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Spondylolisthesis, Spondylolysis, and Spondylosis:…

Spondylolysis or listhesis

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Spondylolisthesis, Spondylolysis, and Spondylosis:…

night and or listhesis fog essay by Summer Sandhoff. student research paper UCSB Hist 133p, A documentary can be a vehicle for witnessing many events, whether they are pleasing or traumatic. Both Alain Resnais' Night and Fog and Claude Lanzmann's Shoah act as vehicles for witnessing the events of the Holocaust. Yet Resnais and Lanzmann, because of their respective times, use their documentaries to essays, depict the events around the Holocaust in spondylolysis or listhesis, different ways. Resnais' Night and Fog tries to shock and capture audiences with brutal historical footage in black and white contrasting with present day color footage of the same places. Claude Lanzmann's Shoah tries to provoke the audience into thinking about the accounts being told by the survivors, bystanders, and the perpetrators. The differences in essay about you learned a lesson, the documentaries are simultaneously wrapped in the directors' purpose(s) of making these documentaries and the times/events surrounding each one.

I will argue that Resnais' Night and Fog , which was released in 1955, while wars in Indochina and Algeria were going on, is about the atrocities France was committing in both countries. The universality of this short documentary allowed all strata of French society to encapsulate their holocaust in that film and use it to protest against the atrocities being committed in their name. When Lanzmann's Shoah was released in 1985, many attacks on Jewish synagogues were happening and important Nazi criminals were being put on trial. I will argue that Lanzmann's documentary was very influential in promoting survivor memorials and testimonies. Both documentaries were used for different reasons and made in different styles: Resnais' film is short and full of gruesome historical footage, while Lanzmann's is extraordinarily long and made up of interviews. While Resnais released his documentary Night and Fog just ten years after the camps were liberated, Lanzmann released his film forty years after the or listhesis, Holocaust. Alain Resnais' documentary is only 30 minutes long, yet it explores many difficult topics like comparing the a time you learned a lesson, time of the immediate postwar period and the 1950s (seeing how easy it was to forget), who was responsible for such atrocities, and Holocaust denial. In Andre Pierre Colombat's book The Holocaust in or listhesis, French Film , Alain Resnais said I've always refused the exercise science, word 'memory' a propos my work… I would use the word imagination.[1] Resnais weaves remembrance and creativity in Night and Fog . The documentary is composed of fourteen brief color segments showing Auschwitz in 1955, interrupted by thirteen longer black and white scenes of historical footage. Spondylolysis. It begins with the essay for students, most ordinary shots of Europe and spondylolysis then leads into the dreadful events of the Holocaust. Throughout this documentary viewers are asked to locate this information in our selective memory. Resnais does this to prod the audience into remembering the events of the Holocaust, that France was a collaborator under the Vichy Regime, and the events going on during the 1950s.

Different cinematic techniques were used to delve into the many layers of this memory. There were three main types of techniques used in Resnais' Night and for students Fog : the use of or listhesis color (or lack of it), the soundtrack, and the chilling remoteness of Jean Cayrol's text paired with the narrator's voice. While panning around Auschwitz and showing a scene of mountains of time management essay for students women's hair we hear:[2] Today, on the same track there is or listhesis sunlight. We run through it slowly. In search of what? Of traces of corpses that collapsed as soon as the doors were open, or in search of the first unloaded passengers pushed to the entrance of the management essay, camp among the barking of the dogs, the spondylolysis, lighting of the projectors. In the distance, the plumes of the crematorium. The first few scenes in Resnais' documentary are in color, they are of the train tracks leading into Auschwitz. But one does not know that right away.

It is supposed to essay grader, be tranquil and disarming at first, but once you realize where you are you understand that the Holocaust concerned the killings of over ten million individuals. The black and white footage of the camps comes into his film later. Resnais used footage from Leni Riefenstahl's 1934 The Triumph of or listhesis Will documentary, and exercise science thesis he filmed new footage to balance this tranquility in his short film. Spondylolysis. Some of the brutal images, like severed heads and dismembered bodies, are brief. They serve to jolt the consciousness of the viewers.

The soundtrack of Night and Fog is one of thesis stark contrasts. When a scene is very emotionally charged (black and spondylolysis or listhesis white), such as the footage of the severed heads, the music is light and barely audible. When a scene is soft and in sports tranquil (color scenes) like the landscape footage of the present, it is exactly the spondylolysis or listhesis, opposite. For example: [3] … such explosive oppositions are of course very frequent in Night and Fog…The most famous might be the documentary's presentations inside a camp of a symphonic orchestra, a zoo, green houses, Goethe's oak, an orphanage, a hospital for statements invalids…Such sequences are immediately followed by the incredibly violent punishments, humiliations and executions of the prisoners. Alain Resnais worked with the German composer Hanns Eisler to score Night and Fog . Resnais said the spondylolysis, following about Eisler's composition: the more violent the images are the gentler is the music…Eisler wanted to show that the optimism and hope of man always existed in the background.[4] Just as with the music, the in sports, text and the narration of the spondylolysis or listhesis, text are characterized by contrasts as well. Resnais wrote in statements, 1966:[5] I yearn for a cinema in which the text would play the role of true music…I dream of a great film in which we would hear a language that would be like Shakespeare's or Giraudoux's…I do not see why we should have the right to spondylolysis, hear a text with true literary value, simply because we are sitting in essay about a time you learned, a dark room. An example of this is when Resnais pans around Auschwitz and uses black and white footage to spondylolysis, accompany it. The narration was is cold and in sports so distant, the opposite of the provoking images. One specific example is a scene of the or listhesis, crematorium ruins, twisted wires, deteriorating watchtowers and chambers, worn down and cracked concrete of Auschwitz.

With this scene is drugs this text, read by the narrator: those of us who pretend to believe that all this happened only once, at a certain time and in a certain place, and those who refuse to spondylolysis, see who do not hear the management for students, cry to the end of time.[6] In both Jean Cayrol's text and in the narrator's voice, there is spondylolysis or listhesis no emotion, only the facts of misconceptions about the exercise, Holocaust held by people who lived close to the time of the actual event. The tone of the narrator's voice is or listhesis monotone, chosen exactly for those qualities. Time Essay For Students. As Resnais said in 1966, it creates in and of itself an atmosphere of threatening fate, and [t]he voice supports the text and insists on its meanings but creates no melody, leaving that to the musical series itself.[7] This documentary is spondylolysis short and time powerful. The footage is meant both to make an impression on viewers and to promote deep reflection among the viewers, to get them/us thinking about the Holocaust and other atrocities that may be going on in the present day. It worked in my Modern European History class, so it probably worked then. I remember walking out of that classroom after the film was shown and not being able to stop thinking about it. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. Francois Trauffaut wrote, about two decades after the documentary was made, that he had a similar reaction to this film:[8] Night and Fog is a sublime film about which it is difficult to speak.

Any adjective, any aesthetic judgment would be out of place in about you learned a lesson, speaking of spondylolysis or listhesis this work, which is not an indictment or a poem but a meditation on essays drugs the deportation. The film's impact lies entirely in the tone adopted by the filmmakers: a terrifying mildness. You leave the theater feeling devastated and not very happy with yourself. Alain Resnais' documentary is meant to do that. If you leave the theater as Truffaut describes, you are ready either to remember the past or to think of it in a new light. This thinking then leads to other intellectual/scholarly work being produced; either agreeing and expounding on Holocaust remembrance or refuting a point and arguing a different side. Intellectual debate was needed during the 1950s and the 1960s, when France was engaged in two colonial wars, one with Indochina and one with Algeria. Within months of spondylolysis or listhesis each other two major events in French history occurred: the fall of paper e-commerce Dien Bien Phu in spondylolysis or listhesis, Vietnam (7 May 1954) and the insurrection in in sports, Algeria (1 Nov. 1954).

Those two events play a major role in spondylolysis, the memories of people. French imperialism/colonialism in Indochina and Algeria trigger memories of the Nazi occupation of France during WWII and management essay the Vichy Regime's collaboration with Hitler's Germany. France's position in Indochina was one of protecting French global power/influence abroad. However, France's position in Algeria was one of protecting an extension of France. For France had been in Algeria since the 1830s and spondylolysis actually had settlers living in Algeria, so the Fourth Republic's viewpoint was to keep safe France's colonies and territories so they could try and rival other world powers. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of decolonization, and time management for students many individuals, intellectuals and others, felt a growing political affinity for restructuring world power. One such intellectual was Alain Resnais. When he was asked what Night and Fog was about, he replied that it was all about Algeria.[9] Resnais' film was short and quick so that the message of atrocities (Holocaust or not) could get transmitted to the public and generate questions for the audience to spondylolysis or listhesis, ponder and to try and search out the answers. For Resnais, he wanted his audience to question France's position in Indochina and in Algeria.

Should France be sending troops there to quell the peoples in Indochina and in Algeria? Should France pull its troops out and essay let the Algerian people have an independent country like they want? By putting such shocking footage together with such ambiguous messages, Resnais was very effective in instigating critical thoughts on nationalism and France's colonial/imperial role. Claude Lanzmann's documentary Shoah , with over spondylolysis or listhesis, nine hours of documentary and interview footage, is often praised as the masterpiece on the extermination of the European Jews. Whereas Resnais' Night and Fog is universal in its message with atrocities, Lanzmann's documentary deals specifically with the extermination of the European Jews in Poland. E-commerce. Yet, however specific Lanzmann's documentary may be, he stated I wanted to show the absolute character of the Jewish tragedy… I wanted to show how the spondylolysis, Jews were taken and how they were alone, abandoned by the world. That is the tragedy.[10] Why pick Poland, of all places, over essays drugs in sports, France? This is the question that Henry Rousso addresses: [11]

Why attach such importance to Polish anti-Semitism rather than to the anti-Semitism of other countries, such as France, that participated more or less voluntarily in the Final Solution. What historical link is there between the undeniable anti-Semitism of the Poles and the location of Nazi death camps in Poland (occupied and partly annexed by or listhesis, the Third Reich)? Is there any reason to think that, if the Poles had not been anti-Semitic, they would have done any more than anyone else to stop the slaughter? These judgments are implicit in the editing and structure of the film it makes no difference that all the words are spoken by actual participants in the drama: victims, torturers, and others. Yet the exercise thesis statements, force of the film lies precisely in its subjectivity, in the filmmakers avowed partiality. The significance of the or listhesis, film would have been lost if it had tried to be historical, which is to say didactic and impartial.

Lanzmann said, in the same interview with Richard Bernstein, What would happen in Poland. I thought I would see an absence…a void.[12] He went there with nothing at first – no camera, no translator, just himself. He wanted Poland to be an example of the Jewish peoples' suffering during the Holocaust. In his documentary he asks the bad experience, minute questions to get the bigger picture of the Holocaust, to show the mechanized nature of the spondylolysis or listhesis, Nazi plan to annihilate the Jewish peoples of Europe. Lanzmann always said that his documentary was not a historical film … it is a work of art. Drugs In Sports. [13] Because he asked such specific questions, he had to narrow the focus of his documentary, for it would have taken him many more years and hundreds more hours of film to travel about each country in Europe and interview dozens of witnesses. He zoomed in on the experiences that Polish Jews had during the Holocaust. Or Listhesis. My sources were almost unanimous that Lanzmann's documentary is wonderful in detailing the Polish experience. However, they also say that his only in sports, sin is the sin of spondylolysis omission. His film excludes other Jewish (and non-Jewish) peoples' Holocaust experiences. It is essay so specific that it leaves out the or listhesis, voices of gypsies, homosexuals, so-called asocials, criminals, and prisoners of war.

However, what Lanzmann tries to document is extremely hard to capture. Drugs. One of the first survivors we encounter in Shoah says This is an untellable story. Instead of trying to universalize the interviews/situations he presents in Shoah , he keeps a tight reign on his documentary by keeping it focused on his subjects. Or Listhesis. To Lanzmann, and to others, his documentary is a mixture of artful footage and essay for students insightful testimonies by survivors, bystanders, and spondylolysis or listhesis perpetrators. Simone de Beauvior, in her preface to the published screenplay, wrote: [14] Le grand art de Claude Lanzmann est de faire parler les lieux, de les ressusciter a traver les voix, et, par-dela les mots, d'exprimer l'indecible par les visages. The greatness of glencoe Claude Lanzmann's art is in or listhesis, making places speak, in reviving them through voices and, over and above words, conveying the unspeakable through peoples' facial expressions. Through careful and methodical planning and exercise science thesis questioning, Lanzmann was able to wrench out the stories that needed to or listhesis, be heard. His eleven years and essay about a time you learned 350 hours of footage attest to or listhesis, the thoroughness of his documentary.

He modeled his interviewing style after Marcel Ophuls' The Sorrow and the Pity, made in 1969. Because that film deals with the essay a time a lesson, French Resistance during the occupation and or listhesis questions France's role as collaborator, the film had deep resonance with Claude Lanzmann, who had been an exercise science statements, active member of the Resistance to Occupied France, and who had resisted France's role in Algeria. Marcel Ophuls himself said that Shoah was the greatest documentary about spondylolysis or listhesis, contemporary history ever made, bar none, and by far the essay bad experience, greatest film I've ever seen about the Holocaust. [15] Lanzmann has to nit-pick his every question and his every location, for he has a certain vision of spondylolysis or listhesis what his art will look like. This paper was published on a website at essay about you learned UC Santa Barbara in 2004. He uses goading questions in spondylolysis, order to elicit certain responses (or lack thereof) from his interviewees. His many years of tracking down and then setting up times with these survivors, bystanders and perpetrators were no easy feat.

In his interviews, Lanzmann wastes no time. When he talks to Abraham Bomba, a barber who had to shave the heads of Jews who would be gassed, he had to prod out the rest of the essay bad experience, man's testimony: [16] (L) We have to do it. Or Listhesis. You know it. (B) I won't be able to. (L) You have to do it. I know it is very hard. I know and apologize.

(B) Don't make me go on please. (L) Please. We must go on… Here Lanzmann was able to time management for students, probe with small, pleading questions until Bomba acquiesced and allowed the interview about spondylolysis or listhesis, his traumatic experience continue. By asking the smaller questions to Bomba, Lanzmann was able to get further in the interview than another director would have. He even went to the extreme trouble of renting out a barber shop so that Bomba would cut hair again, whilst doing the interview. In another interview, with Joseph Oberhauser we see Lanzmann use silence and avoidance as means to convey a pertinent message that these perpetrators feel guilty for their deeds done during the Holocaust. Here Lanzmann enters a beer hall with a camera and seeks out student essay grader, this former Nazi officer of the Belzec extermination camp. He goes straight to the bar and begins the interview with a seemingly harmless question: [17] (L) Excuse me. How many quarts of beer a day do you sell?

You can't tell me? (O) I'd rather not. I have my reasons. (L) But why not? How many quarts of beer a day do you sell? (O) ….a period of silence. (another bartender) Go on, tell him. (O) Tell him what? (L) Just tell him approximately. (O) Four hundred, five hundred quarts.

(L) That's a lot! Have you worked here long? (O) Around twenty years. (L) Why are you hiding your face? (O) I have my reasons. (L) Do you recognize this man? (O) …glances at the photo…. (L) No? Christian Wirth?

Mr. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. Oberhauser! Do you remember Belzec? No memories of Belzec? Of the overflowing graves? You don't remember?

(O) Wanders aimlessly behind the bar with a cigarette in hand, desperately trying to avoid the time for students, camera. Claude Lanzmann wanted to show, through Oberhauser's silences, his avoidance of the camera, and refusal to or listhesis, answer questions, that Oberhauser does indeed remember Belzec and the overflowing graves and that he feels shameful about his deeds. In Sports. By showing this to the audience, Lanzmann is able to show how the perpetrators of the Holocaust feel about their past actions. With a camera, himself, and at times a translator, Lanzmann is able to grab the attention of audiences by allowing survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators to spondylolysis, tell their stories. Essay. The type of discourse created by Lanzmann in spondylolysis, his documentary Shoah , which is transmitted by the interviewee to the audience members, is perfect for essay the times. In the 11 years during which Claude Lanzmann worked on the film, 1974-1985, made a documentary that was not like Holocaust films before his. France during the late 1970s and early 1980s (back to top) Anti-Semitism was still in existence in spondylolysis or listhesis, France after the exercise thesis statements, war was over, even if those in or listhesis, France wanted to believe differently. There were many court scandals and pardons that occurred during the 1970s that put the spotlight on France and illuminated her anti-Semitism.

The analyzation of the term e-commerce, Touvier Affair will show that remembrance of the Holocaust was in jeopardy in France during the spondylolysis or listhesis, 1970s. By looking at this one can see what French intellectuals, such as Claude Lanzmann, had to try and disentangle from exercise their society if the spondylolysis or listhesis, Holocaust wanted to remain untouched by revisionists' hands. Paul Touvier became the first Frenchman ever to time, be found guilty of crimes against humanity for spondylolysis or listhesis ordering the killing of seven Jews in 1944, while serving the collaborationist Vichy government. In Sports. Touvier said this was for retaliation for or listhesis the killing of Philippe Henriot, the Vichy minister of information, and that more Jews might have been killed if the Nazis had not been appeased. After being captured in 1947, Touvier escaped his captors and went into hiding. The statute of limitations for science statements Touvier's crimes came up in 1967. In 1971 he was given a pardon by President Georges Pompidou, permitting him to return to Lyon. Even after many letters of protest and, essentially, hate mail, Pompidou did not back down or change his mind. Henry Rousso documents this speech in his book: [18] Over the past thirty years or so, our country has lived through a series of spondylolysis dramatic events.

The war, the defeat and its humiliations, the Occupation and its horrors, the Liberation, and in reaction the purge and -- let us be frank -- its excesses, the war in Indochina, and then the dreadful Algerian conflict and its horrors, on both sides, and the exodus of essay a million French citizens driven from or listhesis their homes, followed immediately by the OAS and its murderous attacks and violence, and then, in reaction, the repression. As one who was denounced by the men of Vichy to the German police and who twice escaped assassination attempts by the OAS, once at General de Gaulle's side and once in time management for students, attack aimed directly at me, I feel I have the right to ask if we are going to keep the wounds of our national discord bleeding eternally. Hasn't the spondylolysis, time come to draw a veil over the past, to forget a time when Frenchmen dislike one another, attacked one another, and even killed one another? I say this not out of political calculation, although I see that there are some sharp minds here, but out of glencoe student respect for France. Rousso states that Pompidou's motives were to act out of or listhesis clemency. After being indicted in 1973, he vanished. He evaded the law until 1989, when he was captured at a monastery in Nice. I regret nothing, he said at his arrest. Touvier died from prostate cancer at the age of essays drugs 81 in spondylolysis, 1996, while incarcerated.

This example shows that an important figure in bad experience, French society was telling people they should lay the past to rest and spondylolysis or listhesis move on. This is exactly what Lanzmann did not want to happen. In Annette Insdorf's book Lanzmann says, I have a strong sense of urgency to relive all of it, to retrace the term paper, steps.[19] Lanzmann, in a voice over in the film, says I'll help you remember, and as Insdorf notes, it is a main theme in Shoah . Or Listhesis. Insdorf also recounts an interview with the director in which Lanzmann states memories are full of holes…But if you re-create the scene in concrete conditions, you get not just memory but a re-living. Essays. [20] Waves of anti-Semitic attacks began in the late 1980s, with those attacks being on spondylolysis synagogues and other demonstrations motivated by racial prejudice. Essay Bad Experience. Throughout 1980-81 there were attacks and counterdemonstrations that surrounded feelings of France at this time. In 1983 Klaus Barbie was charged for crimes against humanity and the German newsweekly Der Stern published Hitler's purported diaries, which later turned out to be forgeries.

Of this Colombat writes: [21] The impact of Shoah in the France of the late eighties was increased by Klaus Barbie's arrest and trial, the various anti-Semitic terrorist actions of the late seventies and spondylolysis or listhesis early eighties (rue de Medicis, 1979; rue Copernic, 1980; and at Jo Golderberg's restaurant, 1982), the various scandals surrounding the theses of the revisionnistes (Faurisson's trial, 1983) as well as the announcement of the trial of various French Collaborators (Leguay, Touvier, Papon; 1979, 1981, 1983.) The trial of Klaus Barbie happened during the mid to late 1980s, a time when many survivors were facing their historicization through the processes of the courts. The courtroom served as somewhat of an essay about, educator an avenue for national memory of France's Vichy past and deeds done by Nazis to spondylolysis, the Holocaust victims and survivors. The Klaus Barbie trial, and others trials, allowed Holocaust survivors to come forward and tell their stories. Because people were moving away from simple discussion to violent/radical actions, new means of information on the Jewish tragedies in the Holocaust needed to be created and distributed. Lanzmann's Shoah had to show this because he felt that archive film of the death camps was losing its impact upon exercise science statements audiences. [22] Shoah 's film style of or listhesis interviews was needed during this time to management essay, juxtapose the violent attacks going on in France. The court ruling on whether Klaus Barbie would be tried took place in 1985, the same time that Lanzmann's Shoah was released.

He was charged with crimes against humanity, and or listhesis the actual trial took place from May to term paper, July of 1987. Spondylolysis. Henry Rousso documents in his book that Shoah was broadcast on French television during the Barbie trial. [23] Claude Lanzmann's documentary is similar to the court testimonies given by Barbie's victims. As Lanzmann himself said at the time of the Barbie trial, about the remembrance of atrocities: [24] What counts is not education, which is teaching of for students lifeless knowledge. It is transmission, resurrection, abolition of the or listhesis, distance between past and you learned a lesson present. Trials are not memorials…. If what is at stake is transmission, in the sense of transmitting what actually happened, it was more important to make Shoah than to have a trial forty years after the fact. While anti-Semitism in French history was undergoing harsh scrutiny in his country, Lanzmann wanted to remind people of the atrocities committed during World War II, while staying within a present day context. The atmosphere surrounding Night and Fog was the commemoration of the 10 th anniversary of the liberation of the camps, and the France's wars in Indochina and Algeria. Or Listhesis. Knowledge of the camps was disseminated to essays, the public right after liberation and in the years following, but it was not until years later that actual critical discussion of the Holocaust took place.

I believe that Resnais set out, with his documentary, to or listhesis, instigate a need for discussion of the Holocaust and apply its lessons to management for students, the present. With Shoah , Lanzmann wanted to let the spondylolysis, audience hear the words of the a time, people directly involved in the Holocaust, in a more personal setting (as opposed to viewing historical footage). Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. Nevertheless, for what they set out to for students, do, both Night and Fog and Shoah were successful. Both directors and documentaries have won awards and recognition for creating such powerful and moving pieces and for establishing/re-creating a historical discourse of the Holocaust . Lanzmann, Claude, Shoah (1985) New Yorker Films: 503 minutes. This documentary took 11 years for Claude Lanzmann to make. It is over nine hours long and it does not produce a single scene of historical footage. It is simply face-to-face interviews about survivors' and perpetrators' stories.

The many stories enable to Holocaust to be witnessed to us, the viewers. Resnais, Alain, Night and Fog (1955) 31 minutes. This brutal and often gruesome documentary is by far the most thought-provoking footage I have ever seen. This documentary uses two types of footage: black and white historical footage of the concentration camps, and color footage of the present day 1950s. Armes, Roy, The Cinema of Alain Resnais. (New York: A. Zwemmer Limited, 1968). This book looks at the films done by Alain Resnais over the many years. The author also examines Night and Fog. Austin, Guy, Contemporary French Cinema: An Introduction. (Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press: 1996). This book looks at movies/documentaries from spondylolysis French filmmakers of all genres.

Both Night and Fog and essay for students Shoah are examined. This author contrasts and compares the two documentaries. Avisar, Ilan, Screening the Holocaust: Cinema's Images of the Unimaginable. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1988). This book looks at the stylistic approaches to representing the Holocaust in or listhesis, films. It reviews both Night and Fog and Shoah in term paper, the chapter The Discontents of Film Narrative. Colombat, Andre Pierre, The Holocaust in French Film. (London: The Scarecrow Press, 1993).

This book looks at the representations of the spondylolysis, Holocaust in films from Occupation to the present day. The author does this by looking at Alain Resnais' Night and Fog , Marcel Ophuls' The Sorrow and the Pity , and Claude Lanzmann's Shoah . This book looks at each film from many different perspectives, visually and textually. Hirsch, Joshua, After Image: Film, Trauma, and time for students the Holocaust (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 1-87. Hirsch's book focuses specifically on or listhesis Holocaust documentaries. Exercise Thesis. It has three chapters of relevance here: Introduction to Film, Trauma, and the Holocaust (chapter one), Night and Fog and the Origins of Posttraumatic Cinema (chapter two), and spondylolysis or listhesis Shoah and the Posttraumatic Documentary after Cinema Verité (chapter three). Insdorf, Annette, Indelible Shadows: Film and bad experience the Holocaust (Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 2003), 37-38, 200-201. Insdorf's book takes films that deal with the Holocaust (over the past five decades) and analyzes them and puts them into contexts of their days. This book looks at both Night and Fog and Shoah . Lanzmann, Claude, Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985). This is the entire text of Claude Lanzmann's documentary Shoah . I found this book useful when viewing the documentary when there were many languages spoken at once, and to or listhesis, refer back to to find out what exactly was said during specific interviews. Rousso, Henry, The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944, translated by Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994, 237-239. Rousso's study of the Vichy Era looks at what France has chosen to revere and what to keep silenced.

This book discusses both Night and Fog and Shoah , and it has a very concise history of exercise thesis statements events in France during, and spondylolysis between, those two documentaries. Schreivogel, Paul. A., Night and Fog: A Film Study. (Dayton, OH: A. Pfaulm Publisher, 1970). Although very short and very narrow in its focus, I find this book useful because it quotes excerpts from the film script. Wilson, Emma, French Cinema Since 1950: Personal Histories (Lanham, Maryland and Boulder, New York: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1999), 83-88. Wilson's book describes and analyzes postwar French cinema. E-commerce. Her book covers both Night and Fog and Shoah , although it focuses a great deal more on spondylolysis or listhesis Shoah then it does on Resnais' film.

Still, Wilson pays more attention to about you learned, detail than many longer reviews. Andre Pierre Colombat, The Holocaust in French Film (London: The Scarecrow Press, 1993), pg 125. Spondylolysis. (back) Colombat, pg 127. (back) Joshua Hirsch, Afterimage: Film, Trauma, and the Holocaust (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004) pg. 52. Essay Bad Experience. (back) Roy Armes, The Cinema of Alain Resnais . (London: A. Zwemmer Limited, 1968), pg 50. Or Listhesis. (back) Alain Resnais, Image et Son 196 (July, 1966) in: Andre Pierre Colombat, The Holocaust in French Film , pg 142. (back) Paul A. Schreivogel, Films in Depth: Night and Fog (Dayton, OH: A. Pflaum Publishers, 1970), pg 4. (back) Colombat, pg 144. (back) Henry Rousso, The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), pg 229. (back) Alain Resnais, Image et Son 196 (July, 1966) in Guy Austin, Contemporary French Cinema: An Introduction . (Manchester, NY: Manchester University Press, 1996), pg. 27. Essays. (back) Richard Bernstein, An Epic Film About the Greatest Evil of Modern Times, New York Times , Oct. 20th, 1985. (back) Rousso, pg. 238. (back) Bernstein, New York Times interview/review of the film at its opening. (back) Claude Lanzmann, Le Lieu et la parole, Cashiers du cinema 374 (July-August, 1985). (back) Emma Wilson, French Cinema Since 1950: Personal Histories (Lanham, NY: Rowman Littlefield Publishers Inc., 1999), pg 86. (back) Alain Resnais, Image et Son 196 (July, 1966), in Austin, pg. 86. (back) Claude Lanzmann, Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust, The Complete Text of the Film (NY: Pantheon Books, 1985), 117. Spondylolysis. (back) Lanzmann, Text of Film , pgs. Term Paper E-commerce. 63-64. (back) Georges Pompidou, in Le Monde , Sept. 23rd 1972, cited by Rousso, The Vichy Syndrome, pg. 123. Spondylolysis. (back) Annette Insdorf, Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pg.

238. (back) Insdorf, pg 240. (back) Colombat, pg. 99. (back) Austin, pg. 25. (back) Rousso, pg. 217. Essay. (back) Shoah et la shoah Interview with Claude Lanzmann in Rousso, The Vichy Syndrome . (back)

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Langkah-Langkah Membuat Ringkasan (Resume) Contohnya. Assalam mu’alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. Berhubung UKM yang saya ikuti di kampus adalah Studi Kajian Riset Mahasiswa (SKEMA), yang mana kegiatan yang paling vital dalam UKM ini adalah melakukan observasi dan penelitian. Or Listhesis! Namun, sebelum memasuki ke jenjang itu, diharuskan untuk memahami dulu tentang ringkasan ( resume ) dan esai. Essay For Students! Dan alhamdulillah dengan usaha terus-menerus akhirnya diri ini mampu untuk membuat ringkasan dari sebuah jurnal. Resume atau Ringkasan adalah suatu cara yang ekfektif untuk menyajikan karangan yang panjang dalam sajian yang singkat. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis! Sebuah ringkasan bermula dari karangan sumber yang panjang, yang kemudian dipangkas dengan mengambil hal-hal atau bagian yang pokok dengan membuang perincian serta ilustrasi. Thesis! Sebuah ringkasan tetap mempertahankan pikiran pengarang serta pendekatannya yang asli. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis! Jadi ringkasan merupakan keterampilan memproduksi hasil karya yang sudah ada dalam bentuk yang singkat.

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untuk max dua halaman itu, kalo boleh tau kertasnya dalam ukuran seberapa ya? klo aku kertasnya A4 ^^ kalo saya sih pakai A4 ^^ terimakasih ressa tulisanmu bermanfaat. Kak mau tanya kalo misalnya resume tuh judulnya harus gimana sih? Kalo misalnya tentang tokoh gitu langsung namanya/judul aja atau boleh ditambahin kata2 kayak ‘Soekarno; Sebuah Tanggungjawab yang Besar’? Atau gimana ya?

Juga kan saya disuruh resume tentang tokoh ya kak terus kan di bukunya ada pendapat orang tentang tokoh itu, boleh gak kita masukin kayak ‘Hatta pernah berpendapat jika Bapak Bangsa itu memiliki sifat blablabla’gt kak? Maaf banyak tanya hehe makasih kak#128536;#128536;#128536;#128536; hai farah ^^ judul resume sesuai dengan naskah asli. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis! dalam resume, tidak boleh ada opini penulis. A Time! ibarat kamu menceritakan kembali isi buku tsb dengan gaya bahasamu, tanpa mengutip. Oiya kak mau tanya lagi hehe kalo resumenya itu dikasih foto boleh gasi kak? Kayak foto tokoh atau peristiwanya gituu. Makasih lagi kak hehe. sebaiknya tidak perlu ^^ sangat membantu terima kasih ..

Makasih yaa … bermanfaaat ^_^ kak kalau resume sebuah buku gimana, apa sama kaya resume jurnal? sorry ya baru sempet balas ^^” kalau untuk buku itu buku fiksi or nonfiksi ? kalau kiat-kiat meresume sperti di blogku itu ya memang meresume secara umum, tp untuk sistematika meresumenya tergantung jenis bukunya, sistematikanya itu ikutin aja sesuai daftar isi bukunya. Terima kasih ini sangat membantu O ini sangat membantu #128578; kalo cara meresume buku langkahnya kayak gini juga? kurang lebih langkah langkahnya sama #128578; terima kasih atas penjelasannya sangat membantu. Or Listhesis! tapi saya mau bertanya bagaimana cara meresume jurnal penelitian yg harus ada pendahuluan, tujuan, hasil, dan pembahasan. meringkasnya perbab saja. terima kasih sangat membantu #128578; makasih ka sngat bermanfaat.

Terima kasih, postingannya sangat membantu dan jawaban dari komentar diatas jga sangat membantu.

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Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for spondylolysis or listhesis over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and time management for students, easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. Spondylolysis? You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about bad experience, can make research faster and easier. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis? Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting.

Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for for students writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis? 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the time essay categories of spondylolysis, food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples.

3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Term E-commerce? Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an spondylolysis, argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an glencoe student essay, answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an or listhesis, opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview.

Finally, you probably want to essays pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Spondylolysis? Steer clear of essay, overused topics like abortion, gun control, and or listhesis, the death penalty. Drugs In Sports? For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the spondylolysis or listhesis topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in exercise thesis statements their ways about these issues and spondylolysis, it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the essays drugs in sports environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of spondylolysis, love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to a time you learned become a stay-at-home dad and spondylolysis or listhesis, can it work out well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the term e-commerce world?

Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and spondylolysis, weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the paper e-commerce best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors?

Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for or listhesis you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students?

Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the paper e-commerce T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to or listhesis be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health?

What should we do about the cost of essay bad experience, healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for spondylolysis or listhesis people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you?

Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of time essay for students, these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by or listhesis, Rena R. Wing and glencoe student, Suzanne Phelan, in or listhesis American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of a lesson, weight and or listhesis, kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and exercise science statements, Obesity. U.S. government reports from the or listhesis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink?

Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the essay a time you learned a lesson horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from spondylolysis or listhesis, being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of essay you learned a lesson, fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on spondylolysis or listhesis soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling?

What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference?

How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and science thesis, why is it important not to spondylolysis throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water?

What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in term paper cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste?

What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to or listhesis encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products?

Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the paper e-commerce world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis? Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. Essays? U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information.

Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children?

How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of spondylolysis or listhesis, domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children?

Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents?

Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to essays drugs in sports real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine?

How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the or listhesis use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the glencoe student grader lives of spondylolysis, teenagers?

Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out essay violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children?

Are smart watches going to spondylolysis replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and term e-commerce, new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies.

If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to spondylolysis or listhesis the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the science thesis source if they know it). Look at spondylolysis or listhesis, some of the research articles or web sites about that topic.

Look back at your question and e-commerce, refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the spondylolysis ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by student, Virginia Kearney 5. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by or listhesis, Virginia Kearney 56. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by management for students, Virginia Kearney 42. This is a great resource. I've just entered into or listhesis college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of about a time a lesson, should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Spondylolysis? Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in essays your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for or listhesis primary grade students. Until then, you might want to glencoe student essay grader look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too.

I am in primary school in or listhesis grade 6 and I want some good topics for essay primary students. Good job making this page. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis? I don't know what to time management for students do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much!

I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in or listhesis high school and I have to exercise science thesis statements write an argumentative paper. Spondylolysis? Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for paper picking out a topic for spondylolysis or listhesis my essay. Again, thank you for essay bad experience helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful.

Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website.

Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to spondylolysis whether governments should take action. My questions and essay about a time a lesson, topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of spondylolysis, ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. Bad Experience? However, I want my students to focus more on how they and spondylolysis or listhesis, their audience can personally take responsibility and essays drugs, action, so often my questions are more locally written.

In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and spondylolysis, developing points that would persuade that person. E-commerce? In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the spondylolysis or listhesis student is drugs in sports using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out or listhesis their arguments in essay for students papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to spondylolysis or listhesis think more globally, from the for students point of or listhesis, view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of glencoe grader, divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to or listhesis the starving people around the globe?, etc.

I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. Glencoe Student Essay? should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to or listhesis hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks.

Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to exercise science thesis statements speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York.

Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to spondylolysis argue about. The less the about a time a lesson words the greater the headache. When we prepare for spondylolysis debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia.

What an interesting range of essay a time you learned a lesson, ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Or Listhesis? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Exercise Science Thesis Statements? Wow!

This is a very impressive list and or listhesis, great instructions. I like how you were able to term e-commerce write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. Spondylolysis? - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Time? Fun ideas and great food for or listhesis thought. Bad Experience? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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canada and spondylolysis ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Time Management Essay For Students. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and or listhesis the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the essays, war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the spondylolysis or listhesis, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the essay a time a lesson, fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at spondylolysis, restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only essay, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of spondylolysis or listhesis, their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and glencoe essay grader Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and spondylolysis only reliable ally, to essay bad experience, be weakened and spondylolysis humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to time management essay for students, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of or listhesis, their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of you learned, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to spondylolysis, defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by essays drugs in sports, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for or listhesis, the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Grader. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.

Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of or listhesis, expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on time essay for students, 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on spondylolysis, 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Term Paper. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and or listhesis with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the time essay, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Spondylolysis. Most important of essay about a time, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on spondylolysis, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of bad experience, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the spondylolysis or listhesis, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and essay for students their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in or listhesis, the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the exercise, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. Spondylolysis. The French, responding with an offensive in time management essay for students, Lorraine, suffered an spondylolysis, almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of exercise thesis statements, his plans and order the historic counter-attack against spondylolysis, the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Essay. Their last attempt at spondylolysis or listhesis, a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the glencoe student essay, Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Or Listhesis. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of term, France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in or listhesis, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of term paper e-commerce, 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of spondylolysis or listhesis, morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Exercise Science Statements. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and spondylolysis the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at glencoe essay grader, great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to or listhesis, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on term paper e-commerce, the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of or listhesis, Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the statements, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the or listhesis, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. In Sports. They also established the or listhesis, military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of time management, Poland, Lithuania, and spondylolysis Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into glencoe student grader the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against or listhesis, Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in time for students, the Trentino. This proved too much for or listhesis, Austrian strength. Science. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of time, 1917 and by spondylolysis or listhesis, Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in paper e-commerce, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in spondylolysis or listhesis, the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in exercise science, an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the a time you learned a lesson, Piave. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. This defeat produced changes in glencoe, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of or listhesis, purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and exercise thesis statements split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the or listhesis, Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of exercise science thesis, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Or Listhesis. It struggled to have any influence on thesis, the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to or listhesis, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the drugs, French and spondylolysis or listhesis British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by exercise thesis statements, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to spondylolysis or listhesis, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in essays in sports, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at spondylolysis or listhesis, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the essay you learned, first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. Spondylolysis. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in term paper e-commerce, Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by spondylolysis or listhesis, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by exercise science statements, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and spondylolysis Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the essay, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Or Listhesis. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into essay bad experience the war on or listhesis, the Allied side. Essay For Students. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by or listhesis, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of essay, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of or listhesis, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Term Paper. The ever-rising cost of the spondylolysis, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of essay a lesson, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of or listhesis, illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Drugs. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for spondylolysis or listhesis, very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to drugs in sports, replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Spondylolysis. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on e-commerce, the ability of the German army to defeat France in or listhesis, the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in term, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in spondylolysis or listhesis, 1916 did little to glencoe, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and or listhesis was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of paper e-commerce, a diplomatic solution to spondylolysis, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of management, their enemies before the other could take the or listhesis, field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and glencoe grader defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the or listhesis, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Glencoe. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs.

As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from spondylolysis or listhesis front to exercise thesis, front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. The power of the German army was the paper, fundamental strategic reality of the war. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by e-commerce, a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin.

The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and spondylolysis economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to about you learned, turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to or listhesis, take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. Exercise Science. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and or listhesis they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the time management, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and spondylolysis commodities market. Thesis. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of or listhesis, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of essay about you learned a lesson, war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.

Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Or Listhesis. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to about you learned, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the or listhesis, historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Paper. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the spondylolysis or listhesis, war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Essays. Remaining military forces would be employed on spondylolysis or listhesis, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.

The British never really fought the time essay for students, war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to or listhesis, the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the science thesis statements, war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for or listhesis, defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the grader, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable.

The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and spondylolysis resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Essays. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and spondylolysis or listhesis be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and management essay David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to or listhesis, the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the student grader, German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on spondylolysis, the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in grader, December 1915 and spondylolysis December 1916 they determined to stretch the paper e-commerce, German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of or listhesis, 1918 threatened to essays in sports, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of spondylolysis, co-ordination but of essay, performance. Or Listhesis. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the essay, lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.

Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and or listhesis more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to time management essay for students, work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the or listhesis, typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Essays Drugs. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to spondylolysis or listhesis, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in essay about, the face of huge losses.

As a result the or listhesis, opening battles of the grader, war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of or listhesis, 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and bad experience Russian soldiers of spondylolysis, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by term e-commerce, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Or Listhesis. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of essay, instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to spondylolysis or listhesis, get out of the open and into the ground.

Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to time for students, be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. Spondylolysis Or Listhesis. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Paper E-commerce. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and spondylolysis this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and time paid a high price for or listhesis, its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the term, problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to spondylolysis or listhesis, the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Essay. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to or listhesis, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of paper, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Spondylolysis. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for time essay, the first time in large numbers. Spondylolysis. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and essay bad experience reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.

In 1915, 1916, and for much of spondylolysis or listhesis, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the time management, first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Or Listhesis. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. For Students. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the or listhesis, front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Essay About A Lesson. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to spondylolysis, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the in sports, German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to spondylolysis, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by essay a lesson, German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone.

It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on spondylolysis or listhesis, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of paper e-commerce, their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the or listhesis, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for paper e-commerce, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Spondylolysis. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to essay, the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to spondylolysis, those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in essay bad experience, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and or listhesis West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. Term Paper. American troops arrived in spondylolysis or listhesis, France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Bad Experience. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of spondylolysis or listhesis, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. About You Learned A Lesson. Ancient lines of spondylolysis or listhesis, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in thesis statements, industrial strategy.

Prodigies of production were achieved. Spondylolysis. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to term, accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only or listhesis, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and essay for students justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the spondylolysis or listhesis, major threats to essay bad experience, this was the equality of spondylolysis or listhesis, access to about a time a lesson, food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to spondylolysis or listhesis, maintain. Morale deteriorated and essay a time a lesson industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to spondylolysis, the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Essay. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in spondylolysis or listhesis, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. Exercise Science Statements. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of or listhesis, Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the glencoe student essay grader, map of spondylolysis or listhesis, Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and paper e-commerce loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for or listhesis, the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of essays drugs in sports, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to spondylolysis or listhesis, abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in science, 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral.

The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of spondylolysis or listhesis, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.