West Side Story’ film version of Romeo and Juliet is superior to the later version of ‘ Romeo and . Sketch Type Biographical Essay. Juliet’ directed in 1968 by biology a2 aqa coursework Franco Zeffirelli. Jerome Robbins, the director of ‘West Side Story’, having a different aim/ representation of Romeo and project Juliet has used various effective techniques to produce his film – which I consider to be more successful. Robbins chose it to be a transformation of Romeo and biology coursework Juliet not the compare, original play from Shakespeare, but that’s not the.

Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 2607 Words | 6 Pages. Banh 1 Randy Banh Dr. Blanchard Honors 9th literature 10 April 2014 Romeo’s Impulsiveness In ? . The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet? , Romeo is one of the protagonists in the story who shows many characteristics, but his impulsiveness protrudes the most. While Romeo can be characterized by his immaturity, his impulsiveness stands out a2 aqa coursework, like a jewel on an ethiopian man. A Character Sketch Is A Type Of Brief Biographical Essay. Romeo’s impulsiveness is scattered throughout the biology a2 aqa coursework, story as it is shown in all the acts he is in. His impulsi. Romeo and Juliet 595 Words | 4 Pages. I believe that Baz Luhrmann has created a very effective prologue and version of Act 1 Scene 1 of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, using visual . images and landmarks along with the language to aid the audience in understanding the story.

Using the media throughout, Luhrmann makes the group service, situations easier for biology coursework the audience to grasp, and in mathus essay turn, relate to. Biology Coursework. The film begins with the camera zooming in on a television. The prologue is spoken by a black female news reporter. Using a coloured female reporter. Characters in university Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Leonardo DiCaprio 1944 Words | 5 Pages. ? Matter over Mind in Romeo and Juliet There are a multitude story plots that follows the theme of Romeo and coursework Juliet, such as . The Lion King II: Simba's Pride, West Side Story, and inspirational many others.

All these scenarios follow the idea of forbidden love, star crossed lovers, or the idea of fate. While some flaws were the characters abuse of a2 aqa, their free will and others were of long time feuds, The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet were the base of the stories, becoming involved in the making of these works of. Christopher Marlowe , Juliet Capulet , Love 859 Words | 3 Pages. Comparative Essay Romeo and Juliet: Franco Zeffirelli and Baz Luhrmann When making books or plays into films, every director interprets . the text differently. Brown Application Essays. In the case of Romeo and Juliet, Franco Zeffirelli and biology Baz Luhrmann’s film are different in many ways even though they are based on the same play. The film by Franco Zeffirelli, in 1968, does a better job reenacting the play in compare constrast essay a motion picture than the film made by Baz Luhrmann, in 1996, because the setting, costumes and characterization. Baz Luhrmann , Claire Danes , Franco Zeffirelli 1513 Words | 6 Pages. Shakespeare’s 1597 play ' Romeo and Juliet” explores the protagonist’s change in attitude to love. This is done through the juxtaposition of . Romeo’s infatuated love to Rosaline and the true love to Juliet. In Act 1 Scene 1 Shakespeare introduces us to Romeo’s passionate desire towards Rosaline through the use of binary opposition, soliloquy and vivid imagery. Coursework. In contrast, in Act 2 Scene 2, when Romeo is addressing Juliet, his language shifts through the use of light, religious and mythological imagery.

Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , Love 811 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and Juliet Compare-Contrast Paper Assignment: Write a paper comparing and/or contrasting Romeo and Juliet. Mathus Essay. This is a . compare-contrast paper, but it is also a character analysis paper. You need to recall what we have learned about literature analysis papers already. BRAINSTORMING: Step 1: Read the coursework, handout “Taxonomy of Love.” Often when you write a paper on literature, you will need to find outside sources to help you analyze the piece of project, literature with which you are working. Biology Coursework. In. Literature , Love , Paragraph 681 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and person Mr Darcy are often both thought of as the coursework, typical Romantic hero, however in very different ways. Analysis New World. They may seem to have some . similarities that link them together however, their personalities and characteristics differ. Although these two characters were created in two completely different Eras; Shakespeare’s Romeo in the 16th century and Austen’s Darcy in the 18th century, the two characters can both be seen to support the biology a2 aqa coursework, concept developed by Lord Byron in his poetry.

Some of these characteristics. Byronic hero , Characters in Romeo and Juliet , George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron 2391 Words | 6 Pages. Romeo Is Completely to Blame for the Tragic Outcome in the Play. Romeo is completely to brown essays blame for the tragic outcome in the play. William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet is without doubt . one of the most well-known love story. Throughout the a2 aqa, five acts of the play, one tragedy follows another, with the famous suicide of person essay, Romeo and Juliet as a tragic conclusion. Throughout the play, it may seem that Romeo caused these events to unfold, however it is unjust to say that he bears all responsibility for the tragedy. The decisions, actions and circumstances that.

Characters in Romeo and Juliet , English-language films , Juliet Capulet 1359 Words | 4 Pages. ?SACE Stage 1 English ASSESSMENT TYPE: TEXT ANALYSIS Romeo and Juliet by Baz Luhrmann The play Romeo and Juliet, originally . written by William Shakespeare in biology a2 aqa coursework the 1500’s, is famous for the love and tragedy represented through the classic literature. To this day it is still a highly respected play. Due to its popularity, there have been multiple films produced using this tragic love story. This study of Romeo and Juliet is based on the 1996 film version directed by Baz Luhrmann, in which Luhrmann. First Folio , Juliet Capulet , Romeo + Juliet 854 Words | 2 Pages. Romeo and Juliet - Who Is to essay Blame for the Deaths in a2 aqa coursework the Pla. The names Romeo and Juliet have passed in our language as a symbol for love.

For centuries, no story of love has been more influential, . prominent and emotional than The Tragedy of Romeo and mathus essay Juliet. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. In the extraordinary track of the play, the unconquerable love, heroic actions, and faithful vows of the two lovers finger our hearts hard like a spiky thorn and soft like the delicate silk. Who is to blame for the deaths in the play? Friar Laurence certainly holds the responsibility. Group Project Ideas. He marries the. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , John Gielgud , Marriage 1099 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo Juliet Essay Fate, most people don’t even believe in it; in fact some don’t even know what it is. There are many definitions of . Fate, but most seem to revolve around something like a force—in which no one can control—in life. But one of the few people—in that small percentage—that do believe in fate, so happens to include William Shakespeare himself, and biology coursework he tries to proof Fate to be true through figurative language and incidents, in his book Romeo and Juliet.

This story is about two families. Fates , Juliet Capulet , Love 1181 Words | 3 Pages. ?Malaya Greaux Mrs. Oliver Freshman Language Arts 18 March 2014 Romeo and Juliet Don’t fall in love as a teen; you might end up killing . yourself. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare showed that being in love has its ups and downs. Compare. Shakespeare, also, in my opinion, created a self-destructive tendency connected with love. Although this play was a tragedy, there were some bright sides. Romeo and Juliet were in love, and coursework generally, being in love gives one feelings of constrast essay, joy and. Christopher Marlowe , First Folio , Love 838 Words | 4 Pages. Baz Luhrmann Romeo + Juliet 1996 and william shakespeare how each text reflects its cultural and historical context I am the master of my . fate. I am the captain in my soul. « When we look at Shakespeare’s work, we discover a playwright who never loses sight of uncertainties, ambiguities, and imbalances of life » (Barthelemy 2004: 141) Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was written in the late 1500's.

Critics tended to disparage this play in comparison to the four great tragedies Shakespeare. A Midsummer Night's Dream , First Folio , Richard III 1600 Words | 5 Pages. Scene 3 Romeo travels to biology coursework the cell of Friar Laurence, who has been out in the fields all morning gathering herbs.. Cheerful and group project excited, . Romeo greets the Friar and tells him of his new love and plans for biology a2 aqa coursework marriage. Friar Laurence, who has been Romeo's friend and confessor for constrast essay some time, is coursework, confused and essay concerned about Romeo's sudden change of heart. He exclaims Holy Saint Francis, what a change is here!/Is Rosaline, that thou didst love so dear/So soon forsaken? (II.iii.65-8). But Romeo persuades. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 778 Words | 3 Pages.

Analysis of the Film Adaptation of biology a2 aqa, “ Romeo and Juliet” Many movies have been adapted from books. Several of a character is a type, these movies do not follow the . Biology A2 Aqa. books precisely. Although the movie Romeo and Juliet directed by Baz Luhrmann has the same basic elements as Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, there are several differences that exist amongst them. The characters of Romeo and Juliet were the same in both the project ideas, movie and the book. Romeo , the a2 aqa, son of Montague, is one of the two main characters. He falls desperately. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Count Paris , Juliet Capulet 915 Words | 3 Pages. death's of Romeo and Juliet.

If Friar Lawrence didn't tell Juliet about making a plan of her faking her own death so that she will nd ot marry . Count Paris. Maybe Romeo and Juliet would still be alive and could have ran away together to get married by Friar Lawrence instead of Juliet going along with Lawrence plan and actually dieing at the end. Also it is the Messenger's fault too because the messenger should of immediately told Romeo about the essay, plan Friar Lawrence and Juliet agreed to make.In Romeo and. Characters in Romeo and coursework Juliet , Death , Juliet Capulet 888 Words | 3 Pages. Who Was to Blame for the Deaths of sketch type of brief essay, Romeo and Juliet? Who was to blame for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet? In this essay I will be exploring the reasons as to coursework why some people would argue that a . certain person or people are to blame for the deaths of critical analysis essay, Romeo and Juliet. I will show understanding of the plot, character and themes and Shakesperes use of biology a2 aqa coursework, language and dramatic devices within the play.

Firstly, some people believe that the parents of Romeo and constrast essay Juliet were to blame for their deaths because of the ongoing feud between the two families. The. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet 2030 Words | 5 Pages. situation, but being misguided in coursework a conflict can lead to an even larger predicament. In the play Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, the . death of main characters can be rooted at the deluded advice from supposedly wise mentors.

These mentors were Friar Lawrence and the Nurse, whose intentions were pure, but whose advice could be considered otherwise. Friar Lawrence and the Nurse unintentionally mislead Romeo and Juliet, which ultimately was the driving force behind the extreme actions they made throughout. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Deception , Juliet Capulet 907 Words | 3 Pages.

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A level biology - Mark Rothery's …

deaf and dumb essay DEAF AND DUMB. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. 1 The term deaf is brown university, frequently applied to those who are deficient in hearing power in any degree, however slight, as well as to biology, people who are unable to detect the loudest sounds by means of the auditory organs. It is mathus essay, impossible to draw a hard and fast line between the deaf and the hearing at any particular point. For the purposes of this article, however, that denotation which is generally accepted by educators of the deaf may be given to the term. This makes it refer to those who are so far handicapped as to be incapable of instruction by the ordinary means of the ear in a class of biology a2 aqa, those possessing normal hearing. Paradoxical though it may seem, it is yet true to say that dumbness in our sense of the word does not, strictly speaking, exist, though the term dumb may, for all practical purposes, fairly be applied to many of the deaf even after they are supposed to have learnt how to speak.

Oral teachers now confess that it is not worth while to try to teach more than a large percentage of the deaf to speak at all. We are not concerned with aphasia, stammering or such inability to articulate as may be due to malformation of the vocal organs. In the case of the deaf and dumb, as these words are generally understood, dumbness is merely the result of ignorance in the use of the voice, this ignorance being due to the deafness. The vocal organs are perfect. The deaf man can laugh, shout, and in fact utter any and every sound that the normal person can. But he does not speak English (if that happens to be his nationality) for the same reason that a French child does not, which is that he has never heard it. There is in fact no more a priori reason why an English baby, born in England, should talk English than that it should. talk any other language. English may be correctly described as its mother tongue, but not its natural language; the only reason why one person speaks English and another Russian is. that each imitated that particular language which he heard in infancy. This imitation depends upon the ability to hear. Service. Hence if one has never heard, or has lost hearing in coursework early childhood, he has never been able to imitate that language which his parents and others used, and the condition of so-called dumbness. is added to his deafness. From this it follows that if the sense of ideas, hearing be not lost till the child has learnt to biology a2 aqa, speak fluently, the ability to speak is unaffected by the calamity of deafness, except that after many years the voice is likely to become high-pitched, or too guttural, or peculiar in some other respect, owing to the absence of the control usually exercised by the ear.

It also follows that, to a certain extent, the art of speech can be taught the deaf person even though he were born deaf. Theoretically, he is capable of analysis essay new world, talking just as well as his hearing brother, for the organs of speech are as perfect in one as in the other, except that they suffer from lack of exercise in the case of the deaf man. Practically, he can never speak perfectly, for biology coursework, even if he were made to attempt articulation as soon as he is discovered to be deaf, the fact that the inspirational essay ear, the natural guide of the voice, is useless, lays upon him a handicap which can never be wiped out. He: can never hear the coursework tone of his teacher's voice nor of mathus essay, his own; he can only biology see small and, in many instances, scarcely discernible movements of the lips, tongue, nose, cheeks and throat in those who are endeavouring to teach him to speak, and he can never hope to succeed in speech through the instrumentality of such. unsatisfactory appeals to his eye as perfectly as the hearing child can with the of brief biographical ideal adaptation of the voice to the ear. Sound appeals to the ear, not the biology coursework eye, and those who have to project, rely upon. the latter to imitate speech must suffer by comparison. Deafness then, in our sense, means the incapacity to be instructed by a2 aqa coursework, means of the ear in the normal way, and dumbness means only that ignorance of how to speak one's mother tongue which is the effect of the mathus essay deafness. Of such deaf people many can hear sound to some extent.. A2 Aqa Coursework. Dr Kerr Love quotes several authorities ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 58 ff.) to show that 50 or 60% are absolutely deaf, while 25% can. detect loud sounds such as shouting close to constrast, the ear, and the rest. can distinguish vowels or even words. Biology. He himself thinks that not more than 15 or 20% are totally deaf - sometimes only 7 or 8%; that ability to hear speech exists in mathus essay about one in four, while ten or fifteen in each hundred are only semi-deaf.

He rightly warns against the use of tuning forks or other instruments held on the bones of the head as tests of hearing, because the vibration which is felt, not heard, may very often be mistaken for sound. Dr Edward M. Gallaudet, the president of the College for coursework, the Deaf in university application Washington, D.C., U.S.A., suggests the following terms for use in dividing the a2 aqa whole class of the deaf into its main sections, though it is obviously impossible to split them up into perfectly defined subdivisions, where, as a matter of fact, you have each degree of university, deafness and dumbness shading into the next: the speaking deaf, the semi-speaking deaf, the mute deaf (or deaf-mute ), the speaking semi-deaf, the a2 aqa mute semi-deaf, the mathus essay hearing mute and the hearing semi-mute. He points out that the last two classes are usually persons of feeble mental power. We should exclude these altogether from the list, since their hearing is, presumably, perfect, and a2 aqa, should add the person semi-speaking semi-deaf before the mute semi-deaf. This would give two main divisions - those wha cannot hear at all, and those who have partial hearing - with three subsections in each main division - those who speak, those who have partial speech and a2 aqa, those who do not speak at all.

Where the hearing is perfect it is paradoxical to class a person with the deaf, and the dumbness in such a case is due (where there is no malformation of the brown university application essays vocal organs) to inability of the mind to pay attention to, and imitate, what the ear really hears. In such cases this mental weakness is generally shown in other ways besides that of not hearing sounds. Probably no sign will. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. be given of recognizing persons or objects around; there will be, in fact, a general incapacity of the whole body and senses. It is incorrect to designate such persons as deaf and critical essay, feeble-minded or deaf and idiotic, because in many cases their organs of biology coursework, hearing are as perfect as are other organs of their body, and project, they are no more deaf than blind, though they may pay no attention to what they hear any more than to what they see. They are simply weak in intellect, and this is shown by the disuse of any and all of their senses; hence it is incorrect to classify them according to one, and one only, of the evidences of this mental weakness. NUMBER OF DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS. PROPORTION OF DEAF AND DUMB TO THE POPULATION. The following table shows the number of deaf and dumb persons in the United Kingdom at successive censuses: - From this we find that the proportion of deaf and dumb to the population has been as follows: - There has, therefore, been on the whole a steady decrease of those described as deaf and coursework, dumb in proportion to compare constrast essay, the population in Great Britain and Ireland. But in the census for 1901, in addition to the 15,246 returned as deaf and dumb in England and Wales, 18,507 were entered as being deaf, 2433 of a2 aqa, whom were described as having been deaf from inspirational essay childhood. Mr B. H. Payne, the principal of the biology coursework Royal Cambrian Institution, Swansea, makes the following remarks upon these figures: - The natural conclusion, of course. is compare constrast, that there has been a large increase, relative as well as absolute, of the class in which we are interested, which we call the biology deaf, and which includes the deaf and dumb.

Indeed, the compare constrast number, large as it is, cannot be considered as complete, for the schedules did not require persons who were only deaf to state their infirmity, and, though many did so, it may be presumed that more did not. On the other hand, circumstances exist which may reasonably be held to modify the conclusion that there has been a large relative increase of the deaf. The spread of education, the development of local government, and an improved system of registration, may have had the biology coursework effect of procuring fuller enumeration and mathus essay, more appropriate classification than heretofore, while 1368 persons described simply as dumb, and who therefore probably belong, not to the deaf, but to the feeble-minded and aphasic classes, are included in the ' deaf and biology a2 aqa coursework, dumb ' total. It is also to critical essay brave, be noted that some of those who described themselves as ' deaf ' though not born so may have been educated in the ordinary way before they lost their hearing, and are therefore outside the sphere of the operation of schools for the deaf. In connexion with the census of 1891, it has been remarked in the report of the biology a2 aqa coursework institution that no provision was made in the schedules for distinguishing the congenital from the non-congenital deaf, and that it was desirable to draw such a distinction. To ascertain the relative increase or decrease of one or the other section of the essay brave class would contribute to our knowledge of the incidence of known causes of deafness or to the confirmation or discovery of other causes, and biology coursework, so far indicate the appropriate measures of prevention, while such an inquiry as that recommended has, besides, a certain bearing upon educational views. The exact number of ' deaf and dumb ' and ' deaf ' children who are of school age cannot be ascertained from the census tables, which give the ideas numbers in quinquennial age-groups, while the biology school age is seven to compare constrast, sixteen. It is a pity that in this respect the functions of the census department are not co-ordinated with those of the Board of Education. Dr John Hitz,the superintendent of theVoltaBureau for theIncrease of biology a2 aqa coursework, Knowledge Relating to the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., gives the number of schools for deaf children, and pupils, in compare constrast different countries in biology 1900 as follows: - Africa.

These figures refer only to deaf children who are actually under instruction, not to the whole deaf population. While it is critical analysis essay, gratifying to find that so much is being done in biology a2 aqa the way of educating this class of the a character sketch is a biographical essay community, the number of a2 aqa coursework, schools in most parts of the world is still lamentably inadequate. Essay. For instance, taking the school age as from seven to sixteen, which is now made compulsory by Act of Parliament in Great Britain, and assuming that 20% of the deaf population are of that age, as they are in England, there should be 40,000 deaf pupils under instruction in India alone, whereas there are but seventy-three. There are 200,000 deaf of all ages in India. And what an a2 aqa coursework, enormous total should be in is a of brief biographical schools in China instead of forty-three ! The whole of the a2 aqa coursework rest of Asia, with the exception of Japan, has apparently not a single school. There must be many thousands of thousands of deaf (hundreds of constrast essay, thousands, if not thousands of biology a2 aqa coursework, thousands of whom are of brown application essays, school age) in that continent, unless indeed they are destroyed, which is not impossible. What are we to say of Africa, where only Too pupils are being taught; of South America, with its paltry 200, and Australia's 300 ? To come to coursework, Europe itself, Russia should have many times more pupils than her 1700. Even in Great Britain the education of the deaf was not made compulsory till 1893, and there are many still evading the law and growing up uneducated. Mr Payne of Swansea estimated ( Institution Report, 1903-1904) from the 1901 census, that there must be approximately 204 deaf of a character is a type essay, school age in South Wales and a2 aqa, Monmouthshire, while only 144 were accounted for in all the schools in that district according to Dr Hitz's statistics. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. Group Service Project Ideas. 217) gives the following table, which shows the number of deaf people in proportion to the population in the countries named: Switzerland . Austria Hungary Sweden Prussia Finland Canada Norway Germany (exclusive of Prussia) Portugal . India..

United States Denmark. Greece France Italy Scotland. Cape Colony England Spain Belgium. Australasia. Holland Ceylon . According to a tabular statement of British and Colonial schools, June 1899, the proportion of those born deaf to coursework, those who lost hearing after birth was, at that time and in those countries, 2126 to 1251, as far as returns had been made. Critical Essay New World. Several schools had, however, failed to give statistics.

These figures show a proportion of coursework, nearly 59% congenitally deaf persons to compare constrast, over 41% whose deafness is acquired. Professor Fay, whose monumental work, Marriages of the Deaf in America, deserves particular attention, mentions (p. 38) that of 23,931 persons who attended American schools for the deaf up to the year 1890, 9842, or 41%, were reported as congenitally deaf, and 14,089, or 59%, as adventitiously deaf, - figures which exactly reverse those just quoted. A2 Aqa Coursework. The classification of deafness acquired in infancy with congenital deafness by mathus essay, some other authorities (giving rise to the rather absurd term ” toto-congenital ” to biology a2 aqa coursework, describe the latter) is unscientific. There is reason for the opinion that the noncongenital, even when hearing has been lost in application early infancy, acquire language better, and it is a mistake from any point of view to include them in the born deaf. 1 The figures for England, Scotland and Ireland, according to the 1901 census, are different and have been given above. Other statistics vary very much as to a2 aqa coursework, the proportion of born deaf, some being as low as a quarter, and some as high as three-quarters, of the whole class. We can only application essays say, speaking of biology a2 aqa, both sides of the Atlantic, and counterbalancing one period with another, that the general average appears to be about 50% for each. Probably the percentage varies in different places for definite reasons, which we shall now briefly consider. These may be considered in mathus essay two divisions, pre-natal and post-natal.

1. Pre-Natal. Coursework. - A small percentage of group project, these is due, it seems, to a2 aqa, malformation of brown essays, some portion of the auditory apparatus. Another percentage is known to represent the children of the intermarriage of blood relations. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 117) gives statistics from biology coursework thirteen British institutions which show that on a general average at least 8% of the congenitally deaf are the offspring of such marriages. Besides this, little is known. Beyond all doubt a much larger percentage of deaf children are the offspring of marriages in sketch is a type biographical essay which one or both partners were born deaf than of ordinary marriages. But inquiries into such phenomena have generally been directed towards tracing deafness and not consanguinity, or at least the inquirer has rarely troubled to make sure whether the biology a2 aqa coursework grandparents or great-grandparents on either side were relations or not. Such investigations rarely go beyond ascertaining if the constrast essay parents were related to each other, though we have proof that a certain tendency towards any particular abnormality may not exhibit itself in every generation of the family in question.

To give an a2 aqa, illustration, suppose that G is a deaf man. Several inquirers may trace back to the preceding generation F, and to the grandparents E, and even to the great-grandparents D, in search of an ancestor who is deaf, and such they may discover in the third generation D. But probably not one of these several inquirers will ask G if any of his grandparents or greatgrandparents married a cousin, for instance, though they may ask if his father did. To continue this hypothetical case, the investigators will again trace back along the family tree to generations C, B and A in search of an original deaf ancestor, on new world whose shoulders they seek to coursework, lay the blame of both D's and G's deafness. Not finding any such, they will again content themselves with asking if D's parents (generation C) were blood relations or not, and, receiving an answer in the negative, desist from further inquiry in this direction, assuming that D's deafness is the original cause of G's deafness. They do not, we fear, inquire if any grandparents or great-grandparents (hearing people) were related, with the same persistency as they ask if any were deaf. The search for deafness is pushed through several generations, the search for consanguinity is only extended to one generation.

Perhaps if it were carried further, it would be discovered that A married his niece, and there lay the secret of the deafness in both D and G. In other words, the deafness in D is not the cause of that in application essays G, but the deafness in both D and biology coursework, G are effects of the service project ideas consanguineous marriage in A. All this is, however, merely by way of suggestion. We submit that if deafness in coursework one generation may be followed by deafness two or even three generations later, while the tendency to essays, deafness exists, but does not appear, in the intermediate generations, it is only logical to inquire if deafness in biology coursework the first discoverable instance in a family may not be caused by consanguinity, the effect of which is inspirational person essay, not seen for two or three generations in a similar manner. Moreover it is probable that consanguinity in parents or grandparents may often be denied. An exhaustive investigation along these lines is desirable, for we believe that congenital deafness would be proved to be due to consanguinity in hearing people, if the search were pushed far enough back and biology a2 aqa, the truth were told, in mathus essay a far greater percentage of cases than is now suspected. This is not disproved by coursework, quoting numbers of cases where no deafness follows consanguinity in compare constrast any generation, for resulting weakness may be shown (where it exists) in many other ways than by biology coursework, deafness. This theory receives support from the statistics quoted by Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 132), where the percentage of defective children resulting from the a character type of brief biographical essay consanguineous marriages of hearing people increases in a2 aqa coursework almost exact proportion to the nearness of affinity of the parents.

It is further borne out by in 408 765 792 977 981 981 1003 1052 107 4 1333 ?3981 1459 1514 1 538154 8 1600 1862 18851 1904 20431 2178 22 47 2692 2985 4328 statistics of the brown duchy of Nassau, and of Berlin, both quoted by coursework, Dr Kerr Love (pp. Compare Essay. 119, 120). These show r deaf person in 1397 Roman Catholics, 1101 Evangelicals and 508 Jews in biology a2 aqa the former case, and r in 3000 Roman Catholics, 2000 Protestants and 400 Jews in the latter. When we are told that Roman Catholics prohibit marriages between persons who are near blood relations, Protestants view such marriages as permissible, and Jews encourage intermarriage with blood relations, these figures become suggestive. We find the same greater tendency to deafness in thinly-populated and out-of-the-way districts and countries where, owing to the circle of acquaintances being limited, people are more likely to marry relations. MARRIAGES OF THE. One or both partners. Both partners deaf . One partner deaf, the. One or both partners.

One or both partners. Both partners con- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. Both partners adven- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. One partner adven- titiously deaf, the. Both partners had.

One partner had deaf. ,relatives, the other. Neither partner had. Both partners con- genitally deaf; both. had deaf relatives. Both partners con- genitally deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners congen- itally deaf; neither. had deaf relatives. Both partners ad- both had deaf re-

Both partners adven- titiously deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners ad- neither had deaf. With regard to the question of marriages of the deaf, Professor Edward Allen Fay's work is so complete that the results of his six years' labour are particularly worthy of notice, for, as the introduction states, the brown application book is a ' ` collection of records of biology a2 aqa coursework, marriages of the deaf far larger than all previous collections put together, and it deals in compare constrast detail with 4471 such marriages. Biology A2 Aqa. The summary of statistics is as follows ( Marriages of the mathus essay Deaf in America, p. 134): One point deserves special attention in the above list. It is biology a2 aqa coursework, that where there are no deaf relatives (i.e. where there has not been a history of deafness in the family) only one child out of twenty-four is deaf, even when the parents were both born deaf themselves. Where there were deaf relatives already in the family on both sides, and the parents were born deaf, the service ideas percentage of deaf children is seven and a half times as great. This seems to show that there are causes of congenital deafness which are, comparatively speaking, unlikely to biology coursework, be transmitted to future generations, while other causes of congenital deafness are so liable to be perpetuated that one child in every three is inspirational, deaf. We conjecture that one original cause of congenital deafness which reappears in a family is biology a2 aqa, consanguinity-for instance, the a character sketch of brief intermarriage of first or second cousins (hearing people) in some previous generation. Out of the 2245 deaf persons who were born deaf, 269 had parents who were blood relations, according to Fay.

And perhaps many more refrained from biology acknowledging the fact. Eleven had grandparents who were cousins. This theory calls for group project, investigation, and while the marriage of deaf people is not encouraged, it is fair to ask those who so strenuously oppose such unions whether they may not be spending their energies on trying to a2 aqa coursework, check an effect instead of a cause, and if that cause may not really be consanguinity,-witness the percentage of deaf people among Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews before noticed. On the principle that prevention is university application essays, better than cure it is the intermarriage of cousins and other relations which should be discouraged. The marriage of deaf people is inadvisable where there has been deafness in the family in former generations, but the same warning applies to all the other members of that family, for the hearing members are as likely to transmit the biology coursework defect of which deafness is a symptom as the deaf members are. We are more concerned to discover the primary cause of the defect, and take steps to prevent the latter from occurring at all. Those who have no dissuasions for constrast, hearing people, who might perhaps cause the coursework misery, and application, only give counsel to those among the transmitters of it who happen to be deaf, are acting in a manner which is hardly logical. 2. Post - Natal. - We have collected and grouped the stated causes of deafness in those partners of the marriages in America noticed by Fay. About a hundred and thirty did not mention how they lost hearing. Any errors in this calculation must be less than 1% at most, and can make no material difference.

In some cases two or more diseases are given as the cause of deafness. In such cases where one is a very common cause of deafness, and the other is unusual, the former is credited with being the reason for the defect. Where both are common, we have divided the cases between them in coursework a rough proportion. Scarlet fever 973; scarlatina 3; scarlet rash 2.978 Spotted fever 260; meningitis 92; spinal meningitis 76; cerebro-spinal meningitis 70; spinal fever 28; spinal disease 8; congestion of spine 2.536 Brain fever 309; inflammation of brain 62; congestion of brain 30; disease in brain 3 404 Typhoid 127; fever (unspecifi ed) 117; typhus 17; inter mittent fever 14; bilious fever II; other fevers 14.300 Gatherings, inflammations, in constrast essay head; ulcers, disease, sores, risings, c., all but 22 being explicitly stated to be in biology coursework head or ears. 276 Sickness 167; illness 49; disease 8; no definite specification 12.236 Measles.. .. .. .. Group Service. 191 Colds 101; colds in biology a2 aqa head, c. 35; catarrh 19; catarrhal fevers 1 o; chills, c. Compare Constrast Essay. 17. .. Coursework. 182 Whooping cough 77; diphtheria 34; lung fever, and various diseases of lungs and throat 60.171 Falls.. .. Service Project. .. 143 Fits and convulsions 58; spasms 18; teething 16.92 Scrofula 35; mumps 25; swellings on neck 2 62 Many various and unusual causes.. 60 Smallpox 8; chickenpox 6; cholera, c. Biology Coursework. 7; canker, c. i i; erysipelas 13. .. Inspirational. .. 45 Paralysis, c. '1 2; nerve diseases 12; fright 8; palsy 3 35 Hydrocephalus 14; dropsy on brain or in head 17; dropsy 2 33 Various accidents, blows, kicks, c.. 31 Quinine 22; other medicines 7.. Biology A2 Aqa. 29 Total 3804 We have counted a hundred and thirty of those who were returned as having lost hearing who were also stated to person, be the offspring of biology coursework, consanguineous marriages. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. Mathus Essay. 150) gives the following list compiled from the biology coursework registers of British institutions: - Scarlet fever . Miscellaneous causes.

Teething, convulsions, c. . Meningitis, brain fever, c. Falls and accidents. Enteric and other fevers Disease, illness, c.. Whooping cough. Suppurative ear diseases Syphilis 1312 Unknown causes..

98 The same writer quotes Hartmann's table, compiled in 1880 from continental statistics, as follows: - Cerebral affections, inflammations, convulsions 644 Cerebro-spinal meningitis - 295 Typhus. 260 Scarlatina 205 Measles . Ear disease, proper 77 Lesions of the head 70 Other diseases. 354 1989 There appears to be no cure for inspirational, deafness that is other than partial; but with the advance of science preventive treatment is biology, expected to be efficacious in compare constrast essay scarlet fever, measles, c. Condition of the biology coursework Deaf. 1. In Childhood. - It is difficult to impress people with two facts in connexion with teaching language to university essays, the average child who was born deaf, or lost hearing in early infancy. One is the necessity of the undertaking, and the other is that this necessity is a2 aqa, not due to mental deficiency in the pupil. To the born deaf-mute in an English-speaking country English is a foreign language. His inability to essay, speak is due to a2 aqa, his never having heard that tongue which his mother uses. The same reason holds good for his entire ignorance of that language. The hearing child does not know a word of constrast, English when he is born, and never would learn it if taken away from where it is spoken. He learns English unconsciously by imitating what he hears.

The deaf child never hears English, and so he never learns it till he goes to school. Here he has to start learning English - or whatever is the language of a2 aqa, his native land - in the same way as a hearing boy learns a foreign language. But another reason exists which renders his task much more difficult than that of a normal English schoolboy learning, say, German. The latter has two channels of information, the eye and the ear; the deaf boy has only a character of brief one, the eye. The hearing boy learns German by what he hears of it in class as well as by reading it; the deaf boy can only learn by what he sees. It is as if you tried to fill two cisterns of the same capacity with two inlets to one and only one inlet to the other; supposing the inlets to be the same size, the former will fill twice as fast. So it is in the case of the coursework hearing boy as compared with his deaf brother. Project Ideas. The cerebral capacity and quality are the same, but in one case one of the coursework avenues to the brain is closed, and consequently the development is less rapid.

Moreover, the thoughts are precisely those which would be expected in people who form them only from what they see. We were often asked by our deaf playmates in our childhood such questions (in signs) as What does the cat say? - The dog talks, does he not ? - Is the rainbow very hot on the roof of that house? They have often told us such things as that they used to think someone went to compare constrast, the end of the earth and coursework, climbed up the sky to light the stars, and to pour down rain through a sieve. But there is yet a third disadvantage for critical new world, the already handicapped deaf boy. He has no other language to biology coursework, build upon, while the other has his mother tongue with which to compare the foreign language he is learning. The latter already has a general idea of sentences and clauses, of tense and critical analysis brave new world, mood, of gender, number and case, of a2 aqa, substantives, verbs and prepositions; and he knows that one language must form some sort of university essays, parallel to another. He is already prepared to find a subject, predicate and object, in the sentence of a foreign language, even when he knows not a word of any but his own mother tongue. If he is told that a certain word in German is an adjective, he understands what its function is, even when he has yet to learn the meaning of the word.

All this goes for nothing in the case of the deaf pupil. The very elementary fact that certain words denote certain objects - that there is coursework, such a class of word as substantives - comes as a revelation to university application essays, most deaf children. They have to begin at seven laboriously and artificially to biology a2 aqa, learn what an ordinary baby has unconsciously and naturally discovered at the age of a character type of brief essay, two. A2 Aqa Coursework. English, spoken, written, printed or finger-spelled, is no more natural, comprehensible or easy of mathus essay, acquirement to the deaf than is biology a2 aqa, Chinese. The manual alphabet is compare constrast essay, simply one way of expressing the vernacular on the fingers; it is no more the deafmute's natural language than speech or writing, and if he cannot express himself by the latter nodes of communicating, he cannot by spelling on the fingers. The last is simply a case of vicaria linguae manus. None of these are languages in themselves; whether you use pen or type, hand or voice, you are but adopting one or other method of expressing one and the same tongue - English or whatever it may be, that of biology a2 aqa, a people of a strange speech and group project, of a hard language, whose words they cannot understand. The deaf child's natural mode of communication - more natural to him than any verbal language is to hearing people - is the world-wide, natural language of signs. We have just called signs a natural language. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. While a purist might properly object to this adjective being applied to all signs, yet it is mathus essay, not an unfair term to use as regards this method of conversing as a whole, even in the United States, where signs, being to biology coursework, a great extent the French signs invented by de 1'Epee, are more artificial than in England.

The old story, by the way, of the pupil of de l'Epee failing to write more than hand, breast, as describing what an incredulous investigator did when he laid his hand on his breast, proves nothing. In all probability he had no idea that he was expected to describe an action, and thought that he was being asked the group ideas names of certain parts of the biology body. The hand was held out to him and compare, he wrote hand. Then the breast was indicated by placing the hand on a2 aqa it, and he wrote breast. Moreover, the artificial element is much less pronounced than is supposed by most of those who are loudest in their condemnation of signs, there being almost invariably an obvious connexion between the sign and brown university application essays, idea. These critics are generally people whose acquaintance with the subject is biology a2 aqa coursework, rather limited, and the thermometer of whose zeal in waging war against gestures generally falls in proportion as the photometer of their knowledge about them shows an increasing light. We may go still further and critical analysis, point out biology coursework, that to object to any sign on the ground of artificiality per se, is to strain at the gnat and to swallow the camel, for English itself is one of the most artificial languages in essay existence, and certainly is a2 aqa coursework, more open to such an essay, objection than signs.

If we apply the same test to English that is applied to signs by coursework, those who would rule out any which they suppose cannot come under the group project head of biology a2 aqa, natural gesture or pantomime, what fraction of our so-called natural language should we have left? For a spoken word to be natural in this sense it must be onomatopoetic, and brown essays, what infinitesimal percentage of English words are such ? A foreigner, unacquainted with the biology a2 aqa language, could not glean the drift of a character sketch is a type biographical essay, a conversation in English, except perhaps a trifle from the a2 aqa coursework tone of the voices and more from the natural signs used - the brave new world smiles and coursework, frowns, the expressions of the faces, the mathus essay play of eyes, lips, hands and whole body. The only words he could possibly understand without such aids are some such onomatopoetic words as the cries of animals - mew, chirrup, c., and a few more like bang or swish. The reason why we insist emphatically upon the importance of teaching English in schools for the deaf in English-speaking countries, is, firstly, because that is the language which the pupil will be called upon to use in his intercourse with his fellow-men 331 175 171 166 138 122 119 37 33 2 after he leaves school, and biology a2 aqa coursework, secondly, because, if his grasp of that tongue only be sufficient and his interest in books be properly aroused, he can go on educating himself in after-life by means of reading. Time tables are overcrowded with kindergarten, clay modelling, wood-carving, carpentry, and other things which are excellent in themselves. But there is not time for everything, and essay brave, these are not as important in the case of the deaf pupil as language. Putting aside the question of religion and moral training, we consider the coursework flooding of their minds with general knowledge, and university, the teaching of English to enable them to express their thoughts to their neighbours, to be of paramount importance, so paramount that all other branches of biology a2 aqa, education in mathus essay their turn pale into insignificance by comparison with these, while the question of methods of instruction should be subservient to a2 aqa, these main ends. Too many make speech in itself an end. This is a mistake. Speech is not in itself English; it is only one way of expressing that language. And we are little concerned to essays, inquire by what means the deaf pupil expresses himself in English so long ' 1234 5678 9 ' Observations. - People speak of ` manual signs.' Of course there are signs which are made with the hands only, as there are others which are labial, c. But the sign language is comprehensive, and at times the whole frame is engaged in its use.

A late American teacher could and did ` sign ' a story to biology a2 aqa coursework, his pupils with his hands behind him. Facial expression plays an important part in the language. Sympathetic gestures are individualistic and spontaneous, and are sometimes unconsciously made. The speaker, feeling that words are inadequate, reinforces them with gesture. Arbitrary signs are, e.g., drumming with three separated fingers on the chin for ` uncle.' Grammatical signs are those which are used for inflections, parts of speech, or letters as in the manual alphabet, and some numerical signs, though other numerals may be classed as natural; also signs for sounds, and even labial signs. Signs, whether natural or arbitrary, which gain acceptance, especially if they are shortened, are ` conventional.' ` Mimic action ' refers, e.g., to the sign for sawing, the side of one hand being passed to inspirational person, and fro over the side or back of the other. ' Pantomime ' means, e.g., when the signer pretends to hang up his hat and biology coursework, coat, roll up his sleeves, kneel on his board, guide the saw with his thumb, saw through, wipe his forehead, c. Illustrations of brown university, one style of numerical signs are given below. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FIG.

I. as he does so express himself, whether by speech or writing or finger-spelling--for if he can finger-spell he can write. It is not the mere fact that he can make certain sounds or write certain letters or form the alphabet on his hands that should signify. It is the actual language that he uses, whatever be the biology a2 aqa coursework means, and the thoughts that are enshrined in the language, that should be our criterion when judging of his education. The importance of English is insisted upon compare essay, because to place the biology coursework deaf child in touch with his English-speaking fellow-men we must teach him their language, and analysis essay new world, also because he can thereby educate himself by means of books if, and when, he has a sufficient command of that language. The reason is not because the vernacular is a2 aqa, actually superior to signs as a means of conversation. The sign language is quite equal to essay, the vernacular as a means of expression. The former is as much our mother tongue, if we may say so, as the latter; we used one language as soon as the other, in our earliest infancy; and, after a lifelong experience of both, we affirm that signs are a more beautiful language than English, and provide possibilities of a wealth of expression which English does not possess, and which probably no other language possesses. That others whose knowledge of signs is lifelong hold similar opinions is shown by the following extract from biology The Deaf and their Possibilities, by constrast essay, Dr Gallaudet: Thinking that the question may arise in the minds of some, ` Does the sign language give the deaf, when used in public addresses, all that speech affords to the hearing? ' I will say that my experience and biology a2 aqa coursework, observation lead me to answer with a decided affirmative. On occasions almost without number it has been my privilege to interpret, through signs to the deaf, addresses given in speech; I have addressed hundreds of assemblages of deaf persons in the college, in schools I have visited, and elsewhere, using signs for the original expression of thought; I have seen many more lectures and public debates given originally in mathus essay signs; I have seen conventions of deaf-mutes in which no word was spoken, and yet all the forms of parliamentary proceedings were observed, and the most earnest, and even excited, discussions were carried on.

I have seen the ordinances of religion administered, and the full service of the Church rendered in signs; and all this with the assurance growing out of my complete understanding of the language - a knowledge which dates from my earliest childhood - that for all the purposes enumerated gestural expression is in no respect inferior, and is in many respects superior, to a2 aqa, oral, verbal utterance as a means of communicating ideas. The following is an analysis of the sign language given by Mr Payne of the Swansea Institution, together with his explanatory notes: - Analysis of the a character sketch type biographical essay Sign Language. I. Facial expression. I. Sympathetic II. Gesture 2. Representative (= Natural signs) 3. Coursework. Systematic (a) Arbitrary signs ( b ) Grammatical signs III. Mimic action. Units are signified with the essay palm turned inwards; tens with the palm turned outwards; hundreds with the a2 aqa fingers downwards; thousands with the left hand to the right shoulder; millions with the hand near the forehead. For 12, sign to group project, outwards and 2 inwards, and so on up to biology a2 aqa coursework, 19.21 = 2 outwards, I inwards, and so on up to 30.146 = I downwards, 4 outwards, 6 inwards. 207,837 = 2 downwards, 7 inwards (both at mathus essay, shoulder), 8 downwards, 3 outwards, 7 inwards. 599,126,345= 5 downwards, 9 outwards, 9 inwards (all near forehead); z downwards, 2 outwards, 6 inwards (all at shoulder); 3 downwards, 4 outwards, 5 inwards (in front of chest).

Only the third, and a few of the second, subdivision of the second section of the above classes of coursework, signs can be excluded when talking of signs as being the brown application deaf-mute's natural language. In fact we hesitate to call representative gesture - e.g. the biology horns and action of milking for cow, the mathus essay smelling at something grasped in the hand for flower, c. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. - conventional at all, except when shortened as the usual' sign for cat is, for instance, from the sign for whiskers plus stroking the fur on back and tail plus the compare constrast essay action of a cat licking its paw and washing its face, to the sign for whiskers only. The deaf child expresses himself in the sign language of his own accord. The supposition that in manual or combined schools generally they teach them signs is incorrect, except that perhaps occasionally a few pupils may be drilled and their signs polished for a dramatic rendering of a poem at a prize distribution or public meeting, which is no more teaching them signs than training hearing children to recite the same poem orally and polishing their rendering of it is a2 aqa, teaching them English. If the inspirational person essay deaf boy meets with some one who will use gesture to him, a new sign will be invented as occasion requires by one or other to express a new idea, and if it be a good one is tacitly adopted to express that idea, and so an entire language is built up.

It follows that in different localities signs will differ to a great extent, but one who is accustomed to a2 aqa, signing can readily see the connexion and understand what is group service project ideas, meant even when the signs are partly novel to him. We are sometimes asked if we can make a deaf child understand abstract ideas by this language. Our answer is that we can, if a hearing child of no greater age and intelligence can understand the same ideas in English. Signs are particularly the best means of conveying religious truths to a2 aqa coursework, the deaf. If you wish to constrast essay, appeal to a2 aqa, him, to impress him, to reach his heart and his sympathies (and, incidentally, to inspirational person, offer the best possible substitute for music), use his own eloquent language of signs. Biology Coursework. We have conversed by signs with deaf people from all parts of the essay British Isles, from France, Norway and Sweden, Poland, Finland, Italy, Russia, Turkey, the United States, and biology a2 aqa, found that they are indeed a world-wide means of university essays, communication, Conventional especially in shortened form. even when we wandered on to most unusual and abstract subjects. Deaf people in America converse with Red Indians with ease thereby, which shows how natural the generality of even de l'Epee signs are. The sign language is everybody's natural language, not only the deaf-mute's. Addison ( Deaf Mutism, p. 283) quotes John Bulwer as follows:- What though you (the deaf and dumb) cannot express your minds in biology coursework those verbal contrivances of man's invention: yet you want not speech who have your whole body for a tongue, having a language which is more natural and significant, which is common to you with us, to wit, gesture, the compare constrast general and universal language of human nature.

The same writer says further on (p. 297): The same process of a2 aqa coursework, growth goes on a character is a of brief alike with the signs of the a2 aqa coursework deaf and dumb as with the spoken words of the compare essay hearing. Biology A2 Aqa. Arnold, than whom no stronger advocate of the oral methoa exists, recognizes this in his comment on this principle of the German school, for mathus essay, he writes: 'It is much to be regretted that teachers should indulge in unqualified assertions of the impossibility of deaf-mutes attaining to biology a2 aqa, clear conceptions and essays, abstract thinking by signs or mimic gestures. Facts are against them.' Again, Graham Bell, who is generally considered an opponent of the sign system, says: ' I think that if we have the mental condition of the child alone in view without reference to language, no language will reach the mind like the biology coursework language of signs; it is the method of reaching the mind of the deaf child.' The opinions of the deaf themselves, from all parts of the analysis essay world, are practically unanimous on this question. In the a2 aqa words of Dr Smith, president of the World's Congress of the Deaf held at St Louis, Missouri, in 1904, under the auspices of the National Association of the Deaf, U.S.A., the educated deaf have a right to be heard in these matters, and they must and shall be heard. A portion may be quoted of the resolutions passed at that congress of 570 of the best-informed deaf the world has ever seen, at least scores, if not hundreds, of them holding degrees, and being as well educated as the vast majority of teachers of the deaf in England: Resolved, that the oral method, which withholds from the congenitally and quasicongenitally deaf the use of the language of signs outside the schoolroom, robs the children of their birthright; that those champions of the oral method, who have been carrying on a warfare, both overt and covert, against service project the use of the language of signs by the adult deaf, are not friends of the a2 aqa coursework deaf; and brave, that, in our opinion, it is the duty of every teacher of the deaf, no matter what method he or she uses, to have a working command of the sign language. Biology. It is is a type of brief, often urged as an a2 aqa, objection to brown essays, the use of signs that those who use them think in them, and that their English (or other vernacular language) suffers in consequence. There is, however, no more objection to thinking in signs than to thinking in any other language, and as to the second objection, facts are against such a statement.

The best-educated deaf in the world, as a class, are in America, and the American deaf sign almost to a man. It is true that at first a beginner in school may, when at a loss how to express himself in words, render his thoughts in sign-English, if we may use the expression, just as a schoolboy will sometimes put Latin words in biology the English order. That is, the deaf pupil puts the word in the natural order of the signs, which is really the university essays logical order, and is much nearer the Latin sequence of words than the English. But, firstly, if he had always been forbidden to use signs he would not express himself in English any better in that particular instance; he would simply not attempt to biology a2 aqa coursework, express himself at compare, all, - so he loses nothing, at least; and secondly, it is perfectly easy to biology, teach him in critical a very short time that each language has its own idiom and that the biology a2 aqa coursework thought is expressed in a different order in each. Of the deaf child's moral condition nothing more need be said than that it is at group project ideas, first exactly that of his hearing brother, and his development therein depends entirely upon whether he is biology coursework, trained to the same degree. The need of sketch is a, this is great. He is quite as capable of religious and moral instruction, and benefits as much by what he receives of it. Happiness is a noticeable feature of the character of the biology a2 aqa deaf when they are allowed to mix with each other. The charge of bad temper can usually be sustained only when the fault is on the side of those with whom they live. University Application. For instance, the latter often talk in the presence of the deaf person without saying a word to him, and if he then shows irritation, which is not often in any case, it is no more to be wondered at than if a hearing person resents whispering or other secret communication in his presence. 3. Social Status, c. - From the 1901 census Summary Tables we gather the following facts concerning the occupations of the deaf, aged ten and upwards, in England and Wales.

About half of the total number, taking males and females together (13,450), are engaged in occupations-6665. The rest - 6785 - are retired or unoccupied. Of the former, the following table given below shows the distribution: - In general or local government work (clerks, messengers, c.) . In professional occ upations and subordina te ser vices In domestic offices or services. In commercial occupations. In work connected with conveyance of men, goods or messages . In agriculture In fishing . In and about mines and quarries, c. . In work connected with metals, machines, implements, c. In work connected with precious metals, jewels, games, c. In building and works of construction . In work connected with wood, furniture, fittings and decorations In work connected with brick, ceme nt, pottery and glass. In work connected with chemicals, oil, soap, c.. In work connected with skins, hair and feathers In work connected with paper, prints, books, c. In work connected with textile fabrics . In work connected with dress . In work connected with food, tobacco, drink an d lodging.

In work connected with gas, water and electric supply, and sanitary service Other general and undefined workers and dealers Total 6665 Among those in professional occupations are a clergyman, five law clerks, ten schoolmasters, teachers, c., thirty-seven painters, engravers and sculptors, and biology a2 aqa, seven photographers. Of those not engaged in occupations, 235 have retired from service business, and 245 are living on their own means. Probably a very large number of the remainder were out of work or engaged in odd jobs at a2 aqa coursework, the time of the census; it would certainly be incorrect to take the words Without specified occupations or unoccupied to mean that those classified as such were permanently unable to support themselves. The commonest occupations of men are bootmaking (555), tailoring (429), farm-labouring (287), general labouring (257), carpentry (195), cabinet-making (142), painting, decorating and glazing (95), French-polishing (88), harness-making, c. (80). The commonest occupations of women are dressmaking (484), domestic service (367), laundry and washing service (230), tailoring (170), shirtmaking, c. (81), charing (79). In Munich there are about essay, sixty deaf artists, especially painters and biology, sculptors. In Germany and Austria generally, deaf lithographers, xylographers and photographers are well employed, as are bookbinders in Leipzig in particular, and labourers in the provinces. In France there are several deaf writers, journalists, c., two principals of schools, an architect, a score or so of painters, several of whom are ladies, nine sculptors, and a few engravers, photographers, proof-readers, c.

Italy boasts deaf wood-carvers, sculptors, painters, and architects graduating from the universities and academies of fine arts with prizes and medals; also type-setters, pressmen, carvers of coral, ivory and brown university essays, precious stones. Two gentlemen in the office of the Norwegian government are deaf, as are four in the engraving department of the land survey; one is a master-lithographer, another a master-printer, a third a civil engineer, and biology a2 aqa, the rest are engaged in the usual trades, as are those in is a type essay Sweden. The deaf form societies of their own to guard their interests, for social intercourse and a2 aqa, other purposes. In England there is the British Deaf and Dumb Association; in group ideas America the National Association of the biology a2 aqa Deaf and many lesser societies; Germany has no fewer than 150 such associations, some of which are athletic clubs, benefit societies, dramatic clubs, and so forth. The central Federation is the largest German association. Brown Essays. France has the National Union of biology a2 aqa, Deaf-Mutes and others, many being benefit clubs. Compare Essay. Italy has some societies; Sweden has eight.

In the United States there are no fewer than fifty-three publications devoted to the interests of the deaf, most of them being school magazines published in the institutions themselves. Great Britain and Ireland have six, four of them being school magazines. France, Germany, Sweden, Hungary have several, II 87 788 12 144 568 3 151 503 46 485 470 153 46 137 238 407 1829 194.22 and Finland, Russia, Norway, Denmark and Austria are represented. Biology. Canada has three. There are many Church and other missions to mathus essay, the deaf in England and abroad, which are much needed owing to a2 aqa coursework, the difficulty the average deaf person has in understanding the archaic language of both Bible and Prayer-book.

Until they have this explained to them it is useless to place these books in their hands, and even where they are well-educated and critical, can follow the coursework services, they fail to get the sermon. University. Chaplains and missioners engage in all branches of pastoral work among them, and also try to find them employment, interpret for them where necessary, and biology coursework, interview people on their behalf. The difficulty of obtaining employment for the deaf has been increased in Great Britain by the Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensation Acts, for masters are afraid - needlessly, as facts show - to employ them, under the impression that they are more liable to accidents owing to their affliction. The new After-Care Committees of the London County Council are a late confession of a need which other bodies have long endeavoured to supply. A Character Sketch Is A Essay. Education should be a development of the a2 aqa coursework whole nature of the sketch biographical child. The board of education in England provides for intellectual, industrial and physical training, but does not take cognizance of those parts of education which are far more important - the social, moral and spiritual. Some teachers, both oral and manual, do an incalculable amount of good at the cost of great self-sacrifice and in face of much discouragement. They deserve the highest praise for so doing, and such work needs to be carried on a2 aqa after their pupils leave school. History. 2 - Who hath made man's mouth ? or who maketh a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind ? Is it not I the Lord ? (Ex. iv.

11). Such is the first known reference to the deaf. But the significance of this statement was not realized by the ancients, who mercilessly destroyed all the defective, the deaf among the rest. Greek and Roman custom demanded their death, and they were thrown into the river, or otherwise killed, without causing any comment but that so many encumbrances had been removed. They were regarded as being on a mental level with idiots and utterly incapable of helping themselves. Mathus Essay. In later times Roman law forbade those who were deaf and dumb from birth to biology coursework, make a will or bequest, placing them under the care of guardians who were responsible for them to the state; though if a deaf person had lost hearing after having been educated, and could either speak or write, he retained his rights. Herodotus refers to brave, a deaf son of Croesus, whom he declares to a2 aqa coursework, have suddenly recovered his speech upon seeing his father about to be killed. Gellius makes a similar statement with reference to a certain athlete. Hippocrates was in advance of Aristotle when he realized that deaf-mutes did not speak simply because they did not know how to; for the last-named seems to have considered that some defect of the intellect was the cause of their inability to utter articulate sounds.

Pliny the elder and critical essay brave new world, Massala Corvinus mention deafmutes who could paint. The true mental condition of the deaf was realized, however, by few, if any, before the time of Christ. Coursework. He, as He opened the ears of the essay new world deaf man and loosened his tongue, talked to biology, him in his own language, the language of signs. St Augustine erred amazingly when he declared that the deaf could have no faith, since faith comes by hearing only. The Talmud, on the other hand, recognized that they could be taught, and were therefore not idiotic.

It is, however, with those who attempted to educate the compare deaf that we are here chiefly concerned. The first to call for notice is St John of biology a2 aqa, Beverley. The Venerable Bede tells how this bishop made a mute speak and was credited with having performed a miracle in compare so doing. Probably it was nothing more than the coursework first attempt to teach by the oral method, and the greatest credit is due to him for being so far in advance of person essay, his times as to try to instruct. his pupil at all. Bede himself invented a system of counting on the hands; and also a manual speech, as he called it, - using his numerals to indicate the number of the letter of the alphabet; thus, the sign for seven would also signify the letter g, and a2 aqa coursework, so forth. Inspirational Essay. But we do not know that he intended this alphabet for the use of the deaf. It is biology coursework, not until the 16th century that we hear much of anybody else who was interested in the deaf, but at this date we find Girolamo Cardan stating that they can be instructed by writing, after they have been shown the mathus essay signification of biology, words, since their mental power is unaffected by their inability to hear. Pedro Ponce de Leon ( c. Group Service. 1520-1584), a Spanish Benedictine monk, is more worthy of notice, as he, to biology a2 aqa coursework, use his own words, taught the deaf to speak, read, write, reckon, pray, serve at a character of brief biographical essay, the altar, know Christian doctrine, and confess with a loud voice. A2 Aqa Coursework. Some he taught languages and a character of brief, science. That he was successful was proved by other witness than his own, for biology, Panduro, Valles and de Morales all give details of his work, the last-named giving an account by one of Ponce's pupils of his education.

De Morales says further that Ponce de Leon addressed his scholars either by signs or writing, and that the reply came by service project ideas, speech. A2 Aqa. It appears that this master committed his methods to writing. Though this work is lost it is probable that his system was put into practice by Juan Pablo Bonet. This Spaniard successfully instructed a brother of his master the constable of Castile, who had lost hearing at the age of two. His method corresponded in a great measure to person essay, that which is now called the combined system, for, in the work which he wrote, he shows how the deaf can be taught to speak by reducing the letters to a2 aqa coursework, their phonetic value, and also urges that finger-spelling and writing should be used. Essay. The connexion between all three, he goes on to say, should be shown the pupils, but the coursework manual alphabet should be mastered first. Nouns he taught by pointing to the objects they represented; verbs he expressed by pantomime; while the value of prepositions, adverbs and interjections, as well as the tenses of brown university application essays, verbs, he believed could be learnt by repeated use.

The pupil should be educated by interrogation, conversation, and carefully graduated reading. The success of Bonet's endeavours are borne witness to by Sir Kenelm Digby, who met the teacher at Madrid. Bonifacio's work on signs, in which he uses every part of the body for conversational purposes, may be mentioned before passing to John Bulwer, the first Englishman to biology a2 aqa coursework, treat of teaching the mathus essay deaf. In his three works, Philocophus, Chirologia and biology coursework, Chironomia, he enlarges upon analysis essay brave, Sir Kenelm Digby's account, and argues about the possibility of teaching the deaf by speech. But he seems to have had no practical experience of the art. Dr John Wallis is more important, though it has been disputed whether he was not indebted to his predecessors for some ideas. He taught by writing and a2 aqa, articulation. He took the trouble to classify to a certain extent the various sounds, dividing both vowels and essay, open consonants into gutturals, palatals and labials. The closed consonants he subdivided into mutes, semi-mutes and semi-vowels. Language, Wallis maintained, should be taught when the pupil had first learned to coursework, write, and the written characters should be associated with some sort of manual alphabet.

Names of things should be given first, and then the parts of those things, e.g. body first, and then, under that, head, arm, foot, c. Analysis Essay Brave New World. Then the coursework singular and plural should be given, then possessives and possessive pronouns, followed by particles, other pronouns and brown application essays, adjectives. These should be followed by the copulative verb; after which should come the biology a2 aqa coursework intransitive verb and its nominative in mathus essay the different tenses, and the transitive with its object in the same way. Lastly, prepositions and conjunctions should be taught. All this, Wallis held, ought to be done by writing as well as signing, for he did not lose sight of the fact that we must learn the pupil's language in biology coursework order to teach him ours. Critical Analysis. Dr William Holder, who read an essay before the biology a2 aqa coursework Royal Society in 1668-1669 on the Elements of analysis essay brave, Speech, added an appendix concerning the deaf and dumb. He describes the organs of speech and their positions in articulation, suggesting teaching the a2 aqa pupil the sounds in order of simplicity, though he held that he must learn to write first. Afterwards the pupil must associate the letters with a manual alphabet. Holder notices that dumbness is due to the want of hearing, and therefore speech can be acquired through watching the lips, though he admits the task is a laborious one. Critical Analysis New World. He also urges the teacher to be patient and to make the work as interesting to coursework, the pupil as possible. Command of essay, language, he maintains, will enable the deaf person to read a sentence from the biology lips if he gets most of the brown university application words; for he will be able to supply those he did not see, from his knowledge of English.

Johan Baptist van Helmont treated of the coursework work of the brown application essays vocal organs. Coursework. Amman says that Van Helmont had discovered a manual alphabet and used it to instruct the deaf, but had not attained very good results. George Sibscota published a work in 1670 called the Deaf and Dumb Man's Discourse, in which he contradicts Aristotle's opinion that people are dumb because of defects in the vocal organs; for they are, he believed, dumb because never taught to speak. They can gain knowledge by group service project ideas, sight, he maintained; can write, converse by signs, speak and lip-read. A2 Aqa. Ramirez de Carrion also taught the deaf to speak and write, as did P. Lana Terzi. About George Dalgarno more is known. He wrote, in mathus essay 1680, his Didascalocophus, or Deaf-Mute's Preceptor, in which he makes the coursework mistake of mathus essay, saying that the biology a2 aqa coursework deaf have the advantage over the blind in opportunities for compare, learning language. The deaf can, in his opinion, be taught to speak, and also to read the lips if the letters are very distinct.

They ought to biology a2 aqa, read, write and spell on the fingers constantly, but use no signs. Service Project Ideas. Substantives are to be taught by associating them with the things they represent; then adjectives should be joined to biology a2 aqa, them. Mathus Essay. Verbs should be taught by suiting the action to the words, and associating the pronouns with them. Other parts of speech should be given as opportunities of explaining them present themselves. Dalgarno invented an alphabet, the letters being on the joints of the fingers and palm of the left hand. John Conrad Amman published his Dissertatio de Loquela in 1700.

In the first chapter he treats, among other things, of the nature of the a2 aqa coursework breath and voice and the organs of speech. In the inspirational person second chapter he classifies sounds into vowels, semi-vowels and consonants, and a detailed description of each sound is given. The third chapter is a2 aqa, devoted to compare constrast, showing how to produce and control the voice, to a2 aqa coursework, utter each sound from critical essay brave writing or from the lips, and to coursework, combine them into syllables and project ideas, words. It was only after the pupil had attained to considerable success in articulation and lip-reading that Amman taught the a2 aqa meaning of words and language; but the name of this teacher will long stand as that of university application essays, one of the most successful the world has known. Passing over Camerarius, Schott, Kerger (who began teaching language sooner than Amman did, and depended more on writing and signs), Raphel (who instructed three deaf daughters), Lasius, Arnoldi, Lucas, Vanin, de Fay (himself deaf) and many others, we come to Giacobbo Rodriguez Pereira, the pioneer of deaf-mute education in France, if we except de Fay. Beginning his experience by instructing his deaf sister, he soon attained to considerable success with two other pupils; his chief aim being, as he said, to make them comprehend the meaning of, and express their thoughts in, language.

A commission of the French Academy of biology a2 aqa, Sciences, before whom he appeared, testified to the genuineness of his achievements, noticing that he wrote and signed to critical essay new world, his pupils, and stating that he hoped to proceed to the instruction of lip-reading. Pereira soon after came under the notice of the biology coursework duc de Chaulnes, whose deaf godson, Saboureaux de Fontenay, became his pupil; and in five years this boy was well able to speak and read the lips. Pereira had several other pupils. Probably kindness and affection were two of the secrets of constrast essay, his success, for the love his scholars showed for him was unbounded. His method is only partly known, but he used a manual alphabet which indicated the pronunciation of the letters and some combinations. He used reading and writing; but signs were only called to his aid when absolutely necessary. Language he taught by founding it on coursework action where possible, abstract ideas being gradually developed in is a of brief biographical later stages of the biology coursework education.

We now come to brown university application essays, the abbe de l'Epee. The all-important features in this teacher's character and method were his intense devotion to biology a2 aqa, his scholars and their class, and the fact that he lived among them and talked to them as one of themselves. Meeting with two girls who were deaf, he started upon the task of instructing them, and soon had a school of sixty pupils, supported entirely by mathus essay, himself. He spared himself no expense and a2 aqa, no trouble in doing his utmost to benefit the deaf, learning Spanish for the sole purpose of service, reading Bonet's work, and making this book and biology a2 aqa, Amman's Dissertatio de Loquela his guiding lights. Group Project. But de l'Epee was the first to attach great importance to signs; and he used them, along with writing, until the pupil had some knowledge of language before he passed on to articulation and lip-reading. To the latter method, however, he never paid as much attention as he did to instructing by a2 aqa, signs and writing, and finally he abandoned it altogether through lack of time and means. He laboured long on a dictionary of a character is a of brief, signs, but never completed it. He was attacked by Pereira, who condemned his method as being detrimental, and this was the beginning of the disputes as to coursework, the merits of the different methods which have lasted to the present day; but whatever opinions we may hold as to the best means of instructing the deaf we cannot but admire the sketch is a type biographical devoted teacher who spent his life and his all in benefiting; this class of the community. Samuel Heinicke first began his work in biology 1754 at Dresden, but in 1778 he removed to Leipzig and started on the instruction of nine pupils.

His methods he kept secret; but we know that he taught orally, using signs only when he considered them helpful, and group ideas, spelling only to combine ideas. He wrote two books and several articles on the subject of educating the deaf, but it is from Walther and Fornari that we learn most about his system. At first Heinicke laid stress on written language, starting with the concrete and biology, going on co the university application abstract; and he only passed to oral instruction when the pupils could express themselves in a2 aqa coursework fairly correct language. Subsequently, however, he expressed the service project ideas opinion that speech should be the sole method of instruction, and, strange to say, that by speech alone could thoughts be fully expressed. Henry Baker became tutor to a deaf girl in 1720, and his success led to the establishment of a private school in London.

He also kept his system a secret, but recently his work on lessons for biology coursework, the deaf was discovered, from which we gather that he adopted writing, drawing, speech and lip-reading as his course of instruction. The point to notice is that after the mathus essay primary stages Baker turned events of every-day life to use in his teaching. His pupils went about biology coursework, with him, and critical essay brave new world, he taught by conversation upon what they saw in the streets, - an excellent method; but it is a pity that such a good teacher had not the philanthropy to make his methods known and to give the poorer deaf the benefit of a2 aqa, them, as de l'Epee did. A school was established in Edinburgh in 1760 by Thomas Braidwood, who taught by application, the oral method. Coursework. He taught the sounds first, then syllables, and finally words, teaching their meaning. In 1783 Braidwood came to Hackney, whence he moved to Old Kent Road, and in 1809 there were seventy pupils in what was lately the Old Kent Road Institution. Braidwood's method was practically a development of Wallis's. We must regard him as the founder of the first public school for the deaf in England.

It was only at the beginning of the 19th century that a brighter day dawned on the deaf as a class. Compare Constrast. With the sole exception of de l'Epee no teacher had yet undertaken the instruction of a deaf child who could not pay for it. Now things began to coursework, be different. Institutions were founded, and their doors were opened to nearly all. Dr Watson, the first principal of the Old Kent Road Asylum, taught by articulation and lip-reading, reading and writing, explaining by signs to some extent, but using pictures much more, according to Addison, and inspirational, composing a book of biology coursework, these for the use of his pupils.

From Addison ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 248 ff.) we learn what developments followed. Analysis New World. In Vienna, Prague and biology, Berlin, schools had been founded in rapid succession before the compare constrast 10th century dawned, and in biology coursework 1810 the Edinburgh institution opened its doors. Nine years later the Glasgow school was established and, under the able guidance of Mr Duncan Anderson (after several other headmasters had been tried) from 1831, taught pupils whose grasp of English was equal to that of the very best educated deaf in inspirational person essay England to-day, as has been proved by conversation with the survivors. Mr Anderson's great aim was to teach his pupils language, and we might look almost in vain for coursework, a teacher in England to succeed as well with a whole class in the beginning of the 10th century as he did in the middle of the loth. He wrote a dictionary, used pictures and signs to explain English, and apparently paid little or no attention to university, most of the numerous subjects attempted to-day in schools for the deaf, which, while excellent in themselves, generally exclude what is far more important from the biology a2 aqa curriculum. Addison further mentions Mr Baker of Doncaster, a contemporary of Anderson, as having compiled many lesson books for deaf children which came to be used in ordinary schools also, and Mr Scott of Exeter as having, together with Baker, exercised a profound influence on the course of deaf-mute education in this country. Written language, explained by mathus essay, signs where necessary, was the watchword of these teachers. Moritz Hill is credited with being principally responsible for biology, having evolved the essay brave new world German, or pure, oral method out of the experimental stage to that at which it has arrived at biology a2 aqa coursework, the present day. Arnold of Riehen is also honourably mentioned.

The great oral revival now swept all before it. The German method was enthusiastically welcomed in all parts of Europe, and at the Milan conference in 1880 was almost unanimously adopted by teachers from all countries. Critical Analysis Essay. Those in high places countenanced it; educational authorities awoke to the fact that the deaf needed special teaching, and came to the conclusion that the pure oral method was the panacea that would restore all the deaf to a complete equality with the biology a2 aqa coursework hearing in any conversation upon any subject that might be broached; many governments suddenly took the deaf under the shelter of their own ample wings, and the bottomless pocket of the ratepayer, instead of the purse of the charitable, became in many cases the fount of supply for what has been a costly and by no means entirely satisfactory experiment in the history of their education. The pure oral method has had a long and unique trial in England in circumstances which other methods have never enjoyed. Meanwhile in the United States Dr Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was elected in 1815 to go to Europe to inquire into the methods of critical analysis essay, educating the deaf in vogue there. This was at coursework, a meeting held in the house of a physician named Cogswell, in Hartford, Connecticut, and a character essay, was the result of the latter's discovery that eighty-four persons in the state besides his own little girl were deaf. Henry Winter Syle, himself deaf, tells how four months were spent in learning that the doors of the British schools were ` barred with gold, and opened but to golden keys,' and how, disappointed in England, Gallaudet met with a ready response to his inquiries in Paris. With Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher, he returned to the United States in 1816, and the Connecticut Asylum was founded a year after with seven pupils.

The name was changed to The American Asylum later, when it was enlarged. Biology A2 Aqa. This was followed by the Pennsylvania, New York and Kentucky institutions, with the second of which the Peet family were connected. Dr Gallaudet married one of his deaf pupils, Sophia Fowler, and, after a very happy married life, Mrs Gallaudet accompanied her youngest son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, to the Columbia institution, Washington, D.C., which afterwards developed into the National Deaf-Mute College. Mr Kendall gave the first building, and, when the college was empowered to grant degrees in 1862, he retired from his office of president in constrast essay favour of young Gallaudet with the words, To you more than to any other man is it indebted for its rapid progress. This college is supported by congress. The following account of the work done at the National DeafMute College at Washington is worth attention, as the results are unique, and are often strangely ignored. Here is a statement of the course for the B.A. degree: First year: Algebra, grammar, punctuation, history of biology a2 aqa, England, composition, Latin grammar, Caesar.

Second year: Algebra (from quadratics), geometry, composition, Caesar (Gallic War), Cicero (Orations), Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar, Myer's General History, Goodwin's Greek Grammar (optional), Xenophon's Anabasis (optional). Third year: Olney's or Loomis's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Loomis's Analytical Geometry (optional), Orton's Zoology, Gray's Botany, Remsen's Chemistry, laboratory practice, Virgil's Aeneid, Homer's Iliad (optional), Meiklejohn's History of English Literature and Language (two books), Maertz's English Literature, Hadley's History, original composition. Fourth year: Loomis's Calculus (optional), Dana's Mechanics, Gage's Natural Philosophy, Young's Astronomy, laboratory practice, qualitative analysis, Steel's Hygienic Physiology, Edgren's French Grammar, Super's French Reader, Demosthenes on is a type biographical essay the Crown (optional), Hart's Composition and Rhetoric, original composition, Hill's-Jevon's Elementary Logic. Fifth year: Arnold's Manual of English Literature, Maertz's English Literature, original composition, Guizot's History of Civilization, Sheldon's German Grammar, Joynes's German Reader, Le Conte's Geology, Guyot's Earth and Man, Hill's Elements of Psychology, Haven's Moral Philosophy, Butler's Analogy, Bascom's Elements of Beauty, Perry's Political Economy, Gallaudet's International Law. Even in 1893 we were told that of the graduates of the college fifty-seven have been engaged in teaching, four have entered the a2 aqa coursework ministry; three have become editors and mathus essay, publishers of newspapers; three others have taken positions connected with journalism; fifteen have entered the civil service of the government, - one of these, who had risen rapidly to a high and coursework, responsible position, resigned to enter upon the practice of law in brown application patent cases, in Cincinnati and Chicago, and biology coursework, has been admitted to practise in the Supreme Court of the essay United States; one is the official botanist of biology a2 aqa coursework, a state, who has correspondents in person essay several countries of Europe who have repeatedly purchased his collections, and he has written papers upon seed tests and related subjects which have been published and circulated by the agricultural department; one, while filling a position as instructor in a western institution, has rendered important service to biology a2 aqa coursework, the coast survey as a microscopist, and one is engaged as an engraver in sketch is a the chief office of the survey; of a2 aqa coursework, three who became draughtsmen in group service architects' offices, one is in successful practice as an architect on his own account, which is also true of another, who completed his preparation by a course of study in Europe; one has been repeatedly elected recorder of deeds in a southern city, and two others are recorders' clerks in the west; one was elected and still sits as a city councilman; another has been elected city treasurer and is at present cashier of a national bank; one has become eminent as a practical chemist and assayer; two are members of the biology a2 aqa faculty of the college, and two others are rendering valuable service as instructors therein; some have gone into mercantile and other offices; some have undertaken business on their own account; while not a few have chosen agricultural and mechanical pursuits, in which the advantages of thorough mental training will give them a superiority over those not so well educated. Mathus Essay. Of those alluded to as having engaged in teaching, one has been the principal of a flourishing institution in Pennsylvania; one is now in his second year as principal of the Ohio institution; one has been at the head of a day school in Cincinnati, and later of the Colorado institution; a third has had charge of the Oregon institution; a fourth is at the head of a day school in St Louis; three others have respectively founded and are now at the head of schools in New Mexico, North Dakota, and a2 aqa, Evansville, Indiana, and others have done pioneer work in establishing schools in Florida and in Utah.

Later years would unfold a similar tale of subsequent students, the number of whom in college reached a hundred in 1898. There is mathus essay, a normal department attached to the college, to which are admitted six hearing young men and women for one year who are recommended as being anxious to study methods of teaching the deaf and likely to profit thereby. Their course of study for biology, 1898-1899 included careful training in the oral method, instruction in Bell's Visible Speech, instruction in the anatomy of the vocal organs, lectures on sound, observation of methods, oral and manual, in Kendall School, lectures on various subjects connected with the deaf and inspirational person, their education, lectures on pedagogy, lessons in the language of signs, practical work with classes in Kendall School under the direction of the teachers, correction of essays of the introductory class, c. But the greatest advantage of the year's course is biology coursework, that the halfdozen hearing students live in the college, have their meals with the hundred deaf, and mix with them all day long - if they wish it - in brown university social intercourse and recreation. We are very far indeed from saying that one such year is sufficient to make a hearing man a qualified teacher of the deaf, but the arrangement is based on a2 aqa the right principle, and it sets his feet on mathus essay the right path to learn how to teach - so far as this art can be learned. The recent regulation of the biology coursework board of education in England, prohibiting hearing pupil teachers in schools for the deaf, is deplorable, retrograde and inimical to the best interests of the deaf. It shows a complete ignorance of their needs. A Character Sketch. The younger a teacher begins to mix with that class the better he will teach them. In 1886 a royal commission investigated the condition and education of the deaf in Great Britain, and in 188 9 issued its report. Some of the recommendations most worthy of notice were that deaf children from seven to sixteen years of age should be compelled to attend a day school or institution, part, or the whole, of the biology a2 aqa coursework expense being borne by group service project ideas, the local school authority; that technical instruction should be given, and that all the children should be taught to speak and lip-read on the pure oral method unless physically or mentally disqualified, those who had partial hearing or remains of biology a2 aqa coursework, speech being entirely educated by that method. To the last mentioned recommendation - concerning the method to be adopted - two of the commissioners took exception, and group service ideas, another stated his recognition of some advantage in the manual method.

As a result of the report of the royal commission a bill was passed in 1893 making it compulsory for biology a2 aqa coursework, all deaf children to be educated. This was to be done by the local education authority, either by providing day classes or an institution for them, or by sending them to an already existing institution, parents having the choice, within reasonable limits, of the school to analysis brave, which the child should go. School-board classes came into existence in biology coursework almost every large town where there was no institution, and sometimes where one existed. Those who uphold the day-school system advance the arguments that the pupils are not, under it, cut off from the influence of home life as they are in institutions; that such influences are of mathus essay, great advantage; that this system permits the deaf to mix freely with their hearing brethren, c. The objections, however, to this arrangement outweigh its possible advantages. The latter, indeed, amount to little; for home influences in many cases, especially in the poorer parts of the large cities, are not the best, and communication with the hearing children who attend some of the day schools may not be an unmixed blessing, nor is freedom to run wild on the streets between school hours. But it may be urged further that it is difficult, except in very large towns, to obtain a sufficient number of biology coursework, deaf children attending a day school to classify them according to their status, while it is more than one teacher can do to give sufficient attention to several children, each at a different stage of instruction from any other.

Moreover, the deaf need more than mere school work; they need training in morals and manners, and receive much less of it from their parents than their hearing brothers and sisters. This can only service project ideas be given in an institution wherein they board and lodge as well as attend classes. The existing institutions were from 1893 placed, by the act of a2 aqa coursework, that date, either partly or wholly under the control of the school board. They were put under the brown university inspection of the government, and coursework, as long as they fulfilled the requirements of the inspectors as regards education, manual and physical training, outdoor recreation and suitable class-room and dormitory accommodation, they might remain in the hands of a committee who collected, or otherwise provided, one-third of the total expenditure, and received two-thirds from public sources. Or else, the institution might be surrendered entirely to the management of the public school authority, and then the whole of the expenditure was to be borne by that body. Extra government grants of five guineas per pupil are now given for class work and manual or technical training. Such is the project state of things at the present day, except, of course, that the biology a2 aqa coursework school board has given place to the county council as local authority.

Some teachers have asked for the children to be sent to school at the age of five instead of seven. Inspirational Essay. This savours of another confession that the pure oral method had not done what was expected of it at first. First, the demand was for the method itself; then came requests for more teachers, so that, the classes being smaller, each pupil should receive more attention; this meant more money, and so this was asked for; then day schools would remedy the biology a2 aqa failure by giving the pupils opportunities of talking with the public in general; then we were told the teachers were unskilful; finally, more time is needed. And yet the language of the pupils is no better to-day than it was in 1881, even though they were at school only four or five years then as opposed to nine or ten now. To Addison's Report on a Visit to essays, some Continental Schools for coursework, the Deaf (1904-1905) we are indebted for the following information. The new school at Frankfort-on-Maine, accommodating forty or fifty children at a cost of ?40 to ?50 per head, is group service, modelled on the plan of a family home.

The main objects are to obtain good speech and coursework, lipreading and to use these colloquially; the work is very Foreign thorough and the teaching very skilful. At Munich those schools. of the hundred pupils who have some hearing are separated from the others and taught by ear as well as eye. Compare Essay. At Vienna (Royal Institution) a small proportion of the pupils are day scholars, as they are at Munich, and the teaching is, of a2 aqa coursework, course, carried on by the oral method, as it is all over inspirational person Germany. Here, however, the teachers think it impossible to educate fully all deaf. mutes by the oral method only. In the a2 aqa coursework Jews' Home at critical analysis essay, Vienna the semi-deaf are taught by the acoustic method, and are not allowed to see the biology coursework teacher's lips at all.

At Dresden, a large school of 240 pupils, the director favours smaller institutions than his own, considers the oral method possible for group service project ideas, all but the weak-minded deaf, and a2 aqa coursework, divides his. pupils into sketch type biographical, A, B and C divisions, according to intellect. In the first division good speech is biology, obtained. Inspirational Person. Saxony boasts a home for biology a2 aqa coursework, deaf homeless women, grants premiums for project, deaf apprentices, and trains its teachers of the deaf in biology the institution itself - a good record and plan. Brown Application. In the royal institution at Berlin Addison saw good lip-reading and thorough work, though the deaf in the city - as in most of the schools - signed. The men in Berlin like the adult deaf generally, were all in favour of a combination of methods, and condemned the pure oral theory as impracticable.

At Hamburg, again, hand signs were used at least for Sunday service. Schleswig has two schools. Pupils are admitted first to the residential institution, where they are instructed for a year, and biology coursework, are then divided into A, B and C classes, according to intellect. The lowest class (C) remain at application, this institution for the rest of the a2 aqa eight years, and a certain amount of signing is allowed in their instruction. A and B classes are boarded out in the town and attend classes at a day school specially built for them, being taught orally exclusively. In Denmark Addison saw what impressed him most.

All the children of school age go to Fredericia and remain for a year in the boarding institution. They are then examined and the semi-deaf29% of the whole - are sent to Nyborg. Brave. The rest - all the coursework totally deaf - remain another year at Fredericia and are then divided into the A, B and C divisions before mentioned, and on service project ideas the same criterion - intellect. Those in C - the lowest class, 28% of the totally deaf - are sent to Copenhagen, where they are taught by the manual method, no oral work being attempted. Those in B class, numbering 19% of the deaf, remain in the residential institution in Fredericia and are taught orally, while the best pupils - A class - are boarded out in biology a2 aqa the town and attend a special day school. These form 26% of the deaf, and those with whom they live encourage them to critical analysis essay brave, speak when out of as well as when in school. Biology. The buildings and equipment generally are excellent. Hand signs are used at Nyborg, indicating the position of the vocal organs when speaking, and, as might be expected, the lip -reading is 90% more correct when these symbols - infinitely more visible than most of the movements of the a character type biographical essay vocal organs and face when speaking - are used at the same time. The idea of coursework, these hand signs, by the way, corresponds to that of Graham Bell's Visible Speech, in which a written symbol is used to indicate the position of the vocal organs when uttering each sound; it is a kind of phonetic writing which is to a slight extent illustrative at mathus essay, the same time. We find natural signs of the utmost value when teaching articulation, to describe the position of the vocal organs. We give these details from Mr Addison's notes because it is to biology, Germany that so many look for guidance to-day, and it is the home of the so-called pure oral method; while the compare constrast essay system of classification in Denmark into the four schools which are controlled by one authority, struck him very favourably and so is biology a2 aqa, given rather fully.

In France most of the schools are supported by charity, and the only application essays three government institutions are those at Paris for boys, with 263 pupils lately, at Bordeaux for girls, having 225 inmates, and at Chambery with 86 boys and 38 girls. In the great majority the biology method of instruction is professedly pure oral. But, said Henri Gaillard ( Report, World's Congress of the Deaf, Missouri, 1904), this. is only in appearance. In reality all of the schools use the combined method; only they are not willing to admit it, because the compare constrast essay oral method is the official method, imposed by the inspectors of the minister of the interior. In Italy, again, we are told that the a2 aqa coursework teachers sign in most of the schools, which are professedly pure oral. In Sweden, schools for the deaf have ceased to depend, as they did up to 1891, upon private benevolence. The system is generally the combined, and in group project ideas schools where the oral method is a2 aqa coursework, adopted the pupils are divided into A, B and C divisions, as in group service project ideas Denmark and Dresden, in the two latter divisions of which signs are allowed. In Norway the method is the oral. There have always been two principal methods of teaching the deaf, and all education at the present time is carried on biology coursework by means of one or other or both of these.

Where there is sufficient hearing to be utilized, instruction is sometimes given thereby as well, though this auricular method does not seem to make much headway, and experience is not in favour of believing that the sense of inspirational, hearing, where a little exists, can be cultivated to any marked degree. Biology A2 Aqa. It is really impossible to service project ideas, draw hard and fast lines between these means of instruction. One merges into a2 aqa, another, and this other into the next; and no two teachers will, or can, adopt exactly the same lines. It is essay, not desirable that they should, for a2 aqa, much must be left to brave new world, individuality. Orders, rules, methods, should not be absolute laws.

Observe them generally, but dispense with them as circumstances, the pupil and opportunity may require. Strong individuality, sympathy, enthusiasm, long intercourse with the deaf, are needed in the teacher, and it is a2 aqa coursework, surely obvious that every teacher should have a full command of all the primary means of instruction to begin with, and not of inspirational, one only. Where deafness is absolute, or practically so, we have to seek 130 words a minute can be attained when spelling on the fingers. Words are quite readable at this speed. Although reading and writing are common to both methods, the manual and a2 aqa coursework, oral, as a matter of fact they seem to be used considerably more in analysis new world the former than in the latter. In the oral method articulation and lip-reading are chiefly relied upon; reading and writing are also adopted. The phonetic values of the letters are taught, not the names of the letters; for a2 aqa, instance, the sound of the critical analysis letter a in hat is biology a2 aqa coursework, taught instead of the name of the letter (long A), though of course the latter is taught where such is the brown essays proper pronunciation, as in coursework hate. s The Manual Alphabet.

(One-handed.) P z ?'A4 B C FIG. 2. - The Manual Alphabet. Mathus Essay. (Two-handed.) for means that will appeal to a2 aqa, the eye instead of the ear. Project Ideas. Of these, we have the sign language, writing and printing, pictures, manual alphabets and lip-reading. We have to choose which of these is to be used, if not all, and biology a2 aqa, which must be rejected, if any. Moreover, we have to decide how much or how little one or another is to be adopted if we employ more than one. Hence it is obvious that there may be many different systems and service ideas, subdivisions of systems. Biology Coursework. But the two main methods are the manual, which generally depends upon all the above-mentioned means of appealing to the eye except lip-reading, and the oral, which adopts what the manual method rejects, uses writing and printing and perhaps pictures, but excludes finger-spelling and (theoretically) signs. To these two we must add a third means of instruction - the of brief biographical essay combined system - which rejects no means of coursework, teaching, but uses all in critical essay brave new world most cases. Biology A2 Aqa. The dual method need hardly be called a separate method or system, for it implies simply the use of the manual method for some pupils and of the oral for others. Nor need we call the mother's (= intuitive or natural) a separate method in the sense in which we are using the word here, for it is rather a mode of procedure which can be applied manually or orally indifferently.

The same may be said of the brown application essays grammatical method ; also of the word method, which is really the mother's. The eclectic method is practically the combined system, or something between that and biology coursework, the dual method, and hardly needs separate classification. Let us notice the manual method, the oral method, and the combined system, considering with the mathus essay last the dual method. The chief elements of the manual method are finger-spelling, reading and writing and signing. These are used, that is to say, as means of teaching English and imparting ideas. Signs are used to awaken the child's thoughts, fingerspelling and writing are used to express these thoughts in a2 aqa the vernacular. Group Project. The latter are used to express English, the biology coursework former to explain English.

ANALYSIS OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS. We give two manual alphabets, the one-handed being used in America, on the continent of Europe with some variations and additions, in Ireland, and also to some extent in essay brave England; the two-handed in Great Britain, Ireland and Australia. Biology. A speed of Here is a chart which was lately in project ideas use Articulation Sheets. Order in which the coursework Vowel Sounds are to be taught. a wall aw, o wol a o u e e o i a u oe path hot blu(e) set see ton(e) pi(e) lat(e) mul(e) boy a o u e i ou ai ei iu oi ee path hot blu set si toun pai leit miul boi The consonants are as follows, though the order of teaching them varies: p; f; s; h; sh; v = th (thin; moth); th (then; smooth); 1; r; t; k; b; d; g (go; egg); z=s; m; n; ch=tsh; j =dzh=g; ph=f; kc=k; cs=s; q=kw; x=ks; ng; w=oo; wh=hw; y=e.

a u i hut hit u i hut hit Diacritic hat Mark 11 a Phonetic '- hat Spelling Diacritic Mark 2 Phonetic Spelling Diacritic Mark - ? Phonetic Spelling The following mode of of brief biographical, writing the sounds is now preferred by biology, some as it renders the diacritic marks unnecessary: Middle, Broad and Long Vowel Sounds. ar or oo ee er oa igh ai ew oi ou aw ea ir o-e i -e a-e u-e oy ow au ur ay a Short Vowel Sounds. a o 00 e i u Consonants. h p Ph i s th sh chck 1 r m n ng w b v d z th zh dzh g These charts are given as examples of those used, but they vary in different schools, as does the order of teaching the vowel and consonant sounds and university application essays, the combinations. The exact order is not important. Words are made up by combining vowels and consonants as soon as the pupil can say each sound separately. Here are extracts from the directions on articulation written by coursework, a principal to the teacher of the lowest class, which show the method of procedure: (i) Produce the sound of a letter. Each pupil to reproduce, and write it on the tablet. (2) Point to sketch type biographical, the letter on the tablet, and make each pupil say it. (3) The same with combinations of vowels and consonants. (4) Instead of tablet, each pupil to use rough exercise-book. (5) Write on tablet and make each pupil articulate from coursework teacher's writing.

(6) When a combination is made of which a word may be made make all write it in their books, thus: ` to - tea,' ' shoshow,' ' ov - of,' ' nalz - nails,' c. When one pupil produces a combination correctly make the others lip-read it from him. In this way make them exercise each other. (8) When they have a good many sounds and combinations written in their books make them sit down and say them off their books as hearing children do. Make them say the sounds off the cards, and form combinations on the cards for them to say. Take each vowel separately and make each pupil use it before and after each consonant. (i Take each consonant and put it before and after each vowel. The above will suggest other exercises to the teacher. Give breathing exercises. Incite emulation as to deep breathing and slow expiration.

Never force the mathus essay voice. Make the pupil speak out, but do not let him strain either the coursework voice or vocal organs. Do not force the tongue, lips, or any organ into position more than you can help. Do all as gently as possible. Register their progress. ' A ' (as in sketch is a essay ' path '; ' father '). As ` A ' is the basis of all the vowels, being most like all, it is taken first. It is an open vowel. Do not make grimaces, or exaggerate. If false sound be produced do not let the pupil speak loudly; make him speak quietly.

If nasal sound be produced do not pinch the nose, but first take the back of the child's hand, warmly breathe on it, or get a piece of coursework, glass, and let the child breathe on it, or press the back of the tongue down. Compare Essay. Show the child that when you are saying ' a ' your tongue lies flat or nearly so, and you do not raise the back of the tongue. Prefix ' h ' to ' a ' and make the pupil say ` ha ' first, then ' a ' alone. 'P.' If the child does not imitate at the first the biology teacher should take the back of the hand and university application essays, let the child feel the puff of a2 aqa coursework, air as ' p' is formed on the lips. ' P ' is produced by the volume of air brought 1 into the cavity of the mouth being checked by the perfect closure of the lips, which are then opened, and the accumulated air is propelled.

The outburst of this propelled air creates the sound of ` p.' Take the pupil to see porridge boiling. Pretend to smoke. ` P ' is compare essay, taken first because it has no vibration and coursework, is the most simple. The consonants should first be joined to each vowel separately, and to prevent the pupils making an after-sound the letters should be said with a pause between, viz. 'A .. p,' and as they become more familiar with them, lessen the pause until it is pronounced properly: ' ap.' These directions, which are only brief examples of compare essay, those given for one particular subject in one particular class, will give an idea of the mode of beginning to teach articulation and lipreading. The combined system, as before mentioned, makes use of both the a2 aqa coursework manual and oral method, as well as the auricular, without any hard and fast rule as regards the amount of instructon to be given by means of each, but using more of one and less of another, or vice versa, according to the aptitude of the child. Group Ideas. It thus follows the sensible, obvious plan of fitting the method to the child and not the unnatural one of forcing the child to try to fit the method. The following is the biology a2 aqa coursework way the same principal would teach language to beginners by inspirational person essay, the combined system: The letters p, q, b and d of the Roman text are to be taught first. The pupils are to do them 9 in. Biology Coursework. long on the blackboard or tablet first; then trace them on group project the frames; then on slips of paper with pen and ink, or in rough exercise-book with pen and ink. The whole of the Roman text is then to be taught in the same manner, also the small and capital script.

When the English alphabet has been mastered in the above four forms the pupil may proceed to the printing and writing of his own name. Then his teacher's and class-mates' names. Biology Coursework. Then the names of other persons and compare, the places, things and actions with which he has to do in his daily life. Every direction the teacher has to give in school and out of school should be expressed in speech, writing or finger-spelling, or by any two or all three means. Repetition of such directions by the pupil enables him to learn words before he has finished the alphabet. All words to be spelled on one hand first; then two. When a few words have been memorized, they should be written on slips of coursework, paper, then in the exercise-books and dated.

After this there should be further repetition and application, exercising. The same course should be taken with phrases and short sentences. Names of persons should be written on cards and slips of paper and pinned to the chest. Names of things to be affixed to them, or written on them. Names of apartments on cards laid in the rooms. Where the object is not available use a picture, or draw the outline and make pupil do the same. Never nod, or point, or jerk the finger, or use any other gesture, without previously giving the word, and a2 aqa, when the constrast essay latter is understood drop the gesture altogether. Never allow a single mistake to pass uncorrected, and make pupils always learn the corrections.

Language should be a translation of a2 aqa, life. It should proceed all day long, out of school as well as in it. If spoken so much the better, but finger-spelling is not a hindrance but a valuable help to its acquisition. In most language lessons, especially those exemplifying a particular form of mathus essay, sentence, the pupils should: (i) Correct each other's mistakes. Correct 'mistakes' designedly made by the teacher. (2) Teacher rubs out a word here and there on the blackboard or tablet; pupils to supply them. (3) Pupils to answer questions, giving the subject, predicate and object of the sentence as required, e.g.' A farmer ploughs the ground.' ` Who ploughs the ground? ' ' What does a farmer do? ' ' What does he plough? ' Also additional and illustrative questions; e.g. ` Does the biology a2 aqa coursework ground plough the farmer? ' ` Does a farmer plough the sea? ' ' Does he eat the ground? ' c.

The pupils should learn meanings or synonyms of unfamiliar words before such words are signed. (4) Teacher gives a word, and requires pupils to exemplify it in a sentence, e.g. ' sows,' ' He sows the seed.' (5) Let them give as many sentences as they can think of in the same form. Quite satisfactory result . Moder to success. Occurrences, incidents, objects, pictures, reading-books, newspaper cuttings and correspondence should all be used. The pure oral method, as before noticed, came with a bound into popularity in the early seventies. Since then it has had everything in its favour, but the results have been by no means entirely satisfactory, and there is a marked tendency among advocates of this method to with draw from the extreme position formerly held. Opinion has gradually veered round till they have come to seek for some sort of via media that shall embrace the good points of both methods. Some now suggest the dual method - that those pupils who show no aptitude for oral training shall be taught exclusively by mathus essay, the manual method and the rest by the oral only. While this is a concession which is positively amazing when compared with the title of the booklet containing utterances of the Abbe Tarra, president of the Milan conference in 1880 - The Pure Oral Method the Best for All Deaf Children ! - yet we believe that in no case should the instruction be given by the oral method alone, and that the best system is the combined. That the combined system is detrimental to lip-reading has not much more than a fraction of truth in it, for if the command of language is better the pupils can supply the biology a2 aqa coursework lacunae in their lip-reading from their better knowledge of English. It is found that they have constantly to guess words and letters from the context.

Teach all by and through finger-spelling, reading, writing and critical brave, signing where necessary to explain the English, and teach those in whose case it is worth it by articulation and lip-reading as well. Signs (7) (9) (io) should be used less and biology coursework, less in class work, and English more and more exclusively as the pupil progresses - English in any and every form. A proportion of teachers should be themselves deaf, as in America. They are in perfect understanding and sympathy with their pupils, which is not always the case with hearing teachers. Statistics which we collected in London showed the following results of the education of 403 deaf pupils after they had left school: - That the combined system should show to slightly less advantage than the exclusively manual method is what we might perhaps expect, for the time given to brown university, oral instruction means time taken from a2 aqa teaching language speedily, the manual method being, we believe, the best of all for this.

But it may be worth while to service, lose a little in command of language for the sake of gaining another means of expressing that language. Hence we advocate the combined system, regarding speech as merely a means of expressing English, as writing and finger-spelling are, and biology, a good sentence written or finger-spelled as being preferable to a poorer one which is spoken, no matter how distinct the speech may be. It is no answer to inspirational essay, point to a few isolated cases where the oral method is considered to biology coursework, have succeeded, for one success does not counterbalance a failure if by another method you would have had two successes; and, moreover, these oral successes would have been still greater successes - we are taking language in any form as our criterion - had the teacher fully known and judiciously used the manual method as well as the essay oral. The exclusive use of the oral method leads, generally speaking, to comparative failure, for the following, among other, reasons: - (I) It is a slow way of teaching English, the learning to speak the a2 aqa coursework elements of sound taking months at least, and seldom being fully mastered for years. The word method, by the way, starts at a character of brief biographical essay, once with words without taking their component phonetic elements separately; but it has yet to be proved that any quicker progress is made by this means of teaching speech than by the other. (2) Lip-reading is, to coursework, the deaf, sign-reading with the disadvantage of compare essay, being both microscopic and partially hidden. A2 Aqa. The deaf hear nothing, they only partly see tiny movements of the vocal organs. Finger-spelling, writing, signing, are incomparably more visible, while 130 words a minute can be attained by university application, finger-spelling, and read at that speed. (3) The signs - as they are to the deaf - made by coursework, the vocal organs are entirely arbitrary, and have not even a fraction of the redeeming feature of essay, naturalness which oralists demand in ordinary gestures. (4) Circumstances, such as light, position of the speaker, c., must be favourable for the lip-reading to approach certainty. Biology Coursework. (5) Styles of speech vary, and it is sketch type of brief biographical, a constant experience that even pupils who comparatively easily read their teacher's lips, to whose style of utterance they are accustomed, fail to read other people's lips. (6) There is a great similarity between certain sounds as seen on the lips, e.g. between t and d, f and v, p and b, s and z, k and g. Which is meant has usually to a2 aqa, be guessed from the context, and this requires a certain amount of knowledge of language, which is the very thing that is needed to be imparted. (7) The deliberate avoidance by the teacher of the pupil's own language - signs - as an aid to sketch type biographical, teaching him English. If a hearing boy does not understand the biology a2 aqa coursework meaning of a French word he looks it up in the dictionary and finds its English equivalent. If the deaf boy does not understand a word in English, the simplest, quickest, best way to explain it is, in most cases, to sign it. (8) The distaste of the pupil for the method. Mathus Essay. This is common. (9) The mechanical nature of the biology a2 aqa coursework method.

There is nothing to rouse his interest nor to appeal to his imagination in it. (I o) The temptation to the teacher to use very simple phrases, owing to the difficulty the pupil has in reading others from his lips. Brown Application. Consequently the a2 aqa pupil comparatively seldom learns advanced language. Other means of educating the deaf in addition to the oral should have a fair trial in modern conditions for mathus essay, the same length of time that the coursework oral method has been in operation. Inspirational Person Essay. To consider pupils taught manually in oral schools fair criteria of what can be done by the manual method or combined system, when those pupils have confessedly been relegated to the manual class because of dulness (as in the case of the biology a2 aqa coursework C divisions in Denmark and Dresden), is compare constrast, obviously unfair. This division, moreover, assumes that the pure oral method is the best for the brightest pupils. The comparing of oral pupils privately taught by a tutor to themselves with manual pupils from an institution crippled and hampered by need of funds, where they had to take their chance in a class of twelve, and the comparison of oral pupils of twelve years' standing with combined system pupils of biology a2 aqa, four years', are also obviously unfair. Reference may be made on this subject to Heidsiek'sremarkablearticles on the question of education, which appeared in the American Annals of the Deaf from April 1899 to January 1900. The opinions of the deaf themselves as to the relative merits of the methods of service project, teaching also demand particular attention. The ignoring of biology a2 aqa, their expressed sentiments by those in authority is remarkable. Group Service. In the case of biology a2 aqa, school children it might fairly be argued that they are too young to know what is constrast, good for them, but with the adult deaf who have had to learn the value of their education by bitter experience in the battle of life it is a2 aqa coursework, otherwise. In Germany, the home of the pure oral method, 800 deaf petitioned the critical analysis emperor against that method.

In 1903 no fewer than 2671 of the adult deaf of Great Britain and Ireland who had passed through the schools signed a petition in favour of the combined system. The figures are remarkable, for biology, children under sixteen were excluded, those who had not been educated in schools for the deaf were excluded, and the. education of the deaf has only lately been made compulsory, while many thousands who live scattered about the country in isolation probably never even heard of the petition, and so could not sign it. In America an overwhelming majority favour the combined system, and it is in America that by brown, far the best results of education are to be seen. At the World's Congress of the Deaf at a2 aqa coursework, St Louis in 1904 the combined system was upheld, as it was at Liege. From France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, Finland, Italy, Russia, everywhere in fact where they are educated, the deaf crowd upon us with expressions of their emphatic conviction, repeated again and again, that the combined system is what meets their needs best and brings. most happiness into their lives. Essay. The majority of deaf in biology coursework every known country which is in person favour of this means of education is biology a2 aqa coursework, so great that we venture to say that in critical no other section of the community could there be shown such an overwhelming preponderance of opinion on one side of any question which affects its well-being. In the case of the rare exceptions, the pupil has almost always been brought up in the strictest ignorance of the manual method, which he has been sedulously taught to regard as clumsy and objectionable. 2. Blind and deaf. 3. Blind, deaf and dumb and lunatic. 4. Biology A2 Aqa Coursework. Blind, deaf and lunatic . 5. Deaf and dumb and lunatic. 6. Essay. Deaf and a2 aqa coursework, lunatic . 7. Blind, deaf and dumb and inspirational essay, feeble-minded . 8. Biology A2 Aqa. Blind, deaf and feeble-minded.

The Blind Deaf. In the summary tables (p. 283) of the 1901 British census the following numbers are given of those suffering from other afflictions besides deafness: I. Blind and deaf and person, dumb 58 9. Deaf and dumb and biology a2 aqa, feeble-minded. Io. Deaf and feeble-minded . In addition to these, 2 are said to be blind, dumb and sketch is a type biographical essay, lunatic; 20 dumb and lunatic; 3 blind, dumb and feebleminded, and 222 dumb and feeble-minded. These are certainly outside our province, which is the deaf. The dumbness in these four classes is aphasia, due to some brain defect. Of those in the list, classes 7, 8, 9 and io are (we are strongly of opinion) incorrectly described, being, as we think, composed of those who are simply feeble-minded as well as, in biology classes 7 and 8, blind. Their so-called deafness is constrast essay, merely inability of the brain to notice what the ear does actually hear and to govern the biology coursework vocal organs to produce articulate sound.

Many of classes 9 and io, however, may not be feeble-minded at compare constrast, all, but only rather dull pupils whom their teachers have failed to educate. It is safe to say that in some instances in coursework classes 3, 4, 5 and 6 the persons were only inspirational assumed to be deaf. Again, cases of a2 aqa coursework, deaf people who to all appearance could not fairly be called insane but who may have had violent temper or some slight eccentricity being relegated to an asylum have come to our notice. A good teacher might accomplish much with some of these described as lunatic in classes 5 and 6. Finally, classes 3 and 4 may have become lunatic owing to the loneliness and brooding inseparable to a great extent from such terrible afflictions as blindness and deafness combined. Probably the isolation became intolerable, and if only they had had some one who understood them to educate them their reason might have been saved. We are most concerned with the first two classes, and in considering them have to take individual cases separately, as there is no regular institution for them in Great Britain.

221 I 00 Mr W. H. Illingworth, head master of the Blind School at Old Trafford, Manchester, tells how David Maclean, a blind and deaf boy, was taught, in the 1903 report of the conference of teachers of the deaf. The boy lost both sight and hearing, but not before six years of age, which was an advantage, and could still speak or whisper to some extent when admitted to school. His teacher began with kindergarten and mathus essay, attempts at proper voiceproduction. He gave the sound of ah and made David feel his larynx. Then he tickled the boy under his arms, and when he laughed made him feel his own larynx, so that the boy should notice the similarity of the vibration. Then, acting on the theory that brain-waves are to some extent transmittable, Mr Illingworth procured a hearing boy as companion, and, ordering him to keep his mind fixed on the work and to place one hand on David's shoulder, made him repeat what was articulated.

The blind-deaf boy's right hand was placed on Mr Illingworth's larynx and the left on the companion's lips. Thus the pupil felt the sound and biology a2 aqa, the companion's imitation of it, and soon reproduced it himself. From this syllables and words were formed by degrees. The pupil knew the forms of some letters of the alphabet in group the Roman type before he lost sight and hearing, and the connexion between them and the Braille characters and manual alphabet was the next step achieved. This, and all the a2 aqa steps, were aided to a great extent by the hearing and seeing boy companion's sympathetic influence and concentration of mind, in Mr Illingworth's opinion.

After this stage his progress was comparatively quick and easy; he read from easy books in Braille, and people spelled to him in mathus essay the ordinary way by forming the letters with their right hand on his left. From Mr B. H. Payne of Swansea comes the following account of how four blind-deaf pupils were taught: - We have received four pupils who were deaf-mute and blind, one of them being also without the sense of smell. One was born deaf, the others having lost hearing in childhood. There was no essential difference between the methods employed in their education and those of ' sighted ' deaf children. Free-arm writing of ordinary script was taught on the blackboard, the teacher guiding the pupil's hand, or another pupil guiding it over the teacher's pencilling. The script alphabet was cut on a slate, and a2 aqa, the pupil's pencil made to run in the grooves. The one-hand alphabet, used with the left hand, was employed to distinguish the letters so written. Mathus Essay. The script alphabet was also formed in wire for him.

The object was to enable the pupil when he had gained language to write to friends and others who were unacquainted with Braille, but the latter notation was taught to enable the pupil to profit by the literature provided for a2 aqa, the blind. Both oneand two-hand alphabets were taught, the teacher forming the letters with one of his own hands upon the pupil's hand. The name of the mathus essay object presented to the pupil was spelled and written repeatedly until he had memorized it. Qualities were taught by comparison, and actions by performance. The words' Come with me' were spelled before he was guided to any place, and other sentences were spelled as they would be spoken to a2 aqa, a ' hearing ' child in inspirational person appropriate associations.

The blind pupil followed with his hands the signs made by junior pupils who were unacquainted with language, and in biology coursework this way readily learned to sign himself, the art being of advantage in stimulating and in forming the essays mind, and explaining language to him. One of the pupils was confirmed, and in preparation for biology a2 aqa coursework, the rite over 800 questions were put to him by finger-spelling. His education was continued in Braille. The deaf-born boy developed a fair voice, and could imitate sounds by placing his hand on a speaker's mouth. Two of them had a keen sense of humour, and would slyly move the finger to the muscles of their companion's face to feel the smile with which a bit of pleasantry was responded to. In connexion with the pupil who was confirmed, the vicar who examined him declared that none of his questions had been answered better even by candidates possessed of all their faculties than they were by this blind-deaf boy. Mr W. M. Stone, principal of the Royal Blind School at West Craigmillar, Edinburgh, gives this very interesting information: We have five blind-deaf children at this institution, and all are wonderfully clever and analysis essay new world, intelligent. In all cases the children possessed hearing for a time and had some knowledge - very slight in some cases - of language. The method of teaching is, first to teach them the names of common objects on their fingers. A well-known object is biology a2 aqa coursework, put in the child's hand and then the word is compare constrast essay, spelled on the hand, - the child's hand of coursework, course.

The child learns to associate these signs - he does not know they are letters - with the object, and so he learns a name. Other names are then given and similar names are associated together, and by noticing the difference in the names the child gradually grasps the compare constrast idea of an alphabet. Biology. For instance, if he learns the words cat, bat and mat, he will quickly distinguish that the words are alike except in their initial letters. When in this way language has been acquired he is taught the Braille system of reading for the blind and his progress is now very rapid. This method may appear very complicated and difficult, but in reality it is not so. There are no institutions in Great Britain specially for the blind-deaf, nor are there any in America.

I do not know of mathus essay, any on the continent. Our own blind children here are receiving the same education as our other children, and in some ways are more advanced than seeing and hearing children of their own ages. They not only read, write and do arithmetic, but they do typewriting and much manual work. Mr Addison mentions two deaf and blind pupils who were taught by the late Mr Paterson of Manchester, and a third in the same school later on. Another was taught in the asylum for the blind in Glasgow, though she only lost hearing and became deaf at ten. Mr William Wade has written a monograph on the blind-deaf of America, in the preface to which he points out, rightly, that the education of the blind-deaf is not such a stupendous task as people imagine it to coursework, be.

It may not be amiss, he says, to state the methods of teaching the first steps to group, a deaf-blind pupil, that the public may see how exceedingly simple the biology fundamental principles are, and it should be remembered that those principles are exactly the same in group service the cases of the deaf and of the deaf-blind, the only difference being in the application - the deaf see, the deaf-blind feel. Biology A2 Aqa. Some familiar, tangible object - a doll, a cup, or what not - is given to the pupil, and at a character sketch biographical essay, the same time the name of the object is spelled into its hand by the manual alphabet. (The one-hand alphabet is in vogue in America.) By patient persistence, the pupil comes to recognize the manual spelling as a name for a familiar object, when the a2 aqa coursework next step is taken - associating familiar acts with the corresponding manual spelling. A continuation of this simple process gradually leads the mathus essay pupils to the comprehension of a2 aqa, language as a means for communication of thoughts. Essay. Mr Wade is right. Given a sympathetic, resourceful teacher with strong individuality, common-sense, patience, and the necessary amount of time, anything and everything in biology a2 aqa coursework the way of teaching them is not only possible but certain to brown application essays, be achieved.

Language, - give the deaf and the blind-deaf a working command of that and everything else is easy. In the New York Institution for the Deaf ten blind-deaf pupils were educated, up to the year 1901. Nearly all of these lost one or both senses after they had been able to acquire some knowledge with their aid. In the biology coursework Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston, five were taught. It was here that Laura Bridgman was educated by Dr Samuel G. Howe; all honour is due to him for being the pioneer in attempting to teach this class of the community, for she was the brown application first blind-deaf person to be taught. Coursework. Many other schools for the deaf or blind have admitted one or two pupils suffering from both afflictions. Group. In all, seventy cases are mentioned by Mr Wade of those who are quite blind and a2 aqa, deaf, and others of analysis essay, people who are partially so. The most interesting, of course, of all these is Helen Keller, if we except Laura Bridgman, in whose case the initial attempt to teach the blind-deaf was made.

Helen Keller was taught. Biology Coursework. primarily by group, finger-spelling into her hand, and signing (which she, of course, felt with her hands) where necessary. Her first teacher was Miss Sullivan. The pupil acquired language by practice and biology coursework, habit rather than by study of rules and definitions. Fingerspelling and essay brave new world, books were the two great means of educating her at all times. Coursework. After her grasp of language had been brought to a high standard, Miss Fuller gave her her first lessons in speech, and Miss Sullivan continued them, the method being that of making the pupil feel the brown university application essays vocal organs of the teacher.

She learnt to speak well, and to tell (with some assistance from finger-spelling) what some people say by biology a2 aqa, feeling their mouth. Critical Brave New World. Her literary style became excellent; her studies included French, German, Latin, Greek, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, ancient and modern, and poetry and biology coursework, literature of every description. Mathus Essay. Of course she had many tutors, but Miss Sullivan was eyes and ears at all times, by acting as interpreter, and this patient teacher had the a2 aqa satisfaction of seeing her pupil pass the mathus essay entrance examination of Harvard University. To all time the success attained in educating Helen Keller will be a monument of what can be accomplished in the most favourable conditions. (A. A2 Aqa Coursework. H. P.) 1. The two words are common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. taub and dumm (only in brown application the sense of stupid ), Dutch doof and dom; the original meaning seems to have been dull of a2 aqa, perception, stupid, obtuse, and the words may be ultimately related. The Gr.

TucpXos blind, and Ti or, smoke, mist, probably show the same base. 2. For our resume of the history we are indebted solely to Arnold ( Education of Deaf Mutes, Teachers' Manual ) as far as the date of the founding of the Old Kent Road Institution. - Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites).