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arabian family essay The population was characterized by a high degree of cultural homogeneity. This homogeneity was reflected in good, a common Arabic language and in adherence to best essay service uk review Sunni Wahhabi Islam, which has been fostered within the political culture promoted by the Saudi monarchy. Above all, the cultural homogeneity of the good essay introduction starters kingdom rested in what is the of raskolnikov essay, the diffusion of values and attitudes exemplified in the family and in Arabian tribal society, in particular the values and attitudes regarding relations within the family and relations of the family with the rest of society. The family was the most important social institution in Saudi Arabia. For Saudis generally, the family was the primary basis of identity and status for the individual and the immediate focus of individual loyalty, just as it was among those who recognized a tribal affiliation. Families formed alignments with other families sharing common interests and life-styles, and individuals tended to socialize within the circle of these family alliances.
Usually, a family business was open to participation by essay introduction starters, sons, uncles, and male cousins, and functioned as the social welfare safety net for all members of the extended family. The structure of the essay psychology family in Saudi Arabia was generally compatible with the starters structure of tribal lineage. Families were patrilineal, the boundaries of family membership being drawn around lines of descent through males. Relations with maternal relatives were important, but family identity was tied to the father, and children were considered to belong to him and not to the mother. At its narrowest, a family might therefore be defined as comprising a man, his children, and essay writing service his children's children through patrilineal descent. Islamic laws of good introduction personal status remained in force in Saudi Arabia without modification, and the patrilineal character of the family was compatible with and supported by these Islamic family laws. Marriage was not a sacrament but a civil contract, which had to brualdi homework be signed by witnesses and which specified an amount of money ( mehr ) to be paid by the husband to good essay starters the wife. It might further include an agreement for an additional amount to be paid in memory psychology, the event of divorce. The amount of the mehr averaged between 25,000 and 40,000 Saudi riyals in the early 1990s, although some couples rejected the mehr altogether, stipulating only a token amount to satisfy the legal requirement necessary to validate the good starters marriage contract. The contract might also add other stipulations, such as assuring the essay into the wild wife the right of divorce if the husband should take a second wife.
Divorce could usually only be instigated by the husband, and because by law children belonged to the father, who could take custody of them after a certain age (the age varied with the Islamic legal school, but was usually seven for boys and puberty for good introduction starters, girls), legally a wife and mother could be detached from her children at the wish of her husband. Essay Tuition! When women married, they might become incorporated into the household of the husband but not into his family. A woman did not take her husband's name but kept the name of her father, because legally women were considered to good essay belong to essay tuition the family of their birth throughout their lives. Many in Saudi Arabia interpreted the retention of a woman's maiden name, as well as her retention of control over personal property as allowed under Islamic law, as an indication of women's essential independence from a husband's control under the Islamic system. Legally, a woman's closest male relative, such as a father or brother, was obligated to good essay support her if she were divorced or widowed.
Divorce was common. Essay Tuition! According to Islamic law, men are permitted to marry as many as four wives. Among the adult generation of educated, Western- oriented elites, polygyny was not practiced. Polygyny was common, however, among some groups, such as the religiously conservative and the older generation of the royal family. In the cities, polygynous households were seen among recent migrants from rural areas.
For a family of means, a polygynous housing arrangement usually entailed a separate dwelling unit for good essay introduction, each wife and her children. These units might be completely separate houses or houses within a walled family compound, in which case the compound might include a separate house that the men of the family shared and used for male gatherings, such as meals with guests or business meetings. Because the prerogatives of divorce, polygyny, and child custody lay with the husband, women in Saudi Arabia appeared to be at a considerable disadvantage in marriage. However, these disadvantages were partially offset by a number of factors. The first was that children were attached to mothers, and when children were grown, especially sons, their ties to the mother secured her a place of permanence in essay, the husband's family. Good Introduction! Second, marriages were most often contracted by agreement between families, uniting cousins, or individuals from families seeking to expand their circle of alliances and essay psychology enhance their prestige, so that a successful marriage was in good essay introduction, the interest of, and the desire of, both husband and wife.
In addition, Islamic inheritance laws guaranteed a share of of raskolnikov inheritance to daughters and wives, so that many women in Saudi Arabia personally held considerable wealth. Starters! Because women by law were entitled to full use of their own money and essay tuition property, they had economic independence to cushion the impact of divorce, should it occur. Most important, custody of children was in practice a matter for family discussion, not an absolute regulated by religion. Furthermore, judges of the sharia courts, according to informal observations, responded with sympathy and reason when women attempted to initiate divorce proceedings or request the support of the court in family-related disputes. Families in Saudi Arabia, like families throughout the Middle East, tended to be patriarchal, the good introduction starters father in the family appearing as an authoritarian figure at the top of a hierarchy based on age and sex. Undergirding the patriarchal family were cultural and is the of raskolnikov religious values that permeated the society as a whole, and that found their clearest expression in tribal values and practices. Good Introduction! Families shared a sense of corporate identity, and the esteem of the family was measured by the individual's capacity to live up to socially prescribed ideals of honor. The values and practices inherent in these ideals as well as adherence to Islam, were at the heart of the cultural homogeneity among the diverse peoples--tribal and homework nontribal--of the good introduction starters kingdom.
The society as a whole valued behavior displaying generosity, selflessness, and hospitality; deference to those above in the hierarchy of the family; freedom from dependence on others and mastery over one's emotions; and a willingness to support other family members and assume responsibility for essay tuition, their errors as well. An example of the sense of starters corporate responsibility binding Arabian families may be seen in an incident that occurred in the 1970s in a Hijazi village. Although this incident occurred among beduin who were recently settled, the group solidarity illustrated was applicable to the Arabian family in general as well as to thesis those united by good essay starters, tribal affiliation. Brualdi! An automobile accident took the life of a young boy, and good essay starters the driver of the car was obligated to pay compensation to the boy's father. Essay Tuition! The family of the driver, although indigent, was able to borrow the money from a local merchant and present it to the boy's father in good introduction starters, a ceremony to forgive.
Afterward, delegated members of the tribe assumed the responsibility of collecting money toward repayment of the best essay writing service compensation from all the people in the tribe, who happened to essay starters include close relatives of the boy who was killed. In this way, all parties to the tragedy were satisfied that the best interests of the extended family/tribal group had been served in serving the interests of an individual member. Chastity and sexual modesty were also very highly valued. Applied primarily to women, these values were not only tied to family honor but were held to be a religious obligation as well. Specific Quranic verses enjoin modesty upon women and, to a lesser degree, upon memory, men; and women are viewed as being responsible for good essay introduction starters, sexual temptation ( fitna ). Although this attitude is ancient in the Middle East and found to some degree throughout the area in job essay, modern times, it has taken on religious significance in Islam through interpretations of Muslim theologians. The veiling and separation of women were considered mechanisms to ensure sexual modesty and good essay starters avoid fitna . In practice, the effect of argumentative essay the wild veiling and good separation also ensured the continuing dependence of women on men.
Some families adopted more liberal standards than others in defining the extent of veiling and separation, but the underlying value of sexual modesty was almost universal. Because the memory psychology separation of women from unrelated men was accepted as a moral imperative, most activities of a woman outside her home required the mediation of a servant or a man; for essay, example, if a woman should not be seen, how could she apply for a government housing loan in an office staffed by men? In fact, how could she get to the government office without a servant or a man to take her, because women were not allowed to drive. The continuing dependence of women on men, in effect, perpetuated the family as a patriarchal unit. Control of women ensured female chastity and thus family honor as well as the patrilineal character of the family.
In Saudi society in general, the role of women was basic to maintaining the structure of the family and therefore of society.
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Personal values, belief and attitudes Essay Sample. As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that we have developed throughout the course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and essay, how we view the world. As community services workers, we are often working with people who are vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society views as being different or unacceptable. If, as community services workers, we are to provide a service that meets the needs of our target groups and helps them to feel empowered, we need to essay tuition, be aware of our own personal values, beliefs and good starters, attitudes and be prepared to adopt the professional values of our industry—and not impose our own ideas on our clients. What are values? Values are principles, standards or qualities that an individual or group of people hold in what, high regard.
These values guide the way we live our lives and the decisions we make. A value may be defined as something that we hold dear, those things/qualities which we consider to essay introduction starters, be of worth. A ‘value’ is writing commonly formed by a particular belief that is related to the worth of an idea or type of essay behaviour. Some people may see great value in brualdi, saving the introduction starters world’s rainforests. Essay? However a person who relies on good essay starters the logging of brualdi a forest for their job may not place the introduction starters same value on the forest as a person who wants to save it. Values can influence many of the logistics judgments we make as well as have an impact on essay introduction the support we give clients. It is important that we do not influence client’s decisions based on our values. We should always work from the basis of supporting the client’s values. Activity: What are some of my values? 1.Manners—are they old fashioned? Do they hold a high or low value in your life?
2.Pride—are there things you need to be proud of? Do you value pride or do you value humility? 3.Clothes—how important are clothes at essay tuition, work? At play? 4.Behaviour on the sports field—what behaviours do you value?
Sportsmanship? Winning? Team spirit? Individuality? 5.Family life? What do you value about family life? Write down some of the introduction values you hold in these areas. Talk to friends and family members. Ask them these same questions. Do the answers differ? Where do values come from?
Our values come from a variety of sources. Some of these include: •peers (social influences) •the workplace (work ethics, job roles) •educational institutions such as schools or TAFE. •significant life events (death, divorce, losing jobs, major accident and trauma, major health issues, significant financial losses and so on) •major historical events (world wars, economic depressions, etc). Dominant values are those that are widely shared amongst a group, community or culture. Job Essay? They are passed on good essay through sources such as the media, institutions, religious organisations or family, but remember what is brualdi considered dominant in one culture or society will vary to the next. Using the good sources listed above, some of your values could be: •family—caring for each other, family comes first •peers—importance of friendship, importance of doing things that peers approve of •workplace—doing your job properly; approving/disapproving of ‘foreign orders’ (doing home-related activities in work time or using work resources for home related activities) •educational institutions—the valuing or otherwise of learning; value of self in relation to an ability to learn (this often depends on personal experience of schooling, whether positive or negative) •significant life events—death of loved ones and the impact on what we value as being important; marriage and the importance and role of marriage and children; separation and essay tuition, divorce and the value change that may be associated with this (valuing of self or otherwise) •religion—beliefs about ‘right and wrong’ and beliefs in gods •media—the impact of TV, movies, radio, the Internet and advertising on what is important in good introduction starters, our lives, what is valued and not valued •music—music often reflects what is occurring in society, people’s response to logistics job essay, things such as love and essay starters, relationships which may then influence the development of our values •technology—the importance of technology or otherwise; the importance of argumentative computers and developing computer skills •culture—a cultural value such as the importance of starters individuality as opposed to homework, conforming to groups •major historical events—not wasting anything, saving for essay introduction starters times of draught, valuing human life, patriotic values.
It is important that you develop an awareness of service what you value, as these values will be important in essay introduction starters, informing your relationships with clients, co–workers and employers. The following is memory essay a list of good essay common dominant values in Australian society. Tick the values that apply to you and then select the ten most important values you ticked and rank them. (1 = most important, 10 = least important) Click here for essay tuition the list (.doc 12 KB) Did you learn something about good essay yourself that you didn’t expect? What is important here is into the wild your ability to be able to identify the values that are. important to you. It is introduction important to be conscious of our values. This knowledge helps us to: •ask ourselves why we are doing what we are doing. •identify the consequences of our actions for ourselves and others (including clients and co-workers) •consider other and better options if necessary.
It is memory important to not only have a knowledge of your value system, but to understand that your values underpin your beliefs and beliefs underpin behaviour. How we behave is a reflection of our beliefs and our beliefs are a reflection of our values. Exploring your values. We are all influenced in varying degrees by the values of good essay introduction starters our family, culture, religion, education and social group. Knowing your own values can help you work effectively with clients, resolve conflicts and support the organisation’s philosophy of care appropriately.
Wherever our values come from they make us the unique person we are today! Answer the following and then think about what it tells you about yourself, where your values have come from and how people with different backgrounds and life experiences would answer these questions. There are no right or wrong answers—just answer honestly and be willing to explore and reflect upon your own values. •With what race do I identify? •Do I know people from a different race to me? •Do I believe people from different races should live together? •What would life be like if my skin colour was different? •What do I think about marriages and relationships between people from different races? •How many friends do I have from essay uk review the opposite sex?
•If I was a different gender how might life be different? •What is my religion? Do I believe in it? •What is my family’s religion? •Are most people in my community from this religion? •How does my religion influence my life? •What culture do I identify with? •What do I like and dislike about starters my culture and traditions?
•What other cultures interest me? Do I like learning about them? Why? •What is my first language? •What other languages do I speak? •Who should decide what language people should speak?
•What political party do I support? Why? •Do I believe in the death penalty? Why? •What are my views on abortion? Why? •What are my views on essay service uk review homosexuality? Why? •What are my views about illegal drugs?
Why? •What are my view about voluntary euthanasia? Why? Reflect on your answers about where your values have come from. 1.What did this activity tell you about your values? 2.Can you identify some other factors/significant life experiences that have contributed in good essay introduction starters, shaping your values? 3.Why have you decided to become a worker in the CSI? 4.How do you think your values will guide your actions as a worker in the CSI?
The aim of argumentative essay into this activity is to make you aware of essay introduction starters issues that could arise in essay tuition, the workplace and good essay introduction, the differing values workers can have. There are no right or wrong answers, so when completing this activity try to be as honest as you can. Read the following scenarios and rate your reactions by memory essay psychology ticking the good essay starters box which best defines your reaction. Stan and Russell have become good friends in essay the wild, the residential care facility. They enjoy each other’s company and like to read pornographic magazines together. Stan usually buys the magazines, but one month Stan did not come into the hostel for care as he usually did. Russell wanted some new pornos to introduction starters, read so he asked Penny the care worker to buy him some magazines. She agreed and brought some for him.
What do you think about Penny doing this for essay tuition Russell? I think this is not okay. I think this is okay. Wayne is a 49 year old volunteer at an aged care home. Good Essay Starters? He is an argumentative, Anglo-Australian, with a disability. He works with Anh, the good starters recreation officer. Brualdi Homework? She Vietnamese and essay introduction starters, is 20 years old. Wayne and memory, Anh have been going out together and Wayne has told Anh that he loves her. How do you feel about Anh and Wayne being partners? Rate your feeling according to their ages: I think this is not okay.
I think this is okay. Rate your feeling according to essay starters, their cultural backgrounds: I think this is okay. I think this is thesis of raskolnikov essay not okay. Rate your feeling according to the fact they work together: I think this is not okay. I think this is okay. Dawn is a 50 year old woman with Downs Syndrome, and starters, is a resident at a residential aged care facility. She masturbates in the common lounge area at the facility. She needs to be shown a private place to do this and it is your role to take her to memory psychology, a private room, next time she is masturbating. How do you feel about this?
Rate your response according to the factor of Dawn masturbating: I think this is good essay okay. I think this is not okay. Rate your response according to essay tuition, the factor of your role as a worker assisting her in this situation. I think this is essay starters okay.
I think this is not okay. This activity was useful in helping you identify some strong beliefs you hold. It is good for memory essay psychology you to introduction starters, be able to reflect on these and think how they might impact on your role as a care worker. For example, if you think that all older people and people with disabilities have a right to express their sexuality, regardless of the way they choose do that, you will want to ensure their privacy and dignity is what is the thesis respected. Remember, clients have a right to receive a professional service regardless of the attitudes, beliefs and values they hold. After answering the questions, you might find it useful to revisit your answers and good starters, identify where your attitudes have come from. This will help in logistics, preventing your personal attitudes from impacting on good starters the way you work with clients.
What is a belief? Beliefs come from real experiences but often we forget that the original experience is not the same as what is happening in life now. Our values and beliefs affect the quality of our work and all our relationships because what you believe is what you experience. We tend to memory, think that our beliefs are based on reality, but it is essay starters our beliefs that govern our experiences. The beliefs that we hold are an important part of our identity.
They may be religious, cultural or moral. Essay Tuition? Beliefs are precious because they reflect who we are and good essay starters, how we live our lives. As a care worker in the community services industry, the pre-existing beliefs you may have could be related to stereotypes that have developed for you around issues like sexuality, alcohol and other drugs, ageing and disabilities, independence, health, the rights of what thesis essay people, your idea of health and what it’s like to be older and/or disabled. These stereotypes could affect the good essay way you interact and work with clients. This is because you have assumptions about what your clients can and can’t do for themselves, the way they should think about issues and best essay uk review, what is best for them. If you make assumptions as a worker then you are denying clients their rights, respect and dignity. As a worker this would be regarded as a breach in your duty of care towards clients.
The need for good essay introduction older people and people with disabilities to express their sexuality does not necessarily diminish over time. The desire for intimacy can in fact intensify. The development of new relationships may occur as a result of essay tuition living in a residential care setting or as people’s social networks change over time. The right to express sexuality is a quality of life issue and essay starters, is part of one’s self-identity. The way people choose to express their sexuality may change over argumentative essay the wild time in good introduction, a variety of ways. Intimate relationships enhance a person’s quality of life and contribute to essay tuition, their feelings of well being. As a care worker it is important to respect a person’s right to good, express their sexuality in a way which is appropriate for essay tuition them. What is an attitude?
The word ‘attitude’ can refer to essay introduction starters, a lasting group of feelings, beliefs and behaviour tendencies directed towards specific people, groups, ideas or. An attitude is job essay a belief about something. Good Essay Introduction? It usually describes what we think is the ‘proper’ way of doing something. The attitudes that we feel very strongly about are usually called values. Other attitudes are not so important and are more like opinions. Sometimes our own attitudes can make us blind to other people’s values, opinions and needs. Attitudes will always have a positive and negative element and when you hold an attitude you will have a tendency to essay tuition, behave in a certain way toward that person or object. You will need to be aware of essay starters your own personal values, beliefs and attitudes and how they might impact on your work. It is important to logistics job essay, consider the mapping of your own life – what have been some significant events that have shaped you, what qualities you admire in yourself and others, what beliefs are important to you, what you value and good essay introduction, so on. Some examples of these may be personal features such as strength of character, helping people, respect, honesty, wealth, success, health etc. What we believe are important qualities, or what qualities we admire in brualdi homework, ourselves and others, generally reflect our life experiences and the values which we established in our early years through the influence of family, teachers, friends, religion, our culture, our education.
Given that all of us have differences which have been shaped by our life experiences, we can understand that we will all have different sets of values and starters, beliefs. We do not all think about issues in memory, the same way! To work effectively it is critical to understand your own values and beliefs and to understand the essay importance of not allowing them to affect the way in which you work with clients. Remember they are your values and may be quite different to the values held by your clients. In order to remain professional it is necessary to leave your personal values out of the client/worker relationship. This means that it is important that you allow clients to logistics, make decisions based on their own values and beliefs rather than decisions that reflect what you think they should do. When we are carrying out our daily duties at work we rarely think about our attitudes, we are immersed in work itself and starters, often remain unaware of just how different our attitudes could be to others around us. As previously defined an attitude is simply a belief, and describes what we think is the is the thesis proper way of doing or thinking about something. Attitudes vary in intensity. When we feel strongly about something attitudes are called values. Attitudes that are less important to us are called opinions.
For example we may feel strongly that older people should give up their jobs when they reach a certain age, so that younger people can get work. Strong attitudes are often very emotional and can cloud our judgement in good starters, meeting other people’s needs. This means that some people or clients may be denied their rights to be allowed to logistics job essay, make their own choices and decisions about their life. The influence of attitudes. Our attitudes develop over time and not only reflect where we have come from i.e. the essay influence family, friends and experiences have had on our attitudes, but also how we will proceed with our life in the future.
Attitudes are therefore a powerful element in our life, are long enduring and hard to change—but not impossible! The problem with attitudes. One of the problems with our attitudes is we often ignore any information which is not consistent with them—we become selective in best uk review, the way we perceive and respond to events and issues—and lose our ‘objectivity’ about the world. By developing insights about good essay starters our attitudes we reduce the risk of making decisions at work based on our unconscious, pre-existing perceptions, allowing us work more professionally with clients. Awareness of personal attitudes. It is good practice to think about your attitudes and essay, beliefs: it helps you to understand yourself better. Good Starters? It is beneficial to reflect on your life, identify some of the significant events that have shaped you, consider what qualities you admire in yourself and others and be mindful of what values and are important to you. Your identity has shaped the person you are today! Here is a checklist that will help you assess how your identity has developed. (.doc 25 kB)
The exercise you have just completed will have given you some sense of where your own identity has come from. Think about this as you answer the what is the of raskolnikov essay following questions. 1.From the values you chose above, list the ones that would apply to your role as a care worker. 2.Why is it important for community services workers to good essay, have a sense of memory their own identity and where it has come from? 3.What issues can you identify for yourself in having to work with people and good starters, clients who have grown up differently form you, have a different identity and therefore different beliefs? Taking into account personal values and logistics job essay, beliefs. One of the responsibilities of workers is good essay that we do not impose our own values and beliefs on logistics job essay the people we work with. That is, that we don’t provide options and services based on what we feel is right, but that we work with people in relation to what is right for them. We should always remember that it is essay starters their life and only they should make decisions about how they should live their life.
If you try to impose your own moral values on clients, you are likely to is the thesis of raskolnikov, make them feel judged and to damage their self-worth. Moreover, they are likely to essay introduction, reject you and to reject your values too. If you are able to accept your clients, with whatever values they have, you may well find that as time passes they move closer to you in essay psychology, their beliefs. This is inevitable because we are, whether we like it or not, models for our clients and we have a responsibility to be good models. Regardless of who the client is, and regardless of his or her behaviour, he or she deserves to be treated as a human being of worth. If you respect your clients, they will, through feeling valued, be given the good introduction optimum conditions in which to maximise their potential as individuals. It is essential that you are aware of logistics job essay your own values and beliefs so that you do not impose them (deliberately or unintentionally) on the people you are working with. In order to starters, leave your personal values out of the memory essay psychology client/worker relationship, you need to aware of the impact they may have when you come across clients that do not behave in ways that you agree with—that is, clients who have different values and beliefs to you. You may find that with such clients you become judgemental or notice that you are encouraging clients to essay introduction, make a decision that reflects what you think they should do (based on your values and beliefs) rather than working with the client to come up with their own ideas about how to resolve the issue. That is why it is so important to have ethical standards, so that we are operating by a professional set of what is the thesis of raskolnikov guidelines, not what we personally think is right or wrong. Activity: Professional values.
What would you consider to be the values and attitudes that are critical for someone who works in the community services industry? Respecting the beliefs, attitudes and values of others. Everyone is good essay introduction starters entitled to their own values, attitudes and beliefs. Brualdi Homework? It is important to accept and respect that other people may well have different attitudes, values and essay introduction starters, beliefs than you. Logistics Job Essay? We do not have the right to expect that others change their values, attitudes and beliefs just because they are different to good introduction, ours. It is quite possible that you may face situations at work that either challenge or compromise your own values, attitudes or beliefs when working to support people with a disability. It is logistics job essay not always easy to introduction, avoid communicating your beliefs and values to clients, but it is something you need to be very aware of. It can be very easy to influence clients in logistics job essay, subtle ways. Simple things like body language, gestures, the way you say something, or even actions, can give a client the impression you agree or disagree with their values or beliefs.
A disability support worker, Sally, was assisting Harry, a client, to decide what movie he was going to see on the weekend. Harry loved horror films. Sally hated them. During the conversation Sally shook her head every time Harry pointed to a horror film in the paper. In the good essay introduction end Harry decided to go and see a comedy. Even though Sally did not directly say that she disapproved of what is the thesis Harry’s movie choice, when she shook her head she indicated that she did not approve of Harry’s choice. The support you give to clients should be, as much as possible, in good essay starters, line with their values, attitudes and essay tuition, beliefs, while also in line with your community services organisation and the law. Impact of values and philosophies on service provision.
The way that the above values and philosophies are acted upon in services affects the quality of the service provided to clients. The more these values are promoted and reflected in the way the service operates, the more positive the experience for the client. Activity: Identifying the impact of values and philosophies on service provision. Phong is a 29 year old Vietnamese man who was injured in a serious car accident eight months ago and good essay, sustained a brain injury. This means that he has great difficulty with his short-term memory and with organising his thoughts. He also needs to use a wheelchair because of a neck injury. Phong is now living back at home with his family. Most of his friends don’t come around anymore and Phong hardly gets out. He is best essay writing uk review unable to return to work as a mechanic.
Phong has been referred to good essay introduction, a community access program, designed to help him deal with his brain injury and integrate back into of raskolnikov the community. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Personal values, belief and attitudes. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Personal values, belief and good, attitudes. How own attitudes, values and behaviour could impact on brualdi work with children and young people. Everyone has a different attitude ad has different values compared to other people but that… Personal Values and Ethics Standards.
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3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms. The three types of essay most commonly assigned in school #8212; the essay narrative essay, the persuasive essay, and the expository essay #8212; conveniently correspond to those writing forms most frequently published online and in print. Your experience with these prose forms is ideal preparation for writing for essay uk review publication. This form, employed when reporting about an event or an incident, describing an experience, or telling a story, is the good essay introduction starters basic mode in journalistic writing. Into The Wild! Practice in relating what happened when you witnessed an occurrence, or writing about what you were told by someone who witnessed it, is good essay, good training for becoming a newspaper reporter. Writing your recollections of something that happened to you is the basis of travel writing and essay tuition similar content. Meanwhile, effective storytelling is an essential skill for feature writing, which #8212; as opposed to reporting, which is event driven #8212; focuses on good introduction starters a person, a place, or a thing, such as a company or an organization. (Travel writing, actually, is a hybrid of all three forms of essay writing.) Many magazine articles, for example, and a number of nonfiction books, are basically profiles of one of best uk review, these types of entities, and fiction writing, of course, is a form of narrative, albeit one that is invented or based on a real-life subject. In this type of essay, the writer attempts to convince readers to agree with an opinion.
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5 Responses to #8220;3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms#8221; Urikee Tjazapi (Namibia) on essay April 19, 2012 11:00 am. I find the persuasive Essay more inetesting then the other two , cause they are not convincing the reader, people have became so scientific that anything they read or hear must be persuasive to thier ears. Memory! but any way i strongly support your website for the great job they are doing for some of us who are so far away from information. Rejetta McDaniel on January 12, 2012 4:11 pm. I really appriciate this website. Good Essay! i have learned some ensitefull writing information. I feel strongly that I can go forward with the information that I have gained today. Essay Writing Uk Review! Francisco Fernandes (Angola) on June 22, 2011 6:20 am. I#8217;ve been learning so much from you.
Many people who got some skills like mechanics are ileterate people, essencially in my continente, so that they would provide expository essays to drivers. Sorry!#8230; In my country capital city you find full of broken cars. May I add that a combination of essay types may also be a possible structure as well. Thanks for the great information on essays. I like narrative essays because you#8217;re telling a story. It seems more fun to write than the other two types of essays.
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essays about values Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. Values and ethics are central to any organization; those operating in the national security arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers.
What we will first discuss is the introduction starters, distinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the essay tuition, forces which influence the ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in essay starters, their organizations. THE CHARACTER OF VALUES AND ETHICS. Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone. That someone can be an into the wild, individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. One of the good starters, imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on essay tuition and consistent with the organization's core values.
In one example of starters a vision statement we'll look at later, the organization's core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and stewardship - were deemed important enough to be included with the statement of the organization's vision. Dr. John Johns, in argumentative the wild, an article entitled The Ethical Dimensions of National Security, mentions honesty and loyalty as values that are the ingredients of integrity. When values are shared by all members of an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives. Perhaps more important, they put all members on the same sheet of essay music with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for the year values, and listed four organizational values -loyalty, duty, selfless service, and integrity-and four individual values - commitment, competence, candor, and courage. A Department of the Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent some time talking about the essay psychology, importance of values , and included this definition: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right.
They are more than words-they are the moral, ethical, and professional attributes of character . Good Essay Introduction? . . What Is The Thesis Of Raskolnikov? there are certain core values that must be instilled in members of the U.S. Good Essay Introduction? Army-civilian and uniformed soldier alike. These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for the behavior of its members. However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and organizational values will be dysfunctional. Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. Essay Tuition? When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values , it may be difficult to good essay determine what is logistics job essay acceptable.
For example, two of the good essay introduction, Army's organizational values include candor and courage. Essay Tuition? One might infer that officers are encouraged to have the good, courage of their convictions and speak their disagreements openly. In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at the level of the society. The principles by which the society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Best Essay Uk Review? Those in introduction, power may covertly allow the use of force to into suppress debate in order to remain in power. (death squads are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may be rewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of death squad action. In others, a group member may be ostracized or expelled. Group members quickly learn the good essay starters, operating values , or they don't survive for long.
To the extent they differ from stated values , the essay into, organization will not only suffer from doing things less effectively, but also from the cynicism of its members, who have yet another reason for mistrusting the leadership, or doubting its wisdom. VALUES PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGMENTS ABOUT WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO SUCCEED IN ITS CORE BUSINESS. So, there are some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. However, the central purpose of values remains. They state either an actual or an idealized set of criteria for evaluating options and deciding what is good starters appropriate, based on psychology long experience. The relevance of the Army's values , for example, is introduction apparent.
When soldiers may be called upon to essay psychology expose themselves to mortal danger in the performance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to trust their fellow soldiers (to do their fair share and to help in the event of need) and their leaders (to guard them from unnecessary risk). So the Army's values prescribe conditions that facilitate trust, a necessary element in willingness to face danger. Without trust, risk tolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness. TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IS TO BEHAVE IN A MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH WHAT IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE RIGHT OR MORAL. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS THE BEDROCK OF MUTUAL TRUST. So how do values relate to ethics , and what do we mean by ethics? One of the keys is in the phrase we quoted above from the DA pamphlet: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is essay wrong, and doing what is essay tuition right or wrong is what we mean by ethics. To behave ethically is to behave in good essay introduction, a manner consistent with what is right or moral . What Is The Of Raskolnikov Essay? What does generally considered to introduction be right mean? That is brualdi homework a critical question, and part of the difficulty in deciding whether or not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong.
Perhaps the first place to good essay introduction look in determining what is right or wrong is society. Virtually every society makes some determination of homework morally correct behavior. In Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to be right or wrong is good essay introduction based in Judeo-Christian heritage. The Ten Commandments, for many people, define what is morally right or wrong.
Societies not only regulate the behavior of homework their members, but also define their societal core values. Life, liberty, and good essay starters, the pursuit of happiness represent core American values. Experience often has led societies to develop beliefs about what is of value for the common good. (Note that societies differ from one another in the specifics, but not in the general principles.) One example is the notion of reciprocity. (One good deed deserves another.) Another is the notion of good intent. (A gentleman's word is his bond.) Yet, a third is the notion of appreciation of merit in others regardless of personal feelings. (Give the Devil his due.) These all contain implied shoulds about how people interact and best service, behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and societies. These shoulds define collective effort because they are fundamental to trust and to team relationships that entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the more important ethical practices become.
Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for the members of the organization. Ethical codes, such as West Point's A cadet will not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do, make clear what the organization considers to be right or wrong. To quote again from the introduction starters, DA Pamphlet, Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession, statements such as : Loyalty to the Nation, to the Army, and to the unit is essential. Selfless service puts the what thesis, welfare of the Nation and the accomplishment of the assigned mission before individual welfare. All who serve the Nation must resist the temptation to pursue self-gain, personal advantage, and self-interest ahead of the collective good. [Integrity] is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the leaders and the led. Essay Introduction Starters? Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in essay tuition, one's personal life. are unequivocal statements of what the Army considers to be ethical behavior.
What does generally considered to be right mean? All one needs to do is to look at the positive values of society and the organizations one belongs to, and what is right or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to be considered, however, and that is the influence of societal or organizational norms. Norms are the unstated rules, usually informally reached by the members of a group, which govern the good essay starters, behavior of the group's members. Norms often have a greater effect on what is and isn't done by the members of a group than formal rules and regulations. The reason norms are important for best service a discussion of ethics and values is that norms may allow or even encourage certain behavior as OK that is not in keeping with society's or an good starters, organization's stated values. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is right. An example might be a company that has among its stated values to treat everyone with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and perhaps even encouraged a pattern of sexual harassment over a number of years. Do those in the organization know that the behavior is wrong, but condone it nevertheless? Is it clear to the Bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would it fall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to argumentative essay into the wild be acceptable in good starters, that society? Listen to the arguments in support of ethnic cleansing that have been made, and thesis essay, you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothing wrong, and were only righting previous wrongs done to them.
If ethics and morality are important for groups and organizations, they should also be important for public officials, and for very much the same reasons. York Willbern, in starters, an article entitled Types and Levels of Public Morality, argues for is the thesis six types or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials. By public officials, he means those who are in policy making positions in public institutions; in other words, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national security arena. The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and conformity to law; conflicts of good essay starters interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the best essay, ethic of democratic responsibility; the ethic of public policy determination; and the ethic of compromise and social integration. WILLBERN'S LEVEL OF PUBLIC MORALITY. ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS CONFLICT OF INTEREST BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW.
The public servant is morally bound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to respect the essay introduction, person and essay tuition, the property of others, and to good introduction abide by the requirements of the law (Willbern). In many ways, this level only essay psychology, describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society. There are some basics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to function for the collective good. For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the average member of the good, society, and essay writing service uk review, hence more opportunity for violation of those codes or laws. There also is the negative example that misconduct by public officials provides. CONFLICT OF INTEREST.
This relates to public officials, because it deals with the conflict between advancing the public interest, which a public official is charged to do, and advancing one's self-interest. The duty here is to ensure that the good introduction, public interest comes first, and job essay, that one does not advance his own personal interest at the expense of the public. Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and contract kickbacks as examples of pursuing personal interests at the expense of those of the public. Essay Introduction Starters? The requirements for public officials to divest themselves of logistics job essay investments that might be influenced by essay the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to recuse themselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to help public officials avoid conflicts of interest. Ultimately, it still comes down to the individual making an ethical decision. Avoidance of homework conflict of interest is often difficult because it is often hard to separate personal and public interests, and because individuals as private citizens are encouraged to good pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areas where there is the greatest potential for conflicts of memory essay psychology interest is where public officials deal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, and where any decision by good essay starters a public official on allocation of resources will favor some private interest. The fields of government contracting and thesis of raskolnikov, acquisition are two areas where the possibility of conflicts of interest is high.
SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS. This level relates closely to good essay introduction starters the last, and deals with the responsibility of public officials to ensure their actions serve the public, and that the power they wield is used only for that purpose. It is easy to abuse the essay tuition, power that comes with public office. Procedural safeguards are designed to prevent that abuse. Introduction? The moral obligation of public servants is to follow established procedures, and argumentative, not to use their power to circumvent those procedures for their own convenience or benefit. Power must be used fairly and for the benefit of the public. One can again think of examples of public officials who have violated this moral charge by essay using their influence and power for their own benefit or for the benefit of special interest groups, or who have circumvented established procedures for writing service uk review their own benefit or convenience. One frequent example is the use of government vehicles or aircraft for nonofficial business.
These first three levels of public morality share one important characteristic: they all relate to the behavior or conduct of public officials. These three levels are the areas that get most of the attention in discussions of essay ethics, this is essay writing service where public officials are most likely to get in essay introduction starters, trouble. However, there are three additional levels of public morality equally important. These deal with the is the thesis, content of essay introduction starters what public officials do, the moral choices involved in deciding what to do, in pursuing the purposes of the state and the society (Willbern). THE ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY. Given that public officials are operating within a democratic system, they either are elected by logistics job essay the people or appointed by essay introduction an elected official.
This confers upon them the obligation to carry out the will of the people. Argumentative Into The Wild? However, public officials also have the responsibility to make moral choices consistent with their own values, and that may be in conflict with what they perceive to good introduction be the memory psychology, will of the essay introduction, people. Willbern contends that the public official acts according to his or her own judgment, rationalizing that it would be the will of the memory, people if they were well enough informed on the issue. Good Introduction? To give one example of this level of public morality, consider whether or not the essay, representative in Congress is morally bound to introduction starters support policies and legislation which his constituents overwhelmingly support but he personally opposes. THE ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION. Psychology? This level involves the most difficult ethical choices, because it concerns making moral judgments about public policies. The responsibility is to make moral policies; the difficulty is in determining how moral a policy is. Public policies almost always deal with very complex issues, where ethical choices are rarely clear, and it is often difficult to determine if a policy is right or wrong. For example, many public policies deal with the good starters, distribution of limited resources. Is it right or wrong to essay tuition slash funding for one program, or to increase funding for another? In almost any decision, there will be winners and losers, and good essay introduction, there will be some benefit for some and cost to others.
Right and wrong may not apply. Equity and fairness are important considerations, but not always easy to discern. The determination of how much funding to provide for national security, and which social programs to fund, involves ethical choices of the most difficult type. What is the difference between equality and equity? Consider the controversy around affirmative action programs: are they examples of moral public policies?
THE ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION. Psychology? This final level deals with an area not as salient as some of the others. It deals with the necessity for compromise in a society. A society with irreconcilable differences on fundamental issues will be torn apart. Hence, it becomes a moral obligation of public officials to engage in give and take, working toward compromise in the policies they develop.
One often sees legislators in our political system establishing positions where they may not get all they want from particular legislation, but will settle for some of what they want. Willbern contends that compromise, rather than standing on principle, is moral, because without compromise there will be discord and conflict, and disintegration rather than integration of the society. Public officials are given the trust of the public to essay develop and carry out policies that are in the public's best interest. Is The Thesis Of Raskolnikov Essay? Living up to this trust has a significant impact on the national will; public confidence is good essay introduction essential to job essay the exercise of national power. Public officials have a moral duty to act in starters, a trustworthy manner. Why, then, do individuals behave unethically? One reason is the best writing service uk review, complexity of the issues leaders deal with, and the difficulty in many instances of determining which is the most ethical alternative. There are several systemic factors.
One is the competition for scarce resources. It is easy to slip into unethical acts to gain a competitive advantage in the race for position or power. Good Essay? A second is job essay conflicting loyalties, which Johns labels the most troublesome ethical dilemma facing public officials. The Iran Contra affair is good introduction a case of homework unethical behavior on the part of North, Poindexter, Secord, and McFarlane because of misplaced loyalty to the executive chain of command. Johns also identifies systemic factors in groups and teams which can lead to unethical behavior. One is groupthink , which can occur in a homogeneous group with a strong leader. A second is the presence of idealogues: individuals who view their own extreme positions as right and any opposing positions as wrong.
A third is the organization's response to dissent. Good Essay? There are few incentives for job essay whistleblowers or those who try to expose unethical behavior in organizations. Organizational norms encourage going along and discourage questioning the unethical actions of others. Good Essay Starters? This can quickly compromise ethical standards in any organization. CAUSES OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR. COMPLEXITY OF STRATEGIC ISSUES OBSCURES ETHICS COMPETITION FOR SCARCE RESOURCES/ POWER/POSITION CONFLICTING LOYALTIES. GROUPTHINK PRESENCE OF IDEALOGUES NEGATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO DISSENT. Kenneth R. Andrews, in Ethics in Practice, contends that there are three aspects to ethical behavior in organizations: the development of the individual as an ethical person, the effect of the organization as an ethical or unethical environment, and essay tuition, the actions or procedures developed by the organization to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. INFLUENCES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOR.
PRIOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AS ETHICAL PERSON. THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT. PROCEDURES THAT ENCOURAGE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. Most of an good essay introduction starters, individual's ethical development occurs before entering an organization. Logistics? The influence of family, church, community, and school will determine individual values.
The organization, to a large extent, is dealing with individuals whose value base has been established. This might imply that ethical organizations are those fortunate enough to bring in ethical individuals, while unethical organizations brought in unethical people. But it is not that simple. Introduction Starters? While the internalized values of brualdi individuals are important, the organization has a major impact on the behavior of its members, and can have a positive or negative influence on their values. One example of the development of ethical individuals is the service academies. In their admissions processes, the introduction starters, academies attempt to get individuals of good character with the essay, values integral to the military profession. However, the academies also recognize that their core values may be different than those prevalent in society, and they devote considerable effort to the development and internalization of their core values. As is evident from good essay, periodic breaches of argumentative essay into the wild integrity at the academies, e.g., cheating scandals, these attempts to instill core values do not always succeed. There are three qualities individuals must possess to make ethical decisions.
The first is the ability to essay starters recognize ethical issues and to reason through the ethical consequences of brualdi homework decisions. The ability to see second and third order effects, one of the elements of strategic thinking, is very important. Essay Introduction Starters? The second is the ability to look at alternative points of view, deciding what is right in memory, a particular set of circumstances. This is similar to good essay the ability to reframe. And the third is the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty; making a decision on the best information available. ATTRIBUTES FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS. SEEING SECOND- AND THIRD-ORDER CONSEQUENCES-WARGAMING ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS SEEING ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW-REFRAMING DEALING WITH AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY-MAKING DECISIONS WITH BEST INFORMATION AVAILABLE. As important as these individual characteristics are, the influence of the organization is equally important. The ethical standards that one observes in the organization will have a significant effect on individual behavior.
People will do what they are rewarded for doing (Andrews). Argumentative The Wild? The organization has its greatest impact in the standards it establishes for ethical and unethical conduct in its formal reward systems. Informal norms also have a strong influence on individuals' behavior as do the actions of the leaders of the organization. Strategic leaders must understand that their actions, more than words alone, will determine the operating values in the organization. The influence of the organizational context is underscored in Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn't Pay? In this article, Bhide and Stevenson note that there often are no economic or other incentives to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior.
They contend that it most often is the dishonest individual who gets ahead, and good essay introduction, that cases where unethical behavior was punished are far outweighed by writing uk review those in which there either were no consequences or unethical behavior was rewarded. The Gordon Ghekkos of the introduction starters, world (the unethical corporate executive played by Michael Douglas in the movie Wall Street) often get ahead, because they rarely are held to account for their actions. While these observations might lead one to a cynical view of memory essay ethics in starters, organizations, Bhide and argumentative, Stevenson come to good essay starters a different conclusion. They see room for optimism despite the lack of financial gain for ethical behavior, or the absence of negative consequences for unethical behavior. Their reasoning is based in thesis, the fact that so many people do behave ethically, in spite of the apparent lack of gain. Ethical behavior must be intrinsically rewarding; and most people behave ethically because it's the right thing to do. People are guided by good starters their personal value systems. They often choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong specifically because of their intrinsic values of what is right. Bhide and Stevenson make this caveat: We should remember, however, that this. works only as long as most of us live by an honorable moral compass. Brualdi? Since our trust isn't grounded in self-interest, it is fragile.
And, indeed, we all know of starters organizations, industries, and essay tuition, even whole societies in which trust has given way either to essay introduction a destructive free-for-all or to logistics inflexible rules and bureaucracy. Only our individual wills, our determination to do what is right, whether or not it is profitable, save us from choosing between chaos and stagnation. Chaloupka, in Ethical Responses: How to Influence One's Organization, asserts that organization members have only three choices when confronted with unethical behavior: exit, voice, or loyalty. Exit is the most direct response: if you can't live with behavior that does not meet your own ethical standards, leave. Good? However, exit is not only a direct response, it is a final one, so the personal and organizational consequences must be considered. The most important personal consequences are the costs. Where do you go from there? What other options are available? How marketable are you?
Can you afford the financial loss? There are specific organizational consequences as well. Will the ethics of the organization's leaders change? Will they do business with someone else who doesn't have the high standards you do? In leaving, one gives up the ability to influence the organization directly. Homework? When considering exit, one must ask, Could I have had more of an impact by remaining in the organization and trying to change it from within? Voice . This means expressing discomfort with and opposition to the observed unethical behavior. To whom do you voice your objections? The obvious choice is your supervisor. Good? But what if your supervisor condones the unethical behavior, or worse, is its source?
You may be jeopardizing your position, and maybe your membership in the organization. A second choice is to go to senior management. This also has potential risk. The senior leadership may be condoning or even directing the unethical behavior. This action may bring your loyalty into essay tuition, question. If so, your objections may be covered up or ignored, and you may end up being forced out of the organization. On the essay introduction starters, other hand, it may be that the senior leadership is unaware of the unethical behavior, and psychology, you may have initiated an organizational response eliminating unethical behavior and restoring ethical standards. A third option is to go public, to engage in whistleblowing.
This is also risky, because it can lead to good essay introduction starters reprisals with negative consequences. The level of risk depends on the commitment of the organization to high ethical standards and on its willingness to encourage whistleblowing in its own best interests. Many organizations have shown commitment to essay tuition ferreting out essay unethical individuals and maintaining high ethical standards by argumentative essay establishing procedures for anonymous reporting of ethical breaches and safeguards to protect whistleblowers. Exit and voice may be combined. An individual resigns in protest and goes public with his or her reasons for leaving. Good Essay? This leaves the individual vulnerable to the label of an employee who quit before being fired, but it also can lead to increased credibility as someone acting on conviction in spite of personal cost. Exit combined with voice is most effective if taken by someone at the upper levels of the organization. An organization can more easily ignore the exit + voice of a lower level employee than it can the resignation of a strategic leader, followed immediately by a press conference. The widely publicized resignation of former President Bush from the best writing service uk review, National Rifle Association over good introduction, what he viewed as extreme actions is an example of exit combined with voice. It undoubtedly had a much greater effect on the NRA than the resignation of someone less well known and essay, respected. The resignation of James Webb as Secretary of the Navy is another example of effective exit combined with voice.
Loyalty . The final response to good essay starters unethical behavior in an organization is loyalty. This is the alternative to exit. Essay Tuition? Instead of leaving, the individual remains and tries to change the organization from within. Loyalty thus discourages or delays exit. Loyalty also may discourage public voice, since being loyal to good starters the organization means trying to solve problems from logistics, within without causing public embarrassment or damage. Loyalty can also encourage unethical behavior, particularly in organizations which promote loyalty above all. These organizations discourage exit and voice, and good introduction starters, basically want their members to go along with organizational practices.
An interesting question is, Can an individual be loyal to an organization by engaging in what is the thesis, exit or voice as a response to unethical behavior? Chaloupka maintains that both exit and voice must exist for continued organizational effectiveness. Additionally, an organization cannot maintain high ethical standards without mechanisms for eliminating unethical behavior. Also, loyalty is not always a virtue. Loyalty should be predicated on good the organization's ethical demonstration that it is essay into the wild worthy of loyalty. If the organization condones unethical behavior, it relieves the individual of any responsibility to essay starters be loyal. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CLIMATE. How can the strategic leaders of an organization build an ethical climate? Andrews suggests a number of steps that foster corporate ethics. First are the actions of the strategic leadership and the way they deal with ethical issues. The pattern of argumentative top leaders' behavior determines organizational values.
A second step is to make explicit ethics policies. Ethical codes are one common example. The next step is to increase awareness of essay how to apply those ethical codes. Training on job essay how to deal with situations with an ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations that involve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices. Another step to increase the salience of ethics is to good introduction expand the information system to focus on areas where ethics may come into play. Knowing what actually is argumentative essay into the wild going on in the organization is essential to understanding the ethical principles which govern behavior. The information system should also support ethical behavior, and allow the strategic leader to starters know when or where there are potential ethical breaches so that corrective action can be taken. The real danger is that when unethical behavior is unnoticed, or not punished, members will assume it is essay tuition condoned by the organization's leadership. Establishing moral principles means determining the core values which should guide the organization.
O'Brien suggests four for consideration: localness, merit, openness, and leanness. By localness, he means adopting a philosophy of pushing power down to the lowest level possible, and encouraging initiative and autonomy. Good Essay? By merit, he means directing actions toward the what thesis essay, overall goals of the organization, and what is best for all. By openness, he means being forthright and honest in all dealings. And by leanness, he means efficient use of resources and starters, economies when possible. ULTIMATELY, THE QUEST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION MUST BEGIN WITH A PERSONAL COMMITMENT WITHIN EACH INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE MORAL EXCELLENCE. Encouraging leaders to pursue their own moral development is critical at higher levels because strategic leaders set the moral climate for the organization.
O'Brien believes that moral development is even more important than professional development. Creating a culture based on is the of raskolnikov essay moral excellence requires a commitment among managers to embody and develop two qualities in good essay introduction starters, their leadership: virtue and wisdom. However, creating an organization characterized by moral excellence is job essay a lengthy process. It involves changing organizational culture, discussed in good starters, the next chapter.